Chronic sleep restriction in the rotenone Parkinson's disease model in rats reveals peripheral early-phase biomarkers.
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic disorder that presents a range of premotor signs, such as sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which are key non-motor features of the disease. Increasing evidence of a possible association between sleep disruption and the neurodegenerative process suggests that sleep impairment could produce a detectable metabolic signature on the disease. In order to integrate neurocognitive and metabolic parameters, we performed untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling of the rotenone PD model in a chronic sleep restriction (SR) (6 h/day for 21 days) condition. We found that SR combined with PD altered several behavioural (reversal of locomotor activity impairment; cognitive impairment; delay of rest-activity rhythm) and metabolic parameters (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan pathway, phenylalanine, and lipoproteins, pointing to mitochondrial impairment). If combined, our results bring a plethora of parameters that represents reliable early-phase PD biomarkers which can easily be measured and could be translated to human studies.
Project description:Olfactory and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deficits are commonly found in untreated subjects with a recent diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Additionally, different studies report declines in olfactory performance during a short period of sleep deprivation. Mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations are poorly understood, and impairment of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the olfactory bulb and the nigrostriatal pathway may have important roles in olfaction and REM sleep disturbances. Therefore, we hypothesized that modulation of the dopaminergic D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the olfactory deficits in PD and REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). We decided to investigate the olfactory, neurochemical, and histological alterations generated through the administration of piribedil (a selective D2 agonist) or raclopride (a selective D2 antagonist) within the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, in rats subjected to intranigral rotenone and REMSD. Our findings provide evidence of the occurrence of a negative correlation (r = -0.52, P = 0.04) between the number of periglomerular TH-ir neurons and the bulbar levels of DA in the rotenone, but not sham, groups. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.34, P = 0.03) was observed between nigrostriatal DA levels and olfactory discrimination index (DI) for the sham groups, indicating that increased DA levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are associated with enhanced olfactory discrimination performance. Also, increased levels in bulbar and striatal DA were induced by piribedil in the rotenone control and rotenone REMSD groups, consistent with reductions in the DI. The present evidence reinforce the idea that DA produced by periglomerular neurons, particularly the bulbar dopaminergic D2 receptors, is an essential participant in olfactory discrimination processes, as the SNpc, and the striatum.
Project description:The systemic rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) accurately replicates many aspects of the pathology of human PD and has provided insights into the pathogenesis of PD. The major limitation of the rotenone model has been its variability, both in terms of the percentage of animals that develop a clear-cut nigrostriatal lesion and the extent of that lesion. The goal here was to develop an improved and highly reproducible rotenone model of PD. In these studies, male Lewis rats in three age groups (3, 7 or 12-14 months) were administered rotenone (2.75 or 3.0 mg/kg/day) in a specialized vehicle by daily intraperitoneal injection. All rotenone-treated animals developed bradykinesia, postural instability, and/or rigidity, which were reversed by apomorphine, consistent with a lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Animals were sacrificed when the PD phenotype became debilitating. Rotenone treatment caused a 45% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons and a commensurate loss of striatal dopamine. Additionally, in rotenone-treated animals, alpha-synuclein and poly-ubiquitin positive aggregates were observed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. In summary, this version of the rotenone model is highly reproducible and may provide an excellent tool to test new neuroprotective strategies.
Project description:Complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors are widely believed to underlie the incidence and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone is a naturally occurring metabolic toxin employed as an insecticide and piscicide identified as a risk factor for the development of PD in agricultural workers. The Nlrp3 inflammasome is an intracellular mediator that can initiate an inflammatory cascade in response to cellular stress. Reports by others indicating that NLRP3 expression was detectable in tissues obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients and that the PD-associated protein ?-synuclein could activate inflammasomes in cultured glial cells, prompted us to test the prediction that Nlrp3 was required for the development of Parkinson's-like changes resulting from rotenone exposure in mice. We exposed wild type and Nlrp3-/- mice to chronic low doses of intragastric rotenone and conducted longitudinal behavioral and serum cytokine analysis followed by evaluation of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative endpoints in brain tissues. We observed progressive rotenone-dependent changes in serum cytokine levels and circulating leukocytes in wild type mice not observed in Nlrp3-/- mice. Analysis of brain tissues revealed Nlrp3-dependent neuroinflammation and nigral cell loss in mice exposed to rotenone as compared with mice exposed to vehicle alone. Together, our findings provide compelling evidence of a role for Nlrp3 in nigral degeneration and neuroinflammation resulting from systemic rotenone exposure and suggest that the suppression of NLRP3 activity may be a rational neuroprotective strategy for toxin-associated PD.
