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Analysis of allele-specific expression of seven candidate genes involved in lipid metabolism in pig skeletal muscle and fat tissues reveals allelic imbalance of ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of allele-specific expression may help to elucidate the genetic architecture of complex traits including fat deposition in pigs. Here, we used pyrosequencing to investigate the allele proportions of candidate genes (ACACA, ADIPOR1, FASN, LEP, ME1, SCD, and TNF) involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in two fat deposits (subcutaneous and visceral fat) and longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs representing Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Duroc, and Pietrain breeds. We detected differential allelic expression of ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF in all tissues analyzed. To search for putative cis-regulatory elements involved in allele-specific expression, we quantified the methylation level within CpG islands located in 5'-flanking regions of ACACA and SCD. Comparison between samples showing markedly disproportionate allelic expression and control groups with similar levels of both alleles did not reveal significant differences. We also assessed the association of rs321308225 (c.*195C>A) an SNP located in the 3'UTR of ACACA with its allelic expression in Polish Landrace pigs, but it was not significant. We conclude that allelic imbalance occurs frequently in regard to genes involved in regulation of lipid deposition in pigs, and further studies are necessary to identify cis-regulatory elements affecting ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF expression in porcine fat tissues and skeletal muscle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The expression of genes involved in regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism may affect economically important fatness traits in pigs. Allele-specific expression (ASE) reflects imbalance between allelic transcript levels and can be used to identify underlying cis-regulatory elements. ASE has not yet been intensively studied in pigs. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the differential allelic expression of four genes, PPARA, PPARG, SREBF1, and PPARGC1A, which are involved in the regulation of fat deposition in porcine subcutaneous and visceral fat and longissimus dorsi muscle. RESULTS:Quantification of allelic proportions by pyrosequencing revealed that both alleles of PPARG and SREBF1 are expressed at similar levels. PPARGC1A showed the greatest ASE imbalance in fat deposits in Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace and Pietrain pigs; and PPARA in PLW pigs. Significant deviations of mean PPARGC1A allelic transcript ratio between cDNA and genomic DNA were detected in all tissues, with the most pronounced difference (p < 0.001) in visceral fat of PLW pigs. To search for potential cis-regulatory elements affecting ASE in the PPARGC1A gene we analyzed the effects of four SNPs (rs337351686, rs340650517, rs336405906 and rs345224049) in the promoter region, but none were associated with ASE in the breeds studied. DNA methylation analysis revealed significant CpG methylation differences between samples showing balanced (allelic transcript ratio ≈1) and imbalanced allelic expression for CpG site at the genomic position in chromosome 8 (SSC8): 18527678 in visceral fat (p = 0.017) and two CpG sites (SSC8:18525215, p = 0.030; SSC8:18525237, p = 0.031) in subcutaneous fat. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis of differential allelic expression suggests that PPARGC1A is subjected to cis-regulation in porcine fat tissues. Further studies are necessary to identify other regulatory elements localized outside the PPARGC1A proximal promoter region.
Project description:Porcine fat traits depend mostly on the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. However, the pathways and biological processes influenced by this interaction are still poorly known in pigs, although they can have a huge impact on meat quality traits. The present research provides new knowledge insight into the effect of four diets (D1 = standard diet; D2 = linseed supplementation; D3 = linseed, vitamin E and selenium supplementation; D4 = linseed and plant-derived polyphenols supplementation) on the expression of 24 candidate genes selected for their role in lipid and energy metabolism. The data indicated that 10 out of 24 genes were differentially expressed among diets, namely ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP (MLXPL), ELOVL6, FASN, G6PD, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD. Results from the univariate analysis displayed an increased expression of ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP, ELOVL6, FASN, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD in D4 compared to D2. Similarly, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ELOVL6 and SCD were highly expressed in D4 compared to D3, while no differences were observed in D2-D3 comparison. Moreover, an increased expression of G6PD and ELOVL6 genes in D4 compared to D1 was observed. Results from the multivariate analysis confirmed that D2 was not different from D3 and that ACACA, SCD and FASN expression made D4 different from D2 and D3. Comparing D4 and D1, the expression levels of ELOVL6 and ACACA were the most influenced. This research provides evidence that the addition of both n-3 PUFA and polyphenols, derived from linseed, grape-skin and oregano supplementation in the diets, stimulates the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and in oxidative processes. Results evidenced a greater effect on gene expression of the diet added with both plant extracts and n-3 PUFA, resulting in an increased expression of genes coding for fatty acid synthesis, desaturation and elongation in pig Longissimus thoracis muscle.
