Substrate-assisted enzymatic formation of lysinoalanine in duramycin.
ABSTRACT: Duramycin is a heavily post-translationally modified peptide that binds phosphatidylethanolamine. It has been investigated as an antibiotic, an inhibitor of viral entry, a therapeutic for cystic fibrosis, and a tumor and vasculature imaging agent. Duramycin contains a ?-hydroxylated Asp (Hya) and four macrocycles, including an essential lysinoalanine (Lal) cross-link. The mechanism of Lal formation is not known. Here we show that Lal is installed stereospecifically by DurN via addition of Lys19 to a dehydroalanine. The structure of DurN reveals an unusual dimer with a new fold. Surprisingly, in the structure of duramycin bound to DurN, no residues of the enzyme are near the Lal cross-link. Instead, Hya15 of the substrate makes interactions with Lal, suggesting it acts as a base to deprotonate Lys19 during catalysis. Biochemical data suggest that DurN preorganizes the reactive conformation of the substrate, such that the Hya15 of the substrate can serve as the catalytic base for Lal formation.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptides that are characterized by the thioether cross-linked bisamino acids lanthionine (Lan) and methyllanthionine (MeLan). Duramycin contains 19 amino acids, including one Lan and two MeLans, an unusual lysinoalanine (Lal) bridge formed from the ?-amino group of lysine 19 and a serine residue at position 6, and an erythro-3-hydroxy-l-aspartic acid at position 15. These modifications are important for the interactions of duramycin with its biological target, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Based on the binding affinity and specificity for PE, duramycin has been investigated as a potential therapeutic, as a molecular probe to investigate the role and localization of PE in biological systems, and to block viral entry into mammalian cells. In this study, we identified the duramycin biosynthetic gene cluster by genome sequencing of Streptomyces cinnamoneus ATCC 12686 and investigated the dur biosynthetic machinery by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli In addition, the analog duramycin C, containing six amino acid changes compared to duramycin, was successfully generated in E. coli The substrate recognition motif of DurX, an ?-ketoglutarate/iron(II)-dependent hydroxylase that carries out the hydroxylation of aspartate 15 of the precursor peptide DurA, was also investigated using mutagenesis of the DurA peptide. Both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that Gly16 is important for DurX activity.Duramycin is a natural product produced by certain bacteria that binds to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Because PE is involved in many cellular processes, duramycin is an antibiotic that kills bacteria, but it has also been used as a molecular probe to detect PE and monitor its localization in mammalian cells and even whole organisms, and it was recently shown to display broad-spectrum inhibition of viral entry into host cells. In addition, the molecule has been evaluated as treatment for cystic fibrosis. We report here the genes that are involved in duramycin biosynthesis, and we produced duramycin by expressing those genes in Escherichia coli We show that duramycin analogs can also be produced. The ability to access duramycin and analogs by production in E. coli opens opportunities to improve duramycin as an antibiotic, PE probe, antiviral, or cystic fibrosis therapeutic.
Project description:Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides that are characterized by the thioether cross-linked amino acids lanthionine (Lan) and methyllanthionine (MeLan). Cinnamycin is a 19 amino acid lantibiotic that contains one Lan and two MeLan. Cinnamycin also contains an unusual lysinoalanine (Lal) bridge formed from the ?-amino group of lysine 19 and a serine residue at position 6, and an erythro-3-hydroxy-L-aspartic acid resulting from the hydroxylation of L-aspartate at position 15. These modifications are critical in mediating the interactions of cinnamycin with its target, phosphatidylethanolamine. Recently, the cinnamycin biosynthetic gene cluster (cin) from Streptomyces cinnamoneus cinnamoneus DSM 40005 was reported. Herein, we investigated the biosynthetic machinery using both in vitro studies and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. CinX is an ?-ketoglutarate/iron(II)-dependent hydroxylase that carries out the hydroxylation of aspartate 15 of the precursor peptide CinA. In addition, CinM catalyzes dehydration of four Ser and Thr residues and subsequent cyclization of Cys residues to form the three (Me)Lan bridges. The order of the post-translational modifications catalyzed by CinM and CinX is interchangeable in vitro. CinX did not require the leader sequence at the N-terminus of CinA for activity, but the leader peptide was necessary for CinM function. Although CinM dehydrated serine 6, it did not catalyze the formation of Lal. A small protein encoded by cinorf7 is critical for the formation of the cross-link between Lys19 and dehydroalanine 6 as shown by coexpression studies of CinA, CinM, CinX, and Cinorf7 in E. coli.
