The associations of fat tissue and muscle mass indices with all-cause mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
ABSTRACT: Protein-energy wasting, which involves loss of fat and muscle mass, is prevalent and is associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the associations of fat tissue and muscle mass indices with all-cause mortality in HD patients. The study included 162 patients undergoing HD. The fat tissue index (FTI) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), which represent respective tissue masses normalized to height squared, were measured by bioimpedance analysis after dialysis. Patients were divided into the following four groups according to the medians of FTI and SMI values: group 1 (G1), lower FTI and lower SMI; G2, higher FTI and lower SMI; G3, lower FTI and higher SMI; and G4, higher FTI and higher SMI. The associations of the FTI, SMI, and body mass index (BMI) with all-cause mortality were evaluated. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, 29 patients died. The 5-year survival rates were 48.6%, 76.1%, 95.7%, and 87.4% in the G1, G2, G3, and G4 groups, respectively (P = 0.0002). The adjusted hazard ratio values were 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.95, P = 0.040) for G2 vs. G1, 0.13 (95%CI 0.01-0.69, P = 0.013) for G3 vs. G1, and 0.25 (95%CI 0.07-0.72, P = 0.0092) for G4 vs. G1, respectively. With regard to model discrimination, on adding both FTI and SMI to a model with established risk factors, the C-index increased significantly when compared with the value for a model with BMI (0.763 vs. 0.740, P = 0.016). Higher FTI and/or higher SMI values were independently associated with reduced risks of all-cause mortality in HD patients. Moreover, the combination of the FTI and SMI may more accurately predict all-cause mortality when compared with BMI. Therefore, these body composition indicators should be evaluated simultaneously in this population.
Project description:The present study investigated the expression of leptin and its receptor in the left testis and hypothalamus of rats with varicocele and clarified their roles in the pathogenesis of varicocele?induced testicular dysfunction. A total of 40 male rats were divided randomly into four groups. Groups 1 (G1) and 3 (G3) underwent a sham operation. Groups 2 (G2) and 4 (G4) underwent operations to form a varicocele created by partial ligation of the left renal vein. G1 and G2 rats were euthanized 4 weeks after the operation while G3 and G4 rats were euthanized at 8 weeks. The expression of leptin and its receptor was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of leptin, its receptor, kisspeptin (KiSS?1), G?protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle?stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Testicular spermatogenesis function and gonadal hormone levels were measured. Compared with G1 and G3, the expression of leptin and its receptor in rat testis was significantly higher in G2 and G4, respectively. Leptin expression was inversely associated with the number of sperm in the left epididymis, thickness of the seminiferous epithelium and the diameter of seminiferous tubules. The expression of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus of G2 and G4 was significantly increased compared with that in G1 and G3, respectively. The mRNA levels of KiSS?1, GPR54, GnRH, LH and FSH in G2 and G4 were significantly increased compared with that in G1 and G3, respectively. Serum testosterone levels in G2 and G4 rats were significantly lower than those in G1 and G3 rats, respectively. There was no significant difference between the serum levels of FSH, LH and leptin. These results suggest that leptin and its receptor may serve significant roles in the pathogenesis of varicocele-induced testicular dysfunction.
Project description:This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC) or composite resin (CR) restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control): cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control) cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm(2); G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations.
Project description:Aim:To evaluate the influence of primary insertion torque (IT) values of narrow dental implants on the peri-implant health, implant stability, immunoinflammatory responses, bone loss, and success and survival rates. Methods:Thirty-one edentulous patients received two narrow implants (2.9x10mm, Facility NeoPoros) to retain mandibular overdentures. The implants were categorized in four groups according to their IT: (G1) IT > 10 Ncm; (G2) IT ? 10Ncm and ? 30 Ncm; (G3) IT >30Ncm and < 45Ncm; (G4) IT ? 45Ncm, and all implants were loaded after 3 months of healing. The following clinical outcomes were evaluated 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after implant insertion: (i) peri-implant tissue health (PH), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), calculus presence (CP), probing depth (PD), and bleeding on probing (BOP); (ii) implant stability quotient (ISQ) by resonance frequency analysis; and (iii) IL-1? and TNF-? concentration in the peri-implant crevicular fluid. The marginal bone level (MBL) and changes (MBC) were evaluated. The Chi2 test, Kruskal-Wallis test, mixed-effects regression analysis, and the Kendall rank correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis (? = 5%). Results:G1 presented the highest PD at all evaluated periods. G2 presented higher PI at month 6 and 12. G4 showed increased GI at month 3 and 12 and more CP at month 1 (p=.003). G2 and G4 had higher ISQ values over the study period, while those from G1 and G3 presented lower ISQ values. The IL-1? concentration increased until month 12 and was independent of IT and bone type; G4 had a higher IL-1? concentration in month 3 than the other groups (p=.015). The TNF-? release was negatively correlated with IT, and TNF-? release was highest in G1 at month 12. The MBL immediately after surgery and the MBC at month 12 were similar between the groups, and G4 presented a positive MBC at month 12. The survival and success rates were 75% for G1, 81.3% for G2, 64.3% for G3, and 95% for G4. Conclusion:The IT did not influence the clinical outcomes and the peri-implant immunoinflammatory responses and was weakly correlated with the narrow dental implants primary stability. The observed success rates suggest that the ideal IT for atrophic fully edentulous patients may deviate from the standardized IT of 32 Ncm.
