Thrombin-induced platelet activation via PAR4: pivotal role for exosite II.
ABSTRACT: Thrombin-induced platelet activation via PAR1 and PAR4 is an important event in haemostasis. Although the underlying mechanisms responsible for ensuring efficient PAR1 activation by thrombin have been extensively studied, the potential involvement of recognitions sites outside the active site of the protease in thrombin-induced PAR4 activation is largely unknown. In this study, we developed a new assay to assess the importance of exosite I and II for PAR4 activation with ? - and ?-thrombin. Surprisingly, we found that exosite II is critical for activation of PAR4. We also show that this dependency on exosite II likely represents a new mechanism, as it is unaffected by blockage of the previously known interaction between thrombin and glycoprotein Ib?.
Project description:Thrombin activation of human platelets is mediated by the high-affinity PAR1 (protease-activated receptor-1) and the low-affinity PAR4 receptor. PAR1 and PAR4 exhibit markedly disparate kinetics of activation that likely reflect differences in the macromolecular association of thrombin with their respective N-terminal extracellular domains (exodomains). Here we examine the mechanism of initial thrombin binding and cleavage of the high- and low-affinity PAR exodomains using steady-state kinetic analyses. We showed that the PAR4 exodomain lacks the functional hirudin-like sequence found in PAR1 and does not bind exosite I to cause allosteric activation or inhibition of thrombin. Instead, PAR4 contains an anionic cluster, Asp(57)...Asp(59) ...Glu(62)...Asp(65) (DDED), in its exodomain, which slows the dissociation of PAR4 from the cationic thrombin. The analogous anionic residues in the PAR1 exodomain do not influence affinity for thrombin. Although PAR4 is cleaved more slowly than PAR1 on the cell surface, peptides containing the PAR4 P(4)-P(1) active-site-interacting sequence, Pro(45)-Ala-Pro-Arg (PAPR), are efficiently cleaved due to the optimal placement of dual prolines at positions P(4) and P(2). In comparison, thrombin has low affinity and slow cleavage rates for peptides that have a P(3) proline as occurs in human PAR3. Thus, to compensate for the lack of exosite I binding, PAR4 utilizes proline residues in its P(4)-P(1) sequence to provide high-affinity interactions with the active site and an anionic cluster to slow dissociation from the cationic thrombin.
Project description:Thrombin activates human platelets via 2 protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 and PAR4, both of which are antithrombotic drug targets: a PAR1 inhibitor is approved for clinical use, and a PAR4 inhibitor is in trial. However, a common sequence variant in human PAR4 (rs773902, encoding Thr120 in place of Ala120) renders the receptor more sensitive to agonists and less sensitive to antagonists. Here, we develop the first human monoclonal function-blocking antibody to human PAR4 and show it provides equivalent efficacy against the Ala120 and Thr120 PAR4 variants. This candidate was generated from a panel of anti-PAR4 antibodies, was found to bind PAR4 with affinity (KD ? 0.4 nM) and selectivity (no detectable binding to any of PAR1, PAR2, or PAR3), and is capable of near-complete inhibition of thrombin cleavage of either the Ala120 or Thr120 PAR4 variant. Platelets from individuals expressing the Thr120 PAR4 variant exhibit increased thrombin-induced aggregation and phosphatidylserine exposure vs those with the Ala120 PAR4 variant, yet the PAR4 antibody inhibited these responses equivalently (50% inhibitory concentration, 4.3 vs 3.2 µg/mL against Ala120 and Thr120, respectively). Further, the antibody significantly impairs platelet procoagulant activity in an ex vivo thrombosis assay, with equivalent inhibition of fibrin formation and overall thrombus size in blood from individuals expressing the Ala120 or Thr120 PAR4 variant. These findings reveal antibody-mediated inhibition of PAR4 cleavage and activation provides robust antithrombotic activity independent of the rs773902 PAR4 sequence variant and provides rationale for such an approach for antithrombotic therapy targeting this receptor.
