L-PGDS-produced PGD2 in premature, but not in mature, adipocytes increases obesity and insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT: Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 in adipocytes and is selectively induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD on obesity and insulin resistance in two distinct types of adipose-specific L-PGDS gene knockout (KO) mice: fatty acid binding protein 4 (fabp4, aP2)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox and adiponectin (AdipoQ)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. The L-PGDS gene was deleted in adipocytes in the premature stage of the former strain and after maturation of the latter strain. The L-PGDS expression and PGD2 production levels decreased in white adipose tissue (WAT) under HFD conditions only in the aP2-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice, but were unchanged in the AdipoQ-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. When fed an HFD, aP2-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice significantly reduced body weight gain, adipocyte size, and serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In WAT of the HFD-fed aP2-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice, the expression levels of the adipogenic, lipogenic, and M1 macrophage marker genes were decreased, whereas those of the lipolytic and M2 macrophage marker genes were enhanced or unchanged. Insulin sensitivity was improved in the HFD-fed aP2-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. These results indicate that PGD2 produced by L-PGDS in premature adipocytes is involved in the regulation of body weight gain and insulin resistance under nutrient-dense conditions.
Project description:Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is highly expressed in adipose tissues. Thus, the effect of adipose tissue PLTP on plasma lipoprotein metabolism was examined.We crossed PLTP-Flox-?Neo and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2)-Cre recombinase (Cre) transgenic mice to create PLTP-Flox-?Neo/aP2-Cre mice that have a 90 and a 60% reduction in PLTP mRNA in adipose tissue and macrophages, respectively. PLTP ablation resulted in a significant reduction in plasma PLTP activity (22%), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (21%), high-density lipoprotein-phospholipid (20%), and apolipoprotein A-I (33%) levels, but had no effect on nonhigh-density lipoprotein levels in comparison with those of PLTP-Flox-?Neo controls. To eliminate possible effects of PLTP ablation by macrophages, we lethally irradiated PLTP-Flox-?Neo/aP2-Cre mice and PLTP-Flox-?Neo mice, and then transplanted wild-type mouse bone marrow into them to create wild-type?PLTP-Flox-?Neo/aP2-Cre and wild-type?PLTP-Flox-?Neo mice. Thus, we constructed a mouse model (wild-type?PLTP-Flox-?Neo/aP2-Cre) with PLTP deficiency in adipocytes but not in macrophages. These knockout mice also showed significant decreases in plasma PLTP activity (19%) and cholesterol (18%), phospholipid (17%), and apolipoprotein A-I (26%) levels. To further investigate the mechanisms behind the reduction in plasma apolipoprotein A-I and high-density lipoprotein lipids, we measured apolipoprotein A-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in adipose tissue explants and found that endogenous and exogenous PLTP significantly increased cholesterol efflux from the explants.Adipocyte PLTP plays a small but significant role in plasma PLTP activity and promotes cholesterol efflux from adipose tissues.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>To directly assess the role of beta cell lipolysis in insulin secretion and whole-body energy homeostasis, inducible beta cell-specific adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient (B-Atgl-KO) mice were studied under normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions.<h4>Methods</h4>Atgl <sup>flox/flox</sup> mice were cross-bred with Mip-Cre-ERT mice to generate Mip-Cre-ERT<sup>/+</sup>;Atgl <sup>flox/flox</sup> mice. At 8 weeks of age, these mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce deletion of beta cell-specific Atgl (also known as Pnpla2), and the mice were fed an ND or HFD.<h4>Results</h4>ND-fed male B-Atgl-KO mice showed decreased insulinaemia and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS) in vivo. Changes in GSIS correlated with the islet content of long-chain saturated monoacylglycerol (MAG) species that have been proposed to be metabolic coupling factors for insulin secretion. Exogenous MAGs restored GSIS in B-Atgl-KO islets. B-Atgl-KO male mice fed an HFD showed reduced insulinaemia, glycaemia in the fasted and fed states and after glucose challenge, as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, decreased insulinaemia in B-Atgl-KO mice was associated with increased energy expenditure, and lipid metabolism in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues, leading to reduced fat mass and body weight.