Project description:Purpose: to investigate the method of action (MOA) of BTK small molecule inhibitor, G7744, in a pre-clinical mouse lupus model (NZB/W F1). Hypothesis: BTK inhibition will affect B cell and myeloid cell pathways. Overall design: There are 5 mice per group. Sample groups: G1: Naive G2: Ad5 IFNa TD day 21 G3: Vehicle HPMC in citrate G4: BTK SMI G7744 100 mg/kg G5: SYK SMI G955 60 mg/kg G6: Anti ragweed IgG2a G7: mBR3 IgG2a G8: Cytoxan. Animals treated for 4 weeks. Samples: Spleen and kidney RNA from groups G1-G8.
Project description:Presepsin is highlighted as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of sepsis. Little information is available regarding the accurate association between presepsin levels and the degree of kidney function. We analyzed presepsin levels in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the categories G1 to G5, evaluated via inulin renal clearance test, and receiving hemodialysis (HD).Patients who were not receiving HD were included if they had undergone inulin renal clearance measurements for the accurate measurement of GFR (measured GFR), and patients who were receiving hemodialysis (HD) were included if they had anuria. Exclusion criteria were infection, cancer, liver disease, autoimmune disorders, or steroid or immunosuppressant use. GFR category was defined as follows; G1: GFR ? 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, G2: GFR = 60 to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, G3: GFR = 30 to 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, G4: GFR = 15 to 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, G5: GFR ? 15 ml/min/1.73 m2.Seventy-one patients were included. The median (IQR) presepsin values of patients in each GFR category were as follows: G1 + G2: 69.8 (60.8-85.9) pg/ml; G3: 107.0 (68.7-150.0) pg/ml; G4: 171.0 (117.0-200.0) pg/ml; G5: 251.0 (213.0-297.5) pg/ml; and HD: 1160.0 (1070.0-1400.0) pg/ml. The log-transformed presepsin values, excluding patients receiving HD, inversely correlated with the measured GFR (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.687, P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that measured GFR and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with elevated presepsin levels.Presepsin levels were markedly high in patients receiving HD, similar to values seen in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In patients who were not receiving HD, presepsin levels increased as GFR decreased. Thus, the evaluation of presepsin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease requires further consideration, and a different cutoff value is needed for diagnosing sepsis in such patients.
Project description:Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are a heterogeneous population and differ in risk of mortality and low extremity amputation (LEA), which complicates clinical decision-making. This study aimed to develop a simple risk scale using decision tree methodology to guide physicians in managing critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients who will benefit from endovascular therapy (EVT).A total of 736 patients with CLI, Rutherford classification (RC) stage ?4, and prior successful EVT were included. Variables significantly associated with LEA by univariate analysis (P?<?.05) were selected and put into classification tree analysis using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model with a dependent variable, amputation, and depth of tree = 3. Four risk groups were generated according to the order of amputation rate. The amputation-free survival (AFS) times between groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier curve with the log-rank test.Patients were classified as high risk for amputation (G4) (WBC counts ?10,000/?l, and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ?130.337); intermediate risk group 1 (G3) (WBC < 10,000/?l and RC stage before EVT > 5); intermediate risk group 2 (G2) (WBC count ? 10,000/?l, and PLR < 130.337) and low-risk group (G1) (WBC < 10,000/?l, RC before EVT ? 5). G2, G3, and G4 risk groups had shorter AFS time (range, 58.7 to 65.5 months) than the G1 risk group (100 months) (P?<?.05). Risk of LEA was significantly higher in the G4, G3, and G2 groups than in the G1 group (P???.05). The G4 group had the highest risk of amputation (odds ratio = 6.84, P?<?.001).This simple risk scale model can help healthcare professionals more easily identify and appropriately treat patients with CLI who are at different levels of risk for LEA following endovascular revascularization.
Project description:1. The total lipid was extracted from BP8/C3H ascites-sarcoma cells with acetone, light petroleum, pyridine and chloroform-methanol successively. Each extract was treated with mild alkali. The alkali-stable lipids from the pyridine and chloroform-methanol extracts, which included the glycolipids, were fractionated on silicic acid and silica gel G columns. 2. The total yield of glycolipid was about 60 mg./100 g. dry wt. of tumour cells, about 0.4% of the total lipid. Four classes of glycolipid were isolated and characterized as ceramide monohexoside (G1), ceramide dihexoside (G2), ceramide trihexoside (G3) and ceramide hexosaminyltrihexoside (G4). 3. G1, G2, G3 and G4 constituted 55, 21, 9 and 15% of the total glycolipid respectively. 4. G1 was a mixture of ceramide glucoside (70%) and ceramide galactoside. 5. The general structures of the oligosaccharide moieties of G2, G3 and G4 were elucidated by partial acid hydrolysis of the glycolipids with water-soluble polystyrenesulphonic acid. G2 was mostly ceramidelactoside with about 10% of ceramide galactosylgalactoside. G3 and G4 were probably a ceramide digalactosylglucoside and a ceramide N-acetylgalactosaminylgalactosylgalactosylglucoside respectively. 6. The fatty acid compositions of the glycolipids were very similar; lignoceric acid and nervonic acid were the major components and all contained monohydroxy acids in proportions varying from 10 to 25% of the total acids.