Project description:Regulation of platelet activation plays a central role in hemostasis and pathophysiological processes such as coronary artery disease. Thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets. Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, PAR1 and PAR4, both of which signal platelet activation. Evidence is lacking on the mechanism by which PAR1 and PAR4 may differentially signal platelet aggregation. Here we show that at the relatively high concentration of agonist most likely found at the site of a local thrombus, dual inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor and calcium mobilization result in a complete inhibition of PAR4-induced aggregation, while having no effect on either thrombin or PAR1-mediated platelet aggregation. Both PAR1- and PAR4mediated aggregation are independent of calcium mobilization. Furthermore, we show that P2Y12 receptor activation is not required for protease-activated receptor-mediated aggregation at higher agonist concentrations and is only partially required for Rap1 as well as GPIIbIIIa activation. P2Y12 receptor inhibitors clinically in use such as clopidogrel are postulated to decrease platelet aggregation through partial inhibition of PAR1 signaling. Our data, however, indicate that at high local concentrations of thrombin, it is the signaling through PAR4 rather than PAR1 that may be regulated through purinergic feedback. Thus, our data identify an intra-platelet mechanism that may function as a future site for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Investigations determined the critical amino acids for alpha-thrombin's interaction with protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4, respectively) at the thrombin cleavage site. Recombinant PAR1 wild-type (wt) exodomain was cleaved by alpha-thrombin with a Km of 28 microM, a kcat of 340 s-1, and a kcat/Km of 1.2 x 10(7). When the P4 or P2 position was mutated to alanine, PAR1-L38A or PAR1-P40A, respectively, the Km was unchanged, 29 or 23 microM, respectively; however, the kcat and kcat/Km were reduced in each case. In contrast, when Asp39 at P3 was mutated to alanine, PAR1-D39A, Km and kcat were both reduced approximately 3-fold, making the kcat/Km the same as that of PAR1-wt exodomain. Recombinant PAR4-wt exodomain was cleaved by alpha-thrombin with a Km of 61 microM, a kcat of 17 s-1, and a kcat/Km of 2.8 x 10(5). When the P5 or P4 position was mutated to alanine, PAR4-L43A or PAR4-P44A, respectively, there was no change in the Km (69 or 56 microM, respectively); however, the kcat was lowered in each case (9.7 or 7.7 s-1, respectively). Mutation of the P2 position (PAR4-P46A) also had no effect on the Km but markedly lowered the kcat and kcat/Km approximately 35-fold. PAR1-wt exodomain and P4 and P3 mutants were noncompetitive inhibitors of alpha-thrombin hydrolyzing Sar-Pro-Arg-pNA. However, PAR1-P40A displayed a mixed type of inhibition. Mutation of P4, P3, or P2 had no effect on the Ki. All PAR4 exodomains were competitive inhibitors of alpha-thrombin. Mutation of P5, P4, or P2 had no effect on the Ki. These investigations show that Leu at P4 in PAR1 or P5 in PAR4 critically influences the kinetics of alpha-thrombin binding and cleavage of PAR1 and PAR4 exodomains. It also implies that factors other than the hirudin-like binding region on PAR1 exodomain predominate in influencing PAR1 cleavage on cells.
Project description:With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)-stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP-mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP-mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP-mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP-stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP-stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP-mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP-mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders.
Project description:It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi.
Project description:Platelets are essential for maintaining haemostasis and play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Upon ligation of platelet receptors through subendothelial matrix proteins, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, further amplifying the platelet activation response. Thrombin, a potent platelet activator, can signal through GPIb? and protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 on human platelets, and recently has been implicated in the generation of ROS. While ROS are known to have key roles in intra-platelet signalling and subsequent platelet activation, the precise receptors and signalling pathways involved in thrombin-induced ROS generation have yet to be fully elucidated.To investigate the relative contribution of platelet GPIb? and PARs to thrombin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.Highly specific antagonists targeting PAR1 and PAR4, and the GPIb?-cleaving enzyme, Naja kaouthia (Nk) protease, were used in quantitative flow cytometry assays of thrombin-induced ROS production. Antagonists of PAR4 but not PAR1, inhibited thrombin-derived ROS generation. Removal of the GPIb? ligand binding region attenuated PAR4-induced and completely inhibited thrombin-induced ROS formation. Similarly, PAR4 deficiency in mice abolished thrombin-induced ROS generation. Additionally, GPIb? and PAR4-dependent ROS formation were shown to be mediated through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) proteins.Both GPIb? and PAR4 are required for thrombin-induced ROS formation, suggesting a novel functional cooperation between GPIb? and PAR4. Our study identifies a novel role for PAR4 in mediating thrombin-induced ROS production that was not shared by PAR1. This suggests an independent signalling pathway in platelet activation that may be targeted therapeutically.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Activation of human platelets by thrombin is mediated predominately through two proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 and PAR4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition leads to reversible PAR1-mediated platelet aggregation, but has no effect on the stability of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying this difference were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The functions of PI3K and PAR4 were assessed using specific inhibitors and aggregometry. The duration of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa exposure was determined by flow cytometry with the antibody PAC-1. Western blotting and fluo-3 was used to evaluate the activation of Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization respectively. KEY RESULTS: When PAR4 function was inhibited either by the PAR4 antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3-(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole] or by receptor desensitization, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin turned thrombin-elicited platelet aggregation from an irreversible event to a reversible event. Moreover, wortmannin plus YD-3 markedly accelerated the inactivation of GPIIb/IIIa in thrombin-stimulated platelets. The aggregation-reversing activity mainly resulted from inhibition of both PI3K-dependent PKC activation and PAR4-mediated sustained intracellular Ca(2+) rises. Blockade of ADP P2Y(12) receptor with 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt mimicked the inhibitory effect of wortmannin on PI3K-dependent PKC activation and its ability to reverse PAR1-activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation. Co-administration of 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt with YD-3 also decreased the stability of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that PAR4 acts in parallel with the P2Y(12)/PI3K pathway to stabilize platelet aggregates, and provide new insights into the mechanisms of thrombus stabilization and potential applications for antithrombotic therapy.