Project description:Daytime and nighttime sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about the interdependence of these non-motor complications. Thus, we examined the relationships among excessive daytime sleepiness, nighttime sleep quality and cognitive impairment in PD, including severity and specific cognitive deficits.Ninety-three PD patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients were classified as having normal cognition (PD-NC), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), or dementia (PDD) using recently proposed Movement Disorder Society PD-MCI and PDD criteria. Relationships between the sleep and cognitive measures and PD cognitive groups were examined.The PD cohort included PD-NC (n = 28), PD-MCI (n = 40), and PDD (n = 25) patients. ESS scores, as a measure of daytime sleepiness, were significantly worse (p = 0.005) in cognitively impaired PD patients, particularly PDD patients. ESS scores correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores and also with cognitive domain scores for attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and visuospatial function. In contrast, PSQI scores, as a measure of nighttime sleep quality, neither differed among cognitive groups nor correlated with any cognitive measures.Daytime sleepiness in PD, but not nighttime sleep problems, is associated with cognitive impairment in PD, especially in the setting of dementia, and attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and visuospatial deficits. The presence of nighttime sleep problems is pervasive across the PD cognitive spectrum, from normal cognition to dementia, and is not independently associated with cognitive impairment or deficits in cognitive domains.
Project description:Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are the most common sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify whether RBD could alleviate OSA severity in PD patients and its effect on cognitive impairment.From February 2014 to May 2017, we recruited 174 PD patients from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, all of whom underwent polysomnography (PSG). We collected clinical data, PSG results, and compared information between patients with and without RBD or OSA by analysis of covariance. We also investigated the effect of these sleep disorders on cognitive impairment using linear regression.We grouped participants as follows: PD only (n = 53), PD + OSA (n = 29), PD + RBD (n = 61), and PD + RBD + OSA (n = 31). Minimum oxygen saturation (SaO2) during whole sleep and in REM sleep was higher in PD + RBD + OSA patients than that in PD + OSA patients. PD + RBD patients had worse Mini-Mental Status Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores than those in the PD group (P < 0.001), especially in visuospatial/executive, attention, and memory functions. The PD + OSA group performed worse than the PD group in the delayed recall domain. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, education, disease severity, and other sleep disorders, MoCA was negatively associated with OSA (? = -0.736, P = 0.043) and RBD (? = -2.575,P < 0.001). The severity of RBD (tonic/phasic electromyography activity) and OSA (apnea-hypopnea index/oxygen desaturation index/minimum SaO2) were also associated with MoCA. The adjusted ? values of RBD-related parameters were higher than that for OSA.We found that RBD alleviated OSA severity; however, RBD and OSA together exacerbated PD cognitive impairment. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether OSA treatment can improve cognition in PD.
Project description:Pesticides, such as rotenone and paraquat, are suspected in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), whose hallmark is the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Thus, compounds expected to play a role in the pathogenesis of PD will likely impact the function of dopaminergic neurons. To explore the relationship between pesticide exposure and dopaminergic toxicity, we developed a custom-tailored mathematical model of dopamine metabolism and utilized it to infer potential mechanisms underlying the toxicity of rotenone and paraquat, asking how these pesticides perturb specific processes. We performed two types of analyses, which are conceptually different and complement each other. The first analysis, a purely algebraic reverse engineering approach, analytically and deterministically computes the altered profile of enzyme activities that characterize the effects of a pesticide. The second method consists of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that statistically reveal possible mechanisms of pesticides. The results from the reverse engineering approach show that rotenone and paraquat exposures lead to distinctly different flux perturbations. Rotenone seems to affect all fluxes associated with dopamine compartmentalization, whereas paraquat exposure perturbs fluxes associated with dopamine and its breakdown metabolites. The statistical results of the Monte-Carlo analysis suggest several specific mechanisms. The findings are interesting, because no a priori assumptions are made regarding specific pesticide actions, and all parameters characterizing the processes in the dopamine model are treated in an unbiased manner. Our results show how approaches from computational systems biology can help identify mechanisms underlying the toxicity of pesticide exposure.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) for several decades, and disturbed mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) was recently found to be a common phenomenon in PD. Baicalein, a major bioactive flavone of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, exerted neuroprotective effects in several experimental PD models. However, the effects of baicalein in rotenone-induced PD rats and the possible mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of baicalein and explored its mechanism of action in rotenone-induced PD models. The results indicated that behavioural impairments and the depletion of dopaminergic neurons induced by rotenone were attenuated by baicalein. Furthermore, in rotenone-induced parkinsonian rats, baicalein treatment effectively restored mitochondrial function and improved mitobiogenesis, as determined by measuring the mitochondrial density and key regulators involved in mitobiogenesis. Additionally, we confirmed that baicalein enhanced mitobiogenesis through the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) pathways in rotenone-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that the cytoprotective effects of baicalein could be attenuated by the mitobiogenesis inhibitor chloramphenicol as well as CREB siRNA transfection. Overall, our results suggested that baicalein partially enhanced mitobiogenesis to restore mitochondrial function, thus exerting therapeutic effects in rotenone-induced PD models.