Project description:AIM:To evaluate the persistence with oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) treatment characterized by drug class, patient characteristics and severity of renal impairment (RI) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This retrospective, observational study extracted data from a large-scale hospital database (April 2008 to September 2016). Patients with T2DM aged ?40?years on the day of their first prescription (index date) of any OAD (biguanides [BGs], thiazolidinediones [TZDs], sulphonylureas [SUs], glinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors, or ?-glucosidase inhibitors [?-GIs]) available between January 1, 2014 and September 30, 2016 were identified. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors were not available at study initiation. Treatment persistence was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Patients were also categorized by RI status using estimated glomerular filtration rate: ?90?mL/min/1.73?m2 (G1); 60 to <90?mL/min/1.73?m2 (G2); 30 to <60?mL/min/1.73?m2 (G3); and?<30?mL/min/1.73?m2 (G4+). RESULTS:We identified 206?406 index dates from 162?116 eligible patients. The largest number of index dates (91634) was observed for DPP-4 inhibitors, followed by BGs, SUs, ?-GIs, glinides and TZDs. Treatment persistence was longest for DPP-4 inhibitors (median 17.0?months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.4-17.5) and BGs (median 17.3?months, 95% CI 16.6-18.2), and shortest for ?-GIs (median 5.6?months, 95% CI 5.4-5.9) and SUs (median 4.3?months, 95% CI 4.2-4.6). Persistence was longest with DPP-4 inhibitors at all RI stages (G1-G4+), followed by BGs at stages G1/G2. CONCLUSIONS:The longest OAD persistence was observed for BGs and DPP-4 inhibitors at RI stages G1/G2, and for DPP-4 inhibitors at RI stages G3/G4+.
Project description:Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease that affects small ruminants and is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This disease is responsible for high economic losses due to condemnation and trim of infected carcasses, decreased leather and wool yield, loss of sales of breeding stock and deaths from internal involvement. Treatment is costly and ineffective; the most cost-effective strategy is timely immunisation. Various vaccine strategies have been tested, and recombinant vaccines are a promising alternative. Thus, in this study, different vaccine formulations using a recombinant protein (rCP40) and the CP09 live recombinant strain were evaluated. Five groups of 10 mice each were immunised with saline (G1), rCP40 (G2), CP09 (G3), a combination of CP09 and rCP40 (G4) and a heterologous prime-boost strategy (G5). Mice received two immunisations within 15 days. On day 30 after primary immunisation, all groups were challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain. Mice were monitored and mortality was recorded for 30 days after challenge.The G2, G4 and G5 groups showed high levels of IgG1 and IgG2a; G2 presented significant IgG2a production after virulent challenge in the absence of IgG1 and IgG3 induction. Thirty days after challenge, the mice survival rates were 20 (G1), 90 (G2), 50 (G3), 70 (G4) and 60% (G5).rCP40 is a promising target in the development of vaccines against caseous lymphadenitis.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:It has been demonstrated in recent studies that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent sleep disorder in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and thus the current study aimed to investigate the influence of OSA on knee extensor torque, pain, stiffness, and physical function in men with low-grade knee OA. METHODS:The study included 60 male volunteers, aged 40 to 70 years, allocated into four groups: Group 1 (G1) Control (n = 15): without OA and without OSA; Group 2 (G2) (n = 15): with OA and without OSA; Group 3 (G3) (n = 15): without OA and with OSA; and Group 4 (G4) (n = 15) with OA and with OSA. All volunteers were examined using knee radiographs and polysomnography, responded to the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire, and completed a test on an isokinetic dynamometer to evaluate peak isometric knee extensor torque, both concentric and eccentric (90°/s and 180°/s). RESULTS:Regarding the data from the WOMAC questionnaire (for pain, stiffness, and physical function), it was observed that G4 showed higher values compared to G1 or G3. For the concentric isometric and isokinetic peak knee extensor torque, lower values were observed in G4 compared to G1 or G3. CONCLUSIONS:Patients who have knee OA in the early grades, when associated with OSA, have higher changes of the peak extensor torque, pain, stiffness, and physical function, compared with patients who did not have OSA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01422967, Title: Changes Of Sleep on the Sensoriomotor and Cytokine In Patients With Osteoarthritis, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01422967.