Project description:It has been proposed that the cleaved form of protease-activated receptor 3 (PAR3) acts as a cofactor for thrombin cleavage and activation of PAR4 on murine platelets, but the molecular basis of this physiologically important effect remains elusive. X-ray crystal structures of murine thrombin bound to extracellular fragments of the murine receptors PAR3 ((38)SFNGGPQNTFEEFPLSDIE(56)) and PAR4 ((51)KSSDKPNPR downward arrow GYPGKFCANDSDTLELPASSQA(81), downward arrow = site of cleavage) have been solved at 2.0 and 3.5 A resolution, respectively. The cleaved form of PAR3, traced in the electron density maps from Gln-44 to Glu-56, makes extensive hydrophobic and electrostatic contacts with exosite I of thrombin through the fragment (47)FEEFPLSDIE(56). Occupancy of exosite I by PAR3 allosterically changes the conformation of the 60-loop and shifts the position of Trp-60d approximately 10 A with a resulting widening of the access to the active site. The PAR4 fragment, traced entirely in the electron density maps except for five C-terminal residues, clamps Trp-60d, Tyr-60a, and the aryl-binding site of thrombin with Pro-56 and Pro-58 at the P2 and P4 positions and engages the primary specificity pocket with Arg-59. The fragment then leaves the active site with Gly-60 and folds into a short helical turn that directs the backbone away from exosite I and over the autolysis loop. The structures demonstrate that thrombin activation of PAR4 may occur with exosite I available to bind cofactor molecules, like the cleaved form of PAR3, whose function is to promote substrate diffusion into the active site by allosterically changing the conformation of the 60-loop.
Project description:The deleterious effects of diabetes in the heart are increasingly attributed to inflammatory signaling through the NLRP3 (NOD, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome. Thrombin antagonists reduce cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in diabetic mice, in part by suppressing fibrin-driven inflammation. The role of cellular thrombin receptor subtypes in this context is not known. We sought to determine the causal involvement of protease-activated receptors (PAR) in inflammatory signaling of the diabetic heart. Mice with diet-induced diabetes showed increased abundance of pro-caspase-1 and pro-interleukin (IL)-1? in the left ventricle (LV), indicating transcriptional NLRP3 inflammasome priming, and augmented cleavage of active caspase-1 and IL-1?, pointing to canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Caspase-11 activation, which mediates non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, was not augmented. Formation of the plasma membrane pore-forming protein N-terminal gasdermin D (GDSMD), a prerequisite for IL-1? secretion, was also higher in diabetic vs. control mouse LV. NLRP3, ASC and IL-18 expression did not differ between the groups, nor did expression of PAR1 or PAR2. PAR3 was nearly undetectable. LV abundance of PAR4 by contrast increased with diabetes and correlated positively with active caspase-1. Genetic deletion of PAR4 in mice prevented the diet-induced cleavage of caspase-1, IL-1? and GDSMD. Right atrial appendages from patients with type 2 diabetes also showed higher levels of PAR4, but not of PAR1 or PAR2, than non-diabetic atrial tissue, along with increased abundance of cleaved caspase-1, IL-1? and GSDMD. Human cardiac fibroblasts maintained in high glucose conditions to mimic diabetes also upregulated PAR4 mRNA and protein, and increased PAR4-dependent IL-1? transcription and secretion in response to thrombin, while PAR1 and PAR2 expressions were unaltered. In conclusion, PAR4 drives caspase-1-dependent IL-1? production through the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the diabetic heart, providing mechanistic insights into diabetes-associated cardiac thromboinflammation. The emerging PAR4-selective antagonists may provide a feasible approach to prevent cardiac inflammation in patients with diabetes.