Project description:Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility in PD include early satiety and weight loss from delayed gastric emptying and constipation from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the parkinsonian neurotoxin and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone causes delayed gastric emptying and enteric neuronal dysfunction when administered chronically to rats in the absence of major motor dysfunction or CNS pathology. When examined 22-28 days after initiation of rotenone infusion by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day), 45% of rotenone-treated rats had a profound delay in gastric emptying. Electrophysiological recording of neurally-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from rotenone-treated animals confirmed an enteric inhibitory defect associated with rotenone treatment. Rotenone also induced a transient decrease in stool frequency that was associated with weight loss and decreased food and water intake. Pathologically, no alterations in enteric neuron numbers or morphology were apparent in rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that enteric inhibitory neurons may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of mitochondrial inhibition by parkinsonian neurotoxins and provide evidence that parkinsonian gastrointestinal abnormalities can be modeled in rodents.
Project description:Many studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction, complex I inhibition in particular, is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone, a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been shown to produce neurodegeneration in rats as well as in many cellular models that closely resemble PD. However, the mechanisms through which complex I dysfunction might produce neurotoxicity are as yet unknown. A comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial protein expression profile affected by rotenone can provide important insight into the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD.Here, we present our findings using a recently developed proteomic technology called SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) combined with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the mitochondrial protein profiles of MES cells (a dopaminergic cell line) exposed to rotenone versus control. We identified 1722 proteins, 950 of which are already designated as mitochondrial proteins based on database search. Among these 950 mitochondrial proteins, 110 displayed significant changes in relative abundance after rotenone treatment. Five of these selected proteins were further validated for their cellular location and/or treatment effect of rotenone. Among them, two were confirmed by confocal microscopy for mitochondrial localization and three were confirmed by Western blotting (WB) for their regulation by rotenone.Our findings represent the first report of these mitochondrial proteins affected by rotenone; further characterization of these proteins may shed more light on PD pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons leading to dopamine depletion and problems of movement, emotions, and cognition. While the pathogenesis of PD is not clear, damage of dopaminergic neurons by oxygen-derived free radicals is considered an important contributing mechanism. This study aimed to evaluate the role of treadmill exercise in male Wister rats as a single treatment and as an aid-therapy with L-dopa for rotenone-induced PD. To study the role of the Nrf2- ARE pathway as a mechanism involved in exercise-associated improvement in rotenone-induced PD in rats. METHOD:Animals were divided into 5 groups, (Control, rotenone, rotenone\exercise, rotenone\L-dopa, and rotenone\exercise\L-dopa (combination)groups). After the PD induction, rats in the rotenone\exercise and combination groups were daily treadmill exercised for 4 weeks. RESULTS:Treadmill exercise significantly improved behavioral and motor aspects of rotenone-induced PD. When treadmill exercise was introduced as a single intervention, it amended most behavioral aspects of PD, gait fully corrected, short-term memory, and motor coordination. Where L-dopa corrected locomotor activity and motor coordination but failed to improve short-term memory and only partially corrected the gait of rotenone-treated rats. When treadmill exercise was combined with L-dopa, all features of PD were corrected. It was found that exercise upregulated some of its associative genes to Nrf2 pathways such as TFAM, Nrf2 and NQO.1 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that forced exercise improved parkinsonian like features by activating the Nrf2 pathway.