Project description:The flagellar hook protein FlgE from spirochaete bacteria self-catalyzes the formation of an unusual inter-subunit lysinoalanine (Lal) crosslink that is critical for cell motility. Unlike other known examples of Lal biosynthesis, conserved cysteine and lysine residues in FlgE spontaneously react to form Lal without the involvement of additional enzymes. Oligomerization of FlgE via its D0 and Dc domains drives assembly of the crosslinking site at the D1-D2 domain interface. Structures of the FlgED2 domain, dehydroalanine (DHA) intermediate and Lal crosslinked FlgE subunits reveal successive snapshots of the reaction. Cys178 flips from a buried configuration to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S/HS-) and produce DHA. Interface residues provide hydrogen bonds to anchor the active site, facilitate ?-elimination of Cys178 and polarize the peptide backbone to activate DHA for reaction with Lys165. Cysteine-reactive molecules accelerate DHA formation, whereas nucleophiles can intercept the DHA intermediate, thereby indicating a potential for Lal crosslink inhibitors to combat spirochaetal diseases.
Project description:Duramycin is a 19-amino-acid tetracyclic lantibiotic closely related to cinnamycin (Ro09-0198), which is known to bind phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The lipid specificity of duramycin was not established. The present study indicates that both duramycin and cinnamycin exclusively bind to ethanolamine phospholipids (PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen). Model membrane study indicates that the binding of duramycin and cinnamycin to PE-containing liposomes is dependent on membrane curvature, i.e., the lantibiotics bind small vesicles more efficiently than large liposomes. The binding of the lantibiotics to multilamellar liposomes induces tubulation of membranes, as revealed by electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. These results suggest that both duramycin and cinnamycin promote their binding to the PE-containing membrane by deforming membrane curvature.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We investigated the usefulness of [(99m)Tc]duramycin for monitoring early response to cancer therapy in mice, with an eye towards clinical translation.<h4>Procedures</h4>[(99m)Tc]Duramycin was injected in healthy CD1-/- mice to estimate human [(99m)Tc]duramycin radiation dose. [(99m)Tc]Duramycin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of apoptosis was evaluated in a mouse model of colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan and validated ex vivo using autoradiography, cleaved caspase-3, and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) histology of the tumors.<h4>Results</h4>The mean effective dose was estimated to be 3.74?×?10(-3)?±?3.43?×?10(-4) mSv/MBq for non-purified and 3.19?×?10(-3)?±?2.16?×?10(-4) mSv/MBq for purified [(99m)Tc]duramycin. [(99m)Tc]Duramycin uptake in vivo following therapy increased significantly in apoptotic irinotecan-treated tumors (p?=?0.008). Radioactivity in the tumors positively correlated with cleaved caspase-3 (r?=?0.85, p?<?0.001) and TUNEL (r?=?0.92, p?<?0.001) staining.<h4>Conclusion</h4>[(99m)Tc]Duramycin can be used to detect early chemotherapy-induced tumor cell death, and thus, may be a prospective candidate for clinical SPECT imaging of tumor response to therapy.
Project description:Noninvasive dual-imaging methods that provide an early readout on tumor permissiveness to virus infection and tumor cell death could be valuable in optimizing development of oncolytic virotherapies. Here, we have used the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and 125I radiotracer to detect infection and replicative spread of an oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in VSV-susceptible (MPC-11 tumor) versus VSV-resistant (CT26 tumor) tumors in BALB/c mice. In conjunction, tumor cell death was imaged simultaneously using technetium (99mTc)-duramycin that binds phosphatidylethanolamine in apoptotic and necrotic cells. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging showed areas of virus infection (NIS and 125I), which overlapped well with areas of tumor cell death (99mTc-duramycin imaging) in susceptible tumors. Multiple infectious foci arose early in MPC-11 tumors, which rapidly expanded throughout the tumor parenchyma over time. There was a dose-dependent increase in numbers of infectious centers and 99mTc-duramycin-positive areas with viral dose. In contrast, NIS or duramycin signals were minimal in VSV-resistant CT26 tumors. Combinatorial use of NIS and 99mTc-duramycin SPECT imaging for simultaneous monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy (OV) spread and the presence or absence of treatment-associated cell death could be useful to guide development of combination treatment strategies to enhance therapeutic outcome.
Project description:When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. (99m)Tc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected (99m)Tc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n=5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n=9). (99m)Tc-duramycin (10-15mCi) was injected intravenously at 1hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting were used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, (99m)Tc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site.Intravenously injected (99m)Tc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an ?-phase half-life of 3.6±0.3minutes and ?-phase half-life of 179.9±64.7minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76±0.21, 1.66±0.22, 1.50±0.20 and 1.75±0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3hours post-injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88±0.13, 0.80±0.13, 0.82±0.19 and 0.88±0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30min post-injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57±0.74 and 3.69±0.91 at 1 and 3hours post-injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89±0.85 and 4.93±0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05±0.30 to 3.23±0.78. The size of (99m)Tc-duramycin positive myocardium was qualitatively larger than the infarct size delineated by the perfusion defect in (99m)Tc-tetrafosmin uptake. This was consistent with findings from tissue analysis and autoradiography.(99m)Tc-duramycin was demonstrated, in a large animal model, to have suitable clearance and biodistribution profiles for imaging. The agent has an avid target uptake and a fast background clearance. It is appropriate for imaging myocardial injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.