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>ATGL in beta cells regulates insulin secretion via the production of signalling MAGs. Decreased insulinaemia due to lowered GSIS protects B-Atgl-KO mice from diet-induced obesity, improves insulin sensitivity, increases lipid mobilisation from WAT and causes BAT activation. The results support the concept that fuel excess can drive obesity and diabetes via hyperinsulinaemia, and that an islet beta cell ATGL-lipolysis/adipose tissue axis controls energy homeostasis and body weight via insulin secretion.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neuroinflammation is a key pathological component of neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by microglial activation and the secretion of proinflammatory mediators. We previously reported that a surge in prostaglandin D<sub>2</sub> (PGD<sub>2</sub>) production and PGD<sub>2</sub>-induced microglial activation could provoke neuroinflammation. We also reported that a lipid sensor GPR120 (free fatty acid receptor 4), which is expressed in intestine, could be activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), thereby mediating secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Dysfunction of GPR120 results in obesity in both mice and humans.<h4>Methods</h4>To reveal the relationship between PGD<sub>2</sub>-microglia-provoked neuroinflammation and intestinal PUFA/GPR120 signaling, we investigated neuroinflammation and neuronal function with gene and protein expression, histological, and behavioral analysis in GPR120 knockout (KO) mice.<h4>Results</h4>In the current study, we discovered notable neuroinflammation (increased PGD<sub>2</sub> production and microglial activation) and neurodegeneration (declines in neurogenesis, hippocampal volume, and cognitive function) in GPR120 KO mice. We also found that Hematopoietic-prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) was expressed in microglia, microglia were activated by PGD<sub>2</sub>, H-PGDS expression was upregulated in GPR120 KO hippocampus, and inhibition of PGD<sub>2</sub> production attenuated this neuroinflammation. GPR120 KO mice exhibited reduced intestinal, plasma, and intracerebral GLP-1 contents. Peripheral administration of a GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, reduced PGD<sub>2</sub>-microglia-provoked neuroinflammation and further neurodegeneration in GPR120 KO mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that neurological phenotypes in GPR120 KO mice are probably caused by dysfunction of intestinal GPR120. These observations raise the possibility that intestinal GLP-1 secretion, stimulated by intestinal GPR120, may remotely contributed to suppress PGD<sub>2</sub>-microglia-provoked neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The contribution of beta-cell dysfunction to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not restricted to insulinopenia in the late stages of the disease. Elevated fasting insulinemia in normoglycemic humans is a major factor predicting the onset of insulin resistance and T2D, demonstrating an early alteration of beta-cell function in T2D. Moreover, an early and chronic increase in fasting insulinemia contributes to insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, whether there are genetic factors that promote beta-cell-initiated insulin resistance remains undefined. Human variants of the mitochondrial transporter ABCB10, which regulates redox by increasing bilirubin synthesis, have been associated with an elevated risk of T2D. The effects of T2D ABCB10 variants on ABCB10 expression and the actions of ABCB10 in beta-cells are unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>The expression of beta-cell ABCB10 was analyzed in published transcriptome datasets from human beta-cells carrying the T2D-risk ABCB10 variant. Insulin sensitivity, beta-cell proliferation, and secretory function were measured in beta-cell-specific ABCB10 KO mice (Ins1<sup>Cre</sup>-Abcb10<sup>flox/flox</sup>). The short-term role of beta-cell ABCB10 activity on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was determined in isolated islets.<h4>Results</h4>Carrying the T2Drisk allele G of ABCB10 rs348330 variant was associated with increased ABCB10 expression in human beta-cells. Constitutive deletion of Abcb10 in beta-cells protected mice from hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance by limiting HFD-induced beta-cell expansion. An early limitation in GSIS and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-mediated signaling caused by elevated ABCB10 activity can initiate an over-compensatory expansion of beta-cell mass in response to HFD. Accordingly, increasing ABCB10 expression was sufficient to limit GSIS capacity. In health, ABCB10 protein was decreased during islet maturation, with maturation restricting beta-cell proliferation and elevating GSIS. Finally, ex-vivo and short-term deletion of ABCB10 in islets isolated from HFD-fed mice increased H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and GSIS, which was reversed by bilirubin treatments.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Beta-cell ABCB10 is required for HFD to induce insulin resistance in mice by amplifying beta-cell mass expansion to maladaptive levels that cause fasting hyperinsulinemia.
