MiR-454-3p-Mediated Wnt/?-catenin Signaling Antagonists Suppression Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis.
ABSTRACT: The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is constitutively active and promotes multiple tumor processes, including breast cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism by which the Wnt/?-catenin pathway is constitutively activated in breast cancer metastasis remains unclear. Inhibition of Wnt antagonists is important for Wnt/?-catenin signaling activation, and post-transcriptional regulation of these antagonists by microRNAs (miRNAs) might be a possible mechanism underlying signaling activation. Regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain-containing 1A (RPRD1A) is a known inhibitor of cell growth and Wnt/?-catenin signaling activity, but the function and regulatory mechanism of RPRD1A in breast cancer have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to understand how regulators of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway may play a role in the metastasis of this cancer. Methods: RPRD1A expression and its association with multiple clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed immunohistochemically in human breast cancer specimens. miR-454-3p expression was analyzed using real-time PCR. RPRD1A or miR-454-3p knockdown and overexpression were used to determine the underlying mechanism of their functions in breast cancer cells. Xenografted tumor model, 3D invasive culture, cell migration and invasion assays and sphere formation assay were used to determine the biofunction of RPRD1A and miR-454-3p in breast cancer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), luciferase reporter assay, and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to study the regulation and underlying mechanisms of RPRD1A and miR-454-3p expression and their correlation with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in breast cancer. Results: The Wnt/?-catenin signaling antagonist RPRD1A was downregulated and its upstream regulator miR-454-3p was amplified and overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer, and both were correlated with overall and relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients. The suppression by miR-454-3p on RPRD1A was found to activate Wnt/?-catenin signaling, thereby promoting metastasis. Simultaneously, three other negative regulators of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, namely, AXIN2, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor (DKK) 3 and secreted frizzled related protein (SFRP) 1, were also found to be targets of miR-454-3p and were involved in the signaling activation. miR-454-3p was found to be involved in early metastatic processes and to promote the stemness of breast cancer cells and early relapse under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Conclusions: The findings indicate that miR-454-3p-mediated suppression of Wnt/?-catenin antagonist RPRD1A, as well as AXIN2, DKK3 and SFRP1, sustains the constitutive activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling; thus, miR-454-3p and RPRD1A might be potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks both early detection biomarkers and viable targeted therapeutics. Moreover, chemotherapy only produces 20-30% pathologic complete response. Because miRNAs are frequently dysregulated in breast cancer and have broad tissue effects, individual or combinations of circulating miRNAs may serve as ideal diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets. Understanding the role and mechanism of dysregulated miRNAs in TNBC may help to develop novel diagnostic and prognostic strategy for TNBC patients.The miRNA array profiles of 1299 breast cancer patients were collected from the Metabric database and subjected to analysis of the altered miRNAs between TNBC and non-TNBC. In Student's t-test and Kaplan-Meier analysis, four upregulated miRNAs correlated with poor survival in TNBC but not in non-TNBC. Four miRNAs were manipulated in multiple cell lines to investigate their functional role in carcinogenesis. From these results, we studied miR-105 and miR-93-3p in greater detail. The level of miR-105 and miR-93-3p were evaluated in 25 breast cancer tumor tissues. In addition, the diagnostic utility of circulating miR-105 and miR-93-3p were examined in 12 normal and 118 breast cancer plasma samples by ROC curve construction.miR-105 and miR-93-3p were upregulated and correlated with poor survival in TNBC patients. Both miR-105 and miR-93-3p were found to activate Wnt/?-catenin signaling by downregulation of SFPR1. By this action, stemness, chemoresistance, and metastasis were promoted. Importantly, the combination of circulating miR-105/93-3p may serve as a powerful biomarker for TNBC, even in early-stage disease.miR-105/93-3p activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling by downregulating SFRP1 and thereby promotes stemness, chemoresistance, and metastasis in TNBC cells. Most importantly, combined circulating miR-105/93-3p levels represent a prime candidate for development into a diagnostic biomarker for both early- and late-stage TNBC.