Project description:High-dose ionizing irradiation can cause extensive injuries in susceptible tissues. A noninvasive imaging technique that detects a surrogate marker of apoptosis may help characterize the dynamics of radiation-induced tissue damage. The goal of this study was to prove the concept of imaging the temporal and spatial distribution of damage in susceptible tissues after high-dose radiation exposure, using (99m)Tc-duramycin as a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding radiopharmaceutical.Rats were subjected to 15 Gy of total-body irradiation with x-rays. Planar whole-body (99m)Tc-duramycin scanning (n = 4 per time point) was conducted at 24, 48, and 72 h using a clinical ?-camera. On the basis of findings from planar imaging, preclinical SPECT data were acquired on control rats and on irradiated rats at 6 and 24 h after irradiation (n = 4 per time point). Imaging data were validated by ?-counting and histology, using harvested tissues in parallel groups of animals (n = 4).Prominent focal uptake was detected in the thymus as early as 6 h after irradiation, followed by a gradual decline in (99m)Tc-duramycin binding accompanied by extensive thymic atrophy. Early (6-24 h) radioactivity uptake in the gastrointestinal region was detected. Significant signal was seen in major bones in a slightly delayed fashion, at 24 h, which persisted for at least 2 d. This finding was paralleled by an elevation in signal intensity in the kidneys, spleen, and liver. The imaging results were consistent with ex vivo ?-counting results and histology. Relatively high levels of apoptosis were detected from histology in the thymus, guts, and bones, with the thymus undergoing substantial atrophy.As a proof of principle, this study demonstrated a noninvasive imaging technique that allows characterization of the temporal and spatial dynamics of injuries in susceptible tissues during the acute phase after high-dose ionizing irradiation. Such an imaging capability will potentially be useful for global, whole-body, assessment of tissue damage after radiation exposure. These data, in turn, will contribute to our general knowledge of tissue susceptibility to ionizing irradiation, as well as the onset and progression of tissue injuries.
Project description:Human lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) catalyses the deacylation of triacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters in the acidic lysosomal compartment. Treatment of LAL with the reducing agent dithiothreitol affected the triacylglycerol and cholesteryl esterase activities differentially, suggesting the involvement of cysteine residues in determining substrate specificity. To identify the residues involved, human LAL cDNA, under the control of the T7 promoter and tagged with a herpes simplex virus coding epitope, was specifically mutated in order to introduce single amino acid substitutions of each of the six cysteine residues of mature LAL. All Cys-227 mutants showed selectively decreased activity towards cholesteryl oleate, while preserving that towards trioleylglycerol. Substitutions of Cys-236, Cys-240 and Cys-244 affected catalysis towards the two substrates to a variable degree, depending on the side chain of the amino acid introduced. The replacement of Cys-41 or Cys-188 did not result in the preferential cleavage of either one of the two substrates. These data indicate that Cys-227, Cys-236, Cys-240 and Cys-244 play a crucial role in determining LAL substrate specificity. We propose that these cysteine residues are involved in the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester by affecting selectively the access of this substrate to the catalytic active site. In addition, the fact that the catalytic activity is never completely abolished in cysteine mutants demonstrates that LAL is not a thiol enzyme.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deficiency of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) causes Wolman disease and cholesterol ester storage disease. With the recent introduction of enzyme replacement therapy to manage LAL deficiency comes the need for a reliable assay of LAL enzymatic activity that can be applied to dried blood spots (DBS). METHODS:We prepared and tested a library of analogs of palmitoyl 4-methylumbelifferyl esters to find a highly active and specific substrate for LAL in DBS. The LAL assay was optimized leading to both LC-MS/MS and fluorometric assay of LAL. We tested the new assay on DBS from healthy and LAL-deficient patients. RESULTS:The ester formed between palmitic acid and 4-propyl-8-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (P-PMHC) was found to be >98% selective for LAL in DBS based on the sensitivity of its activity to the LAL-specific inactivator Lalistat-2 and the fact that the activity was close to zero using DBS from patients previously shown to be LAL-deficient. Use of P-PMHC and heavy isotope-labeled internal standard with optimized assay conditions led to an approximately 2-fold increase in the specific activity of LAL compared with the previously reported LAL assay. Patients deficient in LAL were readily distinguished from normal persons with the new LAL assay using UPLC-MS/MS or fluorometric assay platforms. CONCLUSIONS:The new assay can measure LAL in DBS with a single measurement compared with the previous method involving 2 assays done in parallel.