Project description:Growing evidence demonstrates the important role of microRNAs (miRs) in regulating adipogenesis, obesity and insulin resistance. The miR-200b/a/429 cluster has been functionally characterized in mammalian reproduction; however, the potential role of the miR-200 family in adipocytes is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the physiological function of miR-200b/a/429 in the regulation of whole-body metabolism in terms of the activities and targets of this cluster in adipocytes. We generated adipocyte-specific miR-200b/a/429 knockout (ASKO) mice using a Cre-loxP system in which Cre expression was driven by the aP2 promoter. The ASKO and wild type (WT) littermate were fed a chow diet (CD) or high-fat-diet (HFD), and changes in body composition, metabolic parameters, energy homeostasis, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were analyzed. The miR-200b/a/429 putative target genes were predicted and validated via luciferase reporter assays. We found that the HFD-fed ASKO mice gradually gained more body weight than the WT mice due to the increased adiposity. Decreased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were also observed in the HFD-fed ASKO mice. Notably, the down-regulation of lipolysis-related genes and the decreased response to CL-316,243 stimulation in the HFD-fed ASKO mice suggested that these animals exhibited impaired lipolysis. In addition, the HFD-fed ASKO mice displayed impaired energy expenditure, indicating that the miR-200b/a/429 cluster is essential for developing adaptive responses to stressors such as HFD. For the first time, our studies demonstrated the essential role of miR-200b/a/429 in adipocytes in the regulation of HFD-induced whole-body metabolic changes.
Project description:Injection of nanomolar amounts of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) into the rat brain has dose and time-dependent somnogenic effects, and the PGD2-induced sleep is indistinguishable from physiologic sleep. Sleep-inducing PGD2 is produced in the brain by lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (LPGDS). Three potential intracranial sources of LPGDS have been identified: oligodendrocytes, choroid plexus, and leptomeninges. We aimed at the identification of the site of synthesis of somnogenic PGD2 and therefore, generated a transgenic mouse line with the LPGDS gene amenable to conditional deletion using Cre recombinase (flox-LPGDS mouse). To identify the cell type responsible for producing somnogenic PGD2, we engineered animals lacking LPGDS expression specifically in oligodendrocytes (OD-LPGDS KO), choroid plexus (CP-LPGDS KO), or leptomeninges (LM-LPGDS KO). We measured prostaglandins and LPGDS concentrations together with PGD synthase activity in the brain of these mice. While the LPGDS amount and PGD synthase activity were drastically reduced in the OD- and LM-LPGDS KO mice, they were unchanged in the CP-LPGDS KO mice compared with control animals. We then recorded electroencephalograms, electromyograms, and locomotor activity to measure sleep in 10-week-old mice with specific knockdown of LPGDS in each of the three targets. Using selenium tetrachloride, a specific PGDS inhibitor, we demonstrated that sleep is inhibited in OD-LPGDS and CP-LPGDS KO mice, but not in the LM-LPGDS KO mice. We concluded that somnogenic PGD2 is produced primarily by the leptomeninges, and not by oligodendrocytes or choroid plexus.
Project description:It is well established that prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in tumor angiogenesis and growth, yet the role of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) remains virtually unknown. Here, we show that host hematopoietic PGD(2) synthase (H-PGDS) deficiency enhances Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) progression, accompanied by increased vascular leakage, angiogenesis, and monocyte/mast cell infiltration. This deficiency can be rescued by hematopoietic reconstitution with bone marrow from H-PGDS-naive (WT) mice. In tumors on WT mice, c-kit(+) mast cells highly express H-PGDS. Host H-PGDS deficiency markedly up-regulated the expression of proangiogenic factors, including TNF-? in the tumor. In mast cell-null Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice, adoptive transfer of H-PGDS-deficient mast cells causes stronger acceleration in tumor angiogenesis and growth than in WT mast cells. In response to LLC growth, H-PGDS-deficient mast cells produce TNF-? excessively. This response is suppressed by the administration of a synthetic PGD(2) receptor agonist or a degradation product of PGD(2), 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ(2). Additional TNF-? deficiency partially counteracts the tumorigenic properties seen in H-PGDS-deficient mast cells. These observations identify PGD(2) as a mast cell-derived antiangiogenic factor in expanding solid tumors. Mast cell-derived PGD(2) governs the tumor microenvironment by restricting excessive responses to vascular permeability and TNF-? production.