Project description:The contributions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) to breast cancer are critical areas of investigation. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA RP11-283G6.5 which was lowly expressed in breast cancer and whose low expression was correlated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. Functional experiments revealed that ectopic expression of RP11-283G6.5 confined breast cancer cellular growth, migration, and invasion, and promoted cellular apoptosis. Conversely, RP11-283G6.5 silencing facilitated breast cancer cellular growth, migration, and invasion, and repressed cellular apoptosis. Moreover, RP11-283G6.5 was found to confine breast cancer tumour growth and metastasis <i>in vivo</i>. Mechanistically, RP11-283G6.5 competitively bound to ILF3, reduced the binding of ILF3to primary miR-188 (pri-miR-188), abolished the suppressive effect of ILF3 on pri-miR-188 processing, and therefore promoted pri-miR-188 processing, leading to the reduction of pri-miR-188 and the upregulation of mature miR-188-3p. The expression of RP11-283G6.5 was significantly positively correlated with that of miR-188-3p in breast cancer tissues. Through increasing miR-188-3p, RP11-283G6.5 decreased TMED3, a target of miR-188-3p. RP11-283G6.5 further suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signalling via decreasing TMED3. Rescue assays revealed that inhibition of miR-188-3p, overexpression of TMED3 or blocking Wnt/β-catenin signalling all attenuated the roles of RP11-283G6.5 in breast cancer. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that RP11-283G6.5 is a tumour suppressive lncRNA in breast cancer via modulating miR-188-3p/TMED3/Wnt/β-catenin signalling. This study indicated that RP11-283G6.5 might be a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Project description:Tumor metastasis involves a series of biological steps during which the tumor cells acquire the ability to invade surrounding tissues and survive outside the original tumor site. During the early stages, the cancer cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Wnt/?-catenin signaling is known to drive EMT and metastasis. Here we report that Wnt/?-catenin signaling is hyperactivated in metastatic breast cancer cells that express microRNA 374a (miR-374a). In breast cancer cell lines, ectopic overexpression of miR-374a promoted EMT and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-374a directly targeted and suppressed multiple negative regulators of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascade, including WIF1, PTEN, and WNT5A. Notably, miR-374a was markedly upregulated in primary tumor samples from patients with distant metastases and was associated with poor metastasis-free survival. These results demonstrate that miR-374a maintains constitutively activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling and may represent a therapeutic target for early metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Downregulation of microRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) was detected in many malignant tumors, which indicated miR-338-3p might serve as a role of antioncogene in those cancers. The present study aimed to explore the roles of miR-338-3p in the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells and elaborate the underlying possible molecular mechanism.<h4>Methods</h4>Multiply biomedical databases query and KEGG pathway enrichment assay were used to infilter possible target genes and downstream pathways regulated by miR-338-3p. Overexpression miR-338-3p lentiviral vectors were transfected into ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 and OVCAR-8 cells, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed by MTT, colony formation, transwell, Matrigel assay and xenograft mouse model. One 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) binding target gene of miR-338-3p, MACC1 (MET transcriptional regulator MACC1), and its regulated gene MET and downstream signaling pathway activities were examined by western blot.<h4>Results</h4>Biomedical databases query indicated that miR-338-3p could target MACC1 gene and regulate Met, downstream Wnt/Catenin beta and MEK/ERK pathways. Rescue of miR-338-3p could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and suppress the growth and metastasis of xenograft tumor. Restoration of miR-338-3p could attenuate MACC1 and Met overexpression induced growth, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activities of Wnt/Catenin beta and MEK/ERK signaling in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present data indicated that restoration of miR-338-3p could suppress the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells, which might due to the inhibition of proliferation and EMT induced by MACC1, Met and its downstream Wnt/Catenin beta and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.
Project description:Aberrant activation of Wnt/??catenin signaling is observed in >90% of colorectal cancer cases. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of key genes in Wnt/??catenin signaling. As a result, abnormal expression of miRNAs regulates the activation of Wnt/??catenin signaling in several types of cancer. In the current study, it was demonstrated that miR?501?3p was overexpressed in colorectal tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Downregulation of miR?501?3p inhibited cell proliferation and sphere formation, while it induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in colorectal cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis results predicted that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a negative regulator of Wnt/??catenin signaling, was a potential target gene of miR?501?3p. Inhibition of miR?501?3p increased APC expression in colorectal cancer cells. Additionally, ??catenin was destabilized following miR?501?3p inhibition; immunofluorescence analysis revealed that ??catenin translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm. In addition, cyclin D1 and c?Myc, two well?characterized target genes of