Phononic topological insulators based on six-petal holey silicon structures.
ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of the Quantum Spin Hall Effect, electronic and photonic topological insulators have made substantial progress, but phononic topological insulators in solids have received relatively little attention due to challenges in realizing topological states without spin-like degrees of freedom and with transverse phonon polarizations. Here we present a holey silicon-based topological insulator design, in which simple geometric control enables topologically protected in-plane elastic wave propagation up to GHz ranges with a submicron periodicity. By integrating a hexagonal lattice of six small holes with one central large hole and by creating a hexagonal lattice by themselves, our design induces zone folding to form a double Dirac cone. Based on the hole dimensions, breaking the discrete translational symmetry allows the six-petal holey silicon to achieve the topological phase transition, yielding two topologically distinct phononic crystals. Our numerical simulations confirm inverted band structures and demonstrate backscattering-immune elastic wave transmissions through defects including a cavity, a disorder, and sharp bends. Our design also offers robustness against geometric errors and potential fabrication issues, which shows up to 90% transmission of elastic waves even with 6% under-sized or 11% over-sized holes. These findings provide a detailed understanding of the relationship between geometry and topological properties and pave the way for developing future phononic circuits.
Project description:Efficient control of phonons is crucial to energy-information technology, but limited by the lacking of tunable degrees of freedom like charge or spin. Here we suggest to utilize crystalline symmetry-protected pseudospins as new quantum degrees of freedom to manipulate phonons. Remarkably, we reveal a duality between phonon pseudospins and electron spins by presenting Kramers-like degeneracy and pseudospin counterparts of spin-orbit coupling, which lays the foundation for "pseudospin phononics". Furthermore, we report two types of three-dimensional phononic topological insulators, which give topologically protected, gapless surface states with linear and quadratic band degeneracies, respectively. These topological surface states display unconventional phonon transport behaviors attributed to the unique pseudospin-momentum locking, which are useful for phononic circuits, transistors, antennas, etc. The emerging pseudospin physics offers new opportunities to develop future phononics.
Project description:A topological state with protected propagation of elastic waves is achieved by appropriately engineering a phononic metamaterial based on 2D pentamode structures in silicon. Gapless edge states in the designed structure, which are characterized by pseudospin-dependent transport, provide backscattering-immune propagation of the elastic wave along bend paths. The role of the states responsible for forward and backward transfer can be interchanged by design.
Project description:Topological Insulators are the best thermoelectric materials involving a sophisticated physics beyond their solid state and electronic structure. We show that exists a topological contribution to the thermoelectric effect that arises between topological and thermal quantum field theories applied at very low energies. This formalism provides us with a quantized topological mass proportional to the temperature T leading, through an electric potential V, to a Seebeck coefficient where we identify an anomalous contribution that can be associated to the creation of real electron-hole Schwinger's pairs close to the topological bands. Finally, we find a general expression for the dimensionless figure of merit of these topological materials, considering only the electronic contribution, getting a value of 2.73 that is applicable to the Bi2Te3, for which it was reported a value of 2.4 after reducing its phononic contribution, using only the most basic topological numbers (0 or 1).
Project description:Originating with the discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in condensed matter physics, topological order has been receiving increased attention also for classical wave phenomena. Topological protection enables efficient and robust signal transport; mechanical topological insulators (TIs), in particular, are easy to fabricate and exhibit interfacial wave transport with minimal dissipation, even in the presence of sharp edges, defects, or disorder. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a phononic crystal Floquet TI (FTI). Hexagonal arrays of circular piezoelectric disks bonded to a PLA substrate, shunted through negative electrical capacitance, and manipulated by external integrated circuits, provide the required spatiotemporal modulation scheme to break time-reversal symmetry and impart a synthetic angular momentum bias that can induce strong topological protection on the lattice edges. Our proposed reconfigurable FTI may find applications for robust acoustic emitters and mechanical logic circuits, with distinct advantages over electronic equivalents in harsh operating conditions.
Project description:Systems with holes, such as colloidal handlebodies and toroidal droplets, have been studied in the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB): Both point and ring topological defects can occur within each hole and around the system while conserving the system's overall topological charge. However, what has not been fully appreciated is the ability to manipulate the hole geometry with homeotropic (perpendicular) anchoring conditions to induce complex, saddle-like deformations. We exploit this by creating an array of holes suspended in an NLC cell with oriented planar (parallel) anchoring at the cell boundaries. We study both 5CB and a binary mixture of bicyclohexane derivatives (CCN-47 and CCN-55). Through simulations and experiments, we study how the bulk saddle deformations of each hole interact to create defect structures, including an array of disclination lines, reminiscent of those found in liquid-crystal blue phases. The line locations are tunable via the NLC elastic constants, the cell geometry, and the size and spacing of holes in the array. This research lays the groundwork for the control of complex elastic deformations of varying length scales via geometrical cues in materials that are renowned in the display industry for their stability and easy manipulability.
Project description:Lateral surface etching of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets results in holey 2D nanosheets that have abundant edge atoms. Recent reports on holey graphene showed that holey 2D nanosheets can outperform their intact counterparts in many potential applications such as energy storage, catalysis, sensing, transistors, and molecular transport/separation. From both fundamental and application perspectives, it is desirable to obtain holey 2D nanosheets with defined hole morphology and hole edge structures. This remains a great challenge for graphene and is little explored for other 2D nanomaterials. Here, a facile, controllable, and scalable method is reported to carve geometrically defined pit/hole shapes and edges on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) basal plane surfaces via oxidative etching in air using silver nanoparticles as catalysts. The etched h-BN was further purified and exfoliated into nanosheets that inherited the hole/edge structural motifs and, under certain conditions, possess altered optical bandgap properties likely induced by the enriched zigzag edge atoms. This method opens up an exciting approach to further explore the physical and chemical properties of hole- and edge-enriched boron nitride and other 2D nanosheets, paving the way toward applications that can take advantage of their unique structures and performance characteristics.
Project description:Crumpled-based materials are relatively easy to fabricate and show robust mechanical properties for practical applications, including meta-biomaterials design aimed for improved tissue regeneration. For such requests, however, the structure needs to be porous. We introduce a crumpled holey thin sheet as a robust bio-metamaterial and measure the mechanical response of a crumpled holey thin Mylar sheet as a function of the hole size and hole area fraction. We also study the formation of patterns of crease lines and ridges. The area fraction largely dominated the crumpling mechanism. We also show, the crumpling exponents slightly increases with increasing the hole area fraction and the total perimeter of the holes. Finally, hole edges were found to limit and guide the propagation of crease lines and ridges.
Project description:Three-dimensional topological (crystalline) insulators are materials with an insulating bulk but conducting surface states that are topologically protected by time-reversal (or spatial) symmetries. We extend the notion of three-dimensional topological insulators to systems that host no gapless surface states but exhibit topologically protected gapless hinge states. Their topological character is protected by spatiotemporal symmetries of which we present two cases: (i) Chiral higher-order topological insulators protected by the combination of time-reversal and a fourfold rotation symmetry. Their hinge states are chiral modes, and the bulk topology is Z2 -classified. (ii) Helical higher-order topological insulators protected by time-reversal and mirror symmetries. Their hinge states come in Kramers pairs, and the bulk topology is Z -classified. We provide the topological invariants for both cases. Furthermore, we show that SnTe as well as surface-modified Bi2TeI, BiSe, and BiTe are helical higher-order topological insulators and propose a realistic experimental setup to detect the hinge states.
Project description:Excitonic insulators are insulating states formed by the coherent condensation of electron and hole pairs into BCS-like states. Isotropic spatial wave functions are commonly considered for excitonic condensates since the attractive interaction among the electrons and the holes in semiconductors usually leads to s-wave excitons. Here, we propose a new type of excitonic insulator that exhibits order parameter with p?+?ip symmetry and is characterized by a chiral Chern number Cc?=?1/2. This state displays the parity anomaly, which results in two novel topological properties: fractionalized excitations with e/2 charge at defects and a spontaneous in-plane magnetization. The topological insulator surface state is a promising platform to realize the topological excitonic insulator. With the spin-momentum locking, the interband optical pumping can renormalize the surface electrons and drive the system towards the proposed p?+?ip instability.
Project description:Surface waves in topological states of quantum matter exhibit unique protection from backscattering induced by disorders, making them ideal carriers for both classical and quantum information. Topological matters for electrons and photons are largely limited by the range of bulk properties, and the associated performance trade-offs. In contrast, phononic metamaterials provide access to a much wider range of material properties. Here we demonstrate numerically a phononic topological metamaterial in an elastic-wave analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. A dual-scale phononic crystal slab is used to support two effective spins for phonons over a broad bandwidth, and strong spin-orbit coupling is realized by breaking spatial mirror symmetry. By preserving the spin polarization with an external load or spatial symmetry, phononic edge states are shown to be robust against scattering from discrete defects as well as disorders in the continuum, demonstrating topological protection for phonons in both static and time-dependent regimes.