Project description:Ghrelin via its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases food intake and adiposity. The tissue-specific functions of GHS-R in peripheral tissues are mostly unknown. We previously reported that while GHS-R expression is very low in white and brown fat of young mice, expression increases during aging. To investigate whether GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in adipose tissues, we generated aP2-Cre-mediated GHS-R knockdown mice (aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f). We studied young (5?6 months) and old (15?17 months) aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f mice and their age-matched controls. Interestingly, young aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f mice had normal body weight but reduced fat; old mice showed pronounced reductions of both body weight and body fat. Calorimetry analysis revealed that aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f mice had normal food intake and locomotor activity at both young and old age; but intriguingly, while energy expenditure was normal at young age, it was significantly increased at old age. Both young and old aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f mice exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Importantly, old aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f mice maintained higher core body temperature at 4 °C, and showed higher expression of the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene. The ex vivo studies further demonstrated that GHS-R deficient white adipocytes from old mice exhibit increased glucose uptake and lipolysis, promoting lipid mobilization. Despite the fact that the in vivo phenotypes of aP2-Cre/Ghsrf/f mice may not be exclusively determined by GHS-R knockdown in adipose tissues, our data support that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in adipocytes. The anabolic effect of GHS-R in adipocytes is more pronounced in aging, which likely contributes to age-associated obesity and insulin resistance.
Project description:Urinary excretion of lipocalin-type PGD(2) synthase (L-PGDS), which converts PG H(2) to PGD(2), increases in early diabetic nephropathy. In addition, L-PGDS expression in the tubular epithelium increases in adriamycin-induced nephropathy, suggesting that locally produced L-PGDS may promote the development of CKD. In this study, we found that L-PGDS-derived PGD(2) contributes to the progression of renal fibrosis via CRTH2-mediated activation of Th2 lymphocytes. In a mouse model, the tubular epithelium synthesized L-PGDS de novo after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). L-PGDS-knockout mice and CRTH2-knockout mice both exhibited less renal fibrosis, reduced infiltration of Th2 lymphocytes into the cortex, and decreased production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Furthermore, oral administration of a CRTH2 antagonist, beginning 3 days after UUO, suppressed the progression of renal fibrosis. Ablation of IL-4 and IL-13 also ameliorated renal fibrosis in the UUO kidney. Taken together, these data suggest that blocking the activation of CRTH2 by PGD(2) might be a strategy to slow the progression of renal fibrosis in CKD.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Expansion of adipose tissue during obesity through the recruitment of newly generated adipocytes (hyperplasia) is metabolically healthy, whereas that through the enlargement of pre-existing adipocytes (hypertrophy) leads to metabolic complications. Accumulating evidence from genetic fate mapping studies suggests that in animal models receiving a high-fat diet (HFD), only adipocyte progenitors (APs) in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) have proliferative potential. However, the proliferative potential and differentiating capacity of APs in the inguinal WAT (iWAT) of male mice remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the proliferative and adipogenic potential of APs in the iWAT of HFD-fed male mice.<h4>Methods</h4>We generated PDGFRα-GFP-Cre-ER<sup>T2</sup>/tdTomato (KI/td) mice and traced PDGFRα-positive APs in male mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. We performed a comprehensive phenotypic analysis, including the histology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and gene expression analysis, of KI/td mice fed HFD.<h4>Results</h4>Contrary to the findings of others, we found an increased number of newly generated tdTomato<sup>+</sup> adipocytes in the iWAT of male mice, which was smaller than that observed in the gWAT. We found that in male mice, the iWAT has more proliferating tdTomato<sup>+</sup> APs than the gWAT. We also found that tdTomato<sup>+</sup> APs showed a higher expression of Dpp4 and Pi16 than tdTomato<sup>-</sup> APs, and the expression of these genes was significantly higher in the iWAT than in the gWAT of mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Collectively, our results reveal that HFD feeding induces the proliferation of tdTomato<sup>+</sup> APs in the iWAT of male mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In male mice, compared with gWAT, iWAT undergoes hyperplasia in response to 8 weeks of HFD feeding through the recruitment of newly generated adipocytes due to an abundance of APs with a high potential for proliferation and differentiation.