Project description:Purpose: RNA-seq method was applied to select genes expressed in fat tissue and pinpointed genes potentially associated with fatness traits in pigs. Methods: The RNA-seq analysis was performed on fat tissue collected from 16 Pulawska pigs (8 pigs per two groups - with high and low backfat thickness) maintained at the same environmental and feeding condition. The total RNA was isolated using by TriReagent and 300ng was used to cDNA libraries preparation. The NGS sequencing was performed on HiScan SQ (Illumina) in 90 single-end cycles. The quantifying transcript abundances was made using the RSEM supported by STAR aligner. The raw reads were aligned to the Sus scrofa reference genome. Differentially expressed genes were detected by DESeq2. The RNA-seq results were validated using by qPCR. Results: In the group of pigs characterized by thicker subcutaneous fat, 166 genes with increased expression were identified, including genes involved in biological processes associated with negative regulation of long-chain fatty acid transport (GO: 0010748) (IRS2, THBS1, AKT2), regulation of metabolic lipids ( GO: 0019216) (EEF1A2, IRS2, ACACA, SIK1, ADGRF5, IDH1, FGF2, PDE3B, FASN, AKT2, CYR61, CHD9, ME1, SCD), cellular response to hormonal stimuli (GO: 0032870) (IRS2, ACACA, SIK1 , GHR, NR4A1, PDE3B, PTGER2, AKT2, AACS, ADCY6, KAT2B, RHOQ, FOS). Genes involved in the signaling pathway responsible for the activation of gene expression by SREBF (R-SSC-2426168) (ACACA, FASN, CHD9, SCD ) and the insulin signaling pathway also were identified (RHOQ, SOCS3, IRS2, AKT2, PDE3B, PYGM, FASN, ACACA). Conclusions: The presented results allowed to pinpointed the interesting, candidate genes related with fat content in carcasses in pigs, which can be analyzed in future in the term of using in breeding practice as genetic markers. The study was financed from funds of the project -BIOSTRATEG, the decision number BIOSTRATEG2/297267/14/NCBR/2016. Overall design: The subcutaneous fat transcriptome sequencing was performed for 16 samples collected form Pulawska breed, using Illumina HiScan SQ in 90 single-end cycles and in 4 technical repetitions.
Project description:Pork is the most popular meat in the world. Unfortunately, the selection pressure focused on high meat content led to a reduction in pork quality. The present study used RNA-seq technology to identify metabolic process genes related to pork quality traits and fat deposition. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between pigs of Pulawska and Polish Landrace breeds for two the most important muscles (semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi). A total of 71 significant DEGs were reported: 15 for longissimus dorsi and 56 for semimembranosus muscles. The genes overexpressed in Pulawska pigs were involved in lipid metabolism (APOD, LXRA, LIPE, AP2B1, ENSSSCG00000028753 and OAS2) and proteolysis (CST6, CTSD, ISG15 and UCHL1). In Polish Landrace pigs, genes playing a role in biological adhesion (KIT, VCAN, HES1, SFRP2, CDH11, SSX2IP and PCDH17), actin cytoskeletal organisation (FRMD6, LIMK1, KIF23 and CNN1) and calcium ion binding (PVALB, CIB2, PCDH17, VCAN and CDH11) were transcriptionally more active. The present study allows for better understanding of the physiological processes associated with lipid metabolism and muscle fiber organization. This information could be helpful in further research aiming to estimate the genetic markers.
Project description:Fatness traits are important in pigs because of their implications for fattening efficiency, meat quality, reproductive performance and immunity. Songliao black pigs and Landrace pigs show important differences in production and meat quality traits, including fatness and muscle growth. Therefore, we used a high-throughput massively parallel RNA-seq approach to identify genes differentially expressed in backfat tissue between these two breeds (six pigs in each). An average of 37.87 million reads were obtained from the 12 samples. After statistical analysis of gene expression data by edgeR, a total of 877 differentially expressed genes were detected between the two pig breeds, 205 with higher expression and 672 with lower expression in Songliao pigs. Candidate genes (LCN2, CES3, DGKB, OLR1, LEP, PGM1, PCK1, ACACB, FADS1, FADS2, MOGAT2, SREBF1, PPARGC1B) with known effects on fatness traits were included among the DEGs. A total of 1071 lncRNAs were identified, and 85 of these lncRNAs were differentially expressed, including 53 up-regulated and 32 down-regulated lncRNAs, respectively. The differentially expressed genes and lncRNAs involved in glucagon signaling pathway, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, insulin signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and so on. Integrated analysis potential trans-regulating or cis-regulating relation between DEGs and DE lncRNAs, suggested lncRNA MSTRG.2479.1 might regulate the expressed level of VLDLR affecting porcine fat metabolism. These results provide a number of candidate genes and lncRNAs potentially involved in porcine fat deposition and provide a basis for future research on the molecular mechanisms underlying in fat deposition.
Project description:High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACACA, ACC?) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.
Project description:In recent years, pig producers have struggled with the problem of low intramuscular fat levels in pork, which impacts palatability and ultimately meat quality. Reduced levels of intramuscular fat are likely the result of breeding objectives aimed at increasing lean meat content. In this study, three mutations within candidate genes for fat content (SCD, ACACA, and FASN) were selected, based on RNA-seq results and the relationship between polymorphisms in genes related to lipid metabolism, fattening and slaughter characteristics, as well as pork quality, including IMF level, were evaluated to identify selection markers. Moreover, their impact on gene expression was also examined. The PCR-RFLP (polymerase cha- in reaction - restriction fragments length) method was used to establish genotypes and effect sizes of potential genetic markers were estimated using a GLM model. It was identified that a FASN missense variant was positively associated with the expression level of this gene, which suggested its linkage with a mutation having a regulatory function. The association study indicated that the FASN missense variant may play a role in the determination of feed conversion and meat colour. In turn, a mutation in the ACACA gene showed a relationship with IMF content in the Pu?awska breed where the differences reached as much as 20%. We suggest considering all three mutations in further studies based on different pig populations due to the crucial role of SCD, ACACA, and FASN genes in lipid metabolism.
