Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Novel Immune Response Genes Highly Related to the Severity of Human Adenovirus Type 55 Infection.
ABSTRACT: Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) is considered a highly virulent pathogen causing severe and even deadly pneumonia in immunocompetent people. The mechanisms of HAdV-55-induced initiation and progression of severe pneumonia remain ambiguous. In the current study, we endeavored to identify novel immune response genes which are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of severe inflammation in HAdV-55-infected patients. HAdV-55-infected patients with upper respiratory tract symptoms (minor patients) and pneumonia (severe patients) were enrolled. Through transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients were analyzed. We found that the expression of eight genes, including Il18, Il36b, Il17rc, Tnfsf10, Tnfsf11, Tnfsf14, Tnfsf15, and Il1a, were closely correlated with the severity of HAdV-55 infection. Most of these genes belong to interleukin-1 family or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, respectively. The changes in gene expression were confirmed by Western blot assay. Our data will be crucial for deepening the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of severe pneumonia in HAdV-55 infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by human adenovirus (HAdV), especially HAdV type 55 (HAdV-55) in immunocompetent adults has raised increasing concerns. Clinical knowledge of severe CAP and acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by HAdV-55 is still limited, though the pathogen has been fully characterized by whole-genome sequencing. METHODS:We conducted a multicentre retrospective review of all consecutive patients with severe CAP caused by HAdV in immunocompetent adults admitted to the Emergency Department Intensive Care Unit of two hospitals in Northern China between February 2012 and April 2014. Clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatments and outcomes of these patients were collected and analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 15 consecutive severe CAP patients with laboratory-confirmed adenovirus infections were included. The median age was 30 years and all cases were identified during the winter and spring seasons. HAdV-55 was the most frequently (11/15) detected HAdV type. Persistent high fever, cough and rapid progression of dyspnea were typically reported in these patients. Significantly increased pneumonia severity index (PSI), respiratory rate, and lower PaO2/FiO2, hypersensitive CRP were reported in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.013, 0.022, 0.019 and 0.026, respectively). The rapid development of bilateral consolidations within 10 days after illness onset were the most common radiographic finding, usually accompanied by adjacent ground glass opacities and pleural effusions. Total mortality was 26.7% in this study. Corticosteroids were prescribed to 14 patients in this report, but the utilization rate between survivors and non-survivors was not significant. CONCLUSIONS:HAdV and the HAdV-55 sub-type play an important role among viral pneumonia pathogens in hospitalized immunocompetent adults in Northern China. HAdV should be tested in severe CAP patients with negative bacterial cultures and a lack of response to antibiotic treatment, even if radiologic imaging and clinical presentation initially suggest bacterial pneumonia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Since 2008, severe cases of emerging human adenovirus (HAdV) type 55 (HAdV-55) were reported sporadically in China. But no comparative studies had been conducted to discern the differences in epidemiologic and clinical abnormalities between HAdV-55 and other types (HAdV-7, HAdV-3, HAdV-14, HAdV-50, and HAdV-C). METHODS:A multicenter surveillance study for adult and adolescent community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was conducted prospectively in Beijing and Yan Tai between November 2010 and April 2012. A standardized data form was used to record clinical information. The viral DNA extracted from the clinical samples or adenovirus viral isolates was sequenced. RESULTS:Among 969 cases, 48 (5%) were identified as adenovirus pneumonia. Six branches were clustered: HAdV-55 in 21, HAdV-7 in 11, HAdV-3 in nine, HAdV-14 in four, HAdV-50 in two, and HAdV-C in one. Most HAdV-55 cases were identified during February and March. All the hypervariable regions of the hexon genes of the 21 HAdV-55 strains were completely identical. Patients who had HAdV-55 were about 10 years older ( P = .027) and had higher pneumonia severity index scores ( P = .030) compared with those with other types (HAdV-7, HAdV-3, HAdV-14, HAdV-50, and HAdV-C). Systemic BP was also higher among patients in the HAdV-55 group ( P = .006). Unilateral or bilateral consolidations were the most common radiologic findings in both patients with HAdV-55 and those with other types (57.9% vs 36%). More than one-half of the patients were admitted to hospital; oxygen therapy was given to 29.2% of the 48 patients, and two needed mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS:HAdV-55 has established itself as a major pneumonia pathogen in the Chinese population, and further surveillance and monitoring of this agent as a cause of CAP is warranted.
Project description:The number of pneumonia patients increased suddenly in Korean military hospitals in late December 2014, indicating the urgent need for an epidemic outbreak investigation.We conducted a prospective study of pneumonia etiology among immunocompetent young adults admitted to Daejeon Armed Forces hospital. Patient blood and sputum samples were subjected to conventional culture, serology, and polymerase chain reaction tests for respiratory viruses and atypical pathogens.From January to May 2015, we enrolled 191 (189 male) adults with pneumonia; the mean age was 20.1 ± 1.3 years. Five patients had severe pneumonia, and one died. Pathogenic human adenoviruses were most common (HAdV, 153/191 [80.1%]), indicating a HAdV pneumonia outbreak. Genotyping of 35 isolates indicated that 34 matched HAdV-55 and one matched HAdV-2. HAdV pneumonia infected recruit trainees most frequently. High and prolonged fever, nasal congestion, sore throat, and pharyngeal inflammation were significantly more common in the HAdV pneumonia group, compared to patients with other or unknown causes of pneumonia. Only 12% of HAdV pneumonia patients displayed leukocytosis, whereas febrile leukopenia (62.7%) and thrombocytopenia (41%) were commonly observed. HAdV pneumonia patient chest CT scans displayed ground glass opacity (with or without septal thickness) with consolidation in 50.0% of patients.An outbreak of HAdV respiratory infection occurred at the Korean military training center. HAdV pneumonia exhibited specific laboratory and clinical features, and although most patients were cured without complication, some progressed to respiratory failure and fatality. Therefore, HAdV vaccine should be provided to military trainees in Korea.
Project description:During January 2013-April 2014, we subjected nasopharyngeal specimens collected from patients with acute febrile respiratory illness in a military hospital to PCR testing to detect 12 respiratory viruses and sequence a partial hexon gene for human adenovirus (HAdV) molecular typing. We analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics of HAdV infections and compared clinical characteristics of HAdV types. Among the 305 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness, we detected respiratory viruses in 139 (45.6%) patients; HAdV was the most prevalent virus (69 cases). Of the 40 adenoviruses identified based on type, HAdV-55 (29 cases) was the most prevalent, followed by HAdV-4 (9 cases). HAdV-55 was common in patients with pneumonia (odds ratio 2.17; 95% CI 0.48-9.86) and hospitalized patients (odds ratio 5.21; 95% CI 1.06-25.50). In soldiers with HAdV infection in Korea, HAdV-55 was the most prevalent type and might be associated with severe clinical outcomes.
Project description:We identified a case of fatal acute respiratory disease from household transmission of human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) in Anhui Province, China. Computed tomography showed severe pneumonia. Comparative genomic analysis of HAdV-55 indicated the virus possibly originated in Shanxi Province, China. More attention should be paid to highly contagious HAdV-55.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human adenovirus 55 (HAdV-55) has caused recent outbreaks of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and military trainees. The active surveillance for HAdV infections was sparse in China, and current knowledge on the HAdV-type distributions and its molecular evolution is lacking. OBJECTIVES:To acquire better understanding on the prevalence and molecular evolution of HAdV-55 strains in China, for an informed strategy for disease control and prevention. POPULATION/METHODS:Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with ARTI in Chongqing during 2009-2012. The genotype of HAdV isolates were determined by sequencing the partial hexon and fiber genes. Whole genome sequences of HAdV-55 were obtained for molecular evolution analysis. RESULTS:About 191 (8·55%) HAdV were detected in 2234 children, including 92 (48·2%) with HAdV-7, 72 (37·7%) with HAdV-3, 6 (3·1%) with HAdV-55, 5 (2·6%) with HAdV-5, 4 (2·1%) with HAdV-1, 1 (0·5%) with HAdV-2, and 11(5·8%) with untyped HAdV. Four of these children developed pneumonia, two of whom were diagnosed with severe pneumonia and/or encephalopathy. HAdV-55 isolates clustered with HAdV-11 sequences based on the hexon gene and clustered with HAdV-14 sequences based on the fiber gene and the whole genome. The overall evolutionary rates of hexon gene, fiber gene, and whole genome of HAdV-55 were estimated at 6·2 × 10(-5) s/s/y, 8·0 × 10(-5 ) s/s/y, and 1·7 × 10(-5) s/s/y, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggested HAdV-55 as an emerging infectious disease pathogen has conserved genetic structure and is closely related to each other. Further molecular investigation based on HAdV-55 of wider origin might facilitate understanding its diversity, dissemination, and transmission in China.
Project description:Since 2008, severe cases of emerging human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) in immunocompetent adults have been reported sporadically in China. The clinical features and outcomes of the most critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by HAdV-55 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are lacking.We conducted a prospective, single-center observational study of pneumonia with ARDS in immunocompetent adults admitted to our respiratory ICU. We prospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, sequential tests of viral load in respiratory tract and blood, treatments and outcomes.The results for a total of five consecutive patients with severe ARDS with confirmed HAdV-55 infection were included. All five patients were immunocompetent young men with a median age of 32 years. The mean time from onset to dyspnea was 5 days. Arterial blood gas analysis at ICU admission revealed profound hypoxia. Mean partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen was 58.1. Mean durations from onset to a single-lobe consolidation shown on chest X-rays (CXRs) and, from the first positive CXR to bilateral multilobar lung infiltrates, were 2 days and 4.8 days, respectively. The viral load was higher than 1?×?108 copies in three patients and was 1?×?104 in one patient. It was negative in the only patient who survived. The mean duration for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure and IMV failure were 30.8 hours and 6.2 days, respectively. Four patients received venovenous ECMO. Four (80%) of the five patients died despite receiving appropriate respiratory support.HAdV-55 may cause severe ARDS in immunocompetent young men. Persistent high fever, dyspnea and rapid progression to respiratory failure within 2 weeks, together with bilateral consolidations and infiltrates, are the most frequent clinical manifestations of HAdV-55-induced severe ARDS. Viral load monitoring may help predict disease severity and outcome. The NPPV and IMV failure rates were very high, but ECMO may still be the respiratory support therapy of choice.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01585922. Registered 20 April 2012.
Project description:Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), such as community-acquired pneumonia. HAdV-7d, a re-emergent genomic variant, has been recently reported in Asia and the United States after a several-decade absence. However, whether HAdV-7d is associated with higher severity than other types is currently unclear. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological investigation showed that fever, cough, and sore throat were the three most common respiratory symptoms of HAdV infections. HAdV-7 caused longer duration of fever, higher morbidity of tachypnea/dyspnea, pleural effusion, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, consciousness alteration, as well as higher rates of pneumonia, mechanical ventilation and higher fatality rate (28.6%) than other types, particularly HAdV-3 and HAdV-2. The genomes of seven HAdV-7d isolates from mild, severe, and fatal cases were sequenced and highly similar with each other. Surprisingly, two isolates (2011, 2012) had 100% identical genomes with an earlier strain from a fatal ARD outbreak in China (2009), which elucidates the virus origin and confirms the unexpected HAdV genomic conservation and stability. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that L1 52/55-kDa DNA packaging protein may be associated with the higher severity of illness and fatality rate of HAdV-7. Clinicians need to be aware of HAdVs in children with ARD.
Project description:The benefits of treatment with antiviral therapy for severe adenovirus (AdV) pneumonia are not well established. We described the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of early cidofovir treatment of severe AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with severe AdV pneumonia between 2012 and 2014. A total of seven non-immunocompromised patients with severe AdV pneumonia were identified, and all isolates typed (n = 6) were human AdV-B55. All patients had progressive respiratory failure with lobar consolidation with or without patchy ground glass opacity. Three patients required vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. All patients had abnormal laboratory findings including: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or elevated liver enzymes. After admission, all patients received antiviral therapy with cidofovir, and the median time from admission to cidofovir administration was 48 h and median the time from onset of symptoms to cidofovir administration was 7.1 days. After cidofovir administration, complete symptomatic improvement occurred after a median of 12 days and radiographic resolution occurred after a median of 21 days. Consequently, all patients completely improved without complications. Our data suggest that early administration of cidofovir in the course of treatment for respiratory failure as a result of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients could be a treatment strategy worth considering, especially in cases of HAdV-55 infection.
Project description:Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection can result in a severe respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to identify HAdV types detected in patients hospitalized for severe respiratory illness. The study population consisted of 743 patients with severe respiratory disease admitted to four major hospitals in Kuwait between January 2013 and December 2016. Respiratory specimens were retrospectively screened for 20 respiratory viruses by real-time PCR. The HAdV hexon gene was amplified and directly sequenced, and HAdV types were identified by performing Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. HAdV DNA was detected in 27 (3.6%) patients, with peaks in November and March. Most patients were infants and young children suffering from pneumonia or acute bronchiolitis. The detected HAdV types were C1, C2, C5, B3, and B7. Clusters of HAdV C1, C2, and C5 were observed with high posterior probability. All patients infected with HAdV C5 and 50% of patients infected with HAdV C2 or B7 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Co-infection with other viruses was detected in 44.4% of patients. The most common co-infecting virus was rhinovirus (HRV). HAdV/HRV co-infection was detected in two children who presumably developed disseminated HAdV infection and died. This is the first report describing the circulation of HAdV types associated with severe outcomes in Kuwait. These findings highlight the need for a national surveillance system to monitor changes in predominant HAdV types and increased numbers of severe respiratory infections.