Project description:The domestic pigs have been undergone intense selection pressures for these development of interested traits following domestication and modern breeding. This has altered many traits in most of pig breeds, such as growth rate, body weight, fertility, and immunity. Thus, the objectives of this study were to (1) detect these selection signatures and identify the candidate genes that show evidences of recent artificial selection at the level of whole genome, (2) be beneficial to understand the relationship between genomic structure and phenotypic diversity, and (3) highlight the key roles of these candidate genes in growth and development in the two breeds. The data consisted of total raw number of 345570 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1200 individuals from the Chinese Landrace pigs (L, n = 600) and Yorkshire pigs (Y, n = 600). Based on these SNPs data, two complementary methods, population differentiation (Fst) and composite likelihood ratio test (CLR), were carried out to detect the selection signatures in this study. A total of 540 potential selection regions (50 kb) which contained 111 candidate genes were detected for Landrace-Yorkshire pair (L-Y) by Fst. In addition, 73 and 125 candidate genes were found for Landrace pigs and Yorkshire pigs by CLR test based on 321 and 628 potential selection regions, respectively. Some candidate genes are associated with important traits and signaling pathways including the ACACA, MECR, COL11A1, GHR, IGF1R, IGF2R, IFNG, and MTOR gene. The ACACA and MECR gene are related to fatty acid biosynthesis. The COL11A1 gene is essential for the development of the normal differentiation. The GHR, IGF1R, and IGF2R gene are significant candidate genes which play major roles in the growth and development in animals. The IFNG gene is associated with some aspects of immune response. The MTOR gene regulates many signaling pathways and signaling transduction pathway.
Project description:Backfat thickness is one of the most important traits of commercially raised pigs. Meishan pigs are renowned for having thicker backfat than Landrace pigs. To examine the genetic factors responsible for the differences, we first produced female crossbred pig lines by mating Landrace (L) × Large White (W) × Duroc (D) females (LWD) with Landrace (L) or Meishan (M) boars (i.e., LWD × L = LWDL for Landrace offspring and LWD × M = LWDM for the Meishan offspring). We confirmed that LWDM pigs indeed had a thicker backfat than LWDL pigs. Next, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in both genetic lines to examine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in energy metabolism-related tissues, subcutaneous adipose (fat), liver, and longissimus dorsi muscle tissues. We analyzed the annotation of DEGs (2-fold cutoff) to functionally categorize them by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The number of DEGs in muscle tissues of both lines was much less than that in fat and liver tissues, indicating that DEGs in muscle tissues may not contribute much to differences in backfat thickness. In contrast, several genes related to muscle (in fat tissue) and lipid metabolism (in liver tissue) were more upregulated in LWDM pigs than LWDL pigs, indicating that those DEGs might be responsible for differences in backfat thickness. The different genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fat, liver, and muscle tissues between genetic lines can provide useful information for pig breeders.
Project description:The leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR) regulate food intake and energy balance through hypothalamic signaling. However, the LEP-LEPR axis seems to be more complex and its expression regulation has not been well described. In pigs, LEP and LEPR genes have been widely studied due to their relevance. Previous studies reported significant effects of SNPs located in both genes on growth and fatness traits. The aim of this study was to determine the expression profiles of LEP and LEPR across hypothalamic, adipose, hepatic and muscle tissues in Iberian x Landrace backcrossed pigs and to analyze the effects of gene variants on transcript abundance. To our knowledge, non porcine LEPR isoforms have been described rather than LEPRb. A short porcine LEPR isoform (LEPRa), that encodes a protein lacking the intracellular residues responsible of signal transduction, has been identified for the first time. The LEPRb isoform was only quantifiable in hypothalamus while LEPRa appeared widely expressed across tissues, but at higher levels in liver, suggesting that both isoforms would develop different roles. The unique LEP transcript showed expression in backfat and muscle. The effects of gene variants on transcript expression revealed interesting results. The LEPRc.1987C>T polymorphism showed opposite effects on LEPRb and LEPRa hypothalamic expression. In addition, one out of the 16 polymorphisms identified in the LEPR promoter region revealed high differential expression in hepatic LEPRa. These results suggest a LEPR isoform-specific regulation at tissue level. Conversely, non-differential expression of LEP conditional on the analyzed polymorphisms could be detected, indicating that its regulation is likely affected by other mechanisms rather than gene sequence variants. The present study has allowed a transcriptional characterization of LEP and LEPR isoforms on a range of tissues. Their expression patterns seem to indicate that both molecules develop peripheral roles apart from their known hypothalamic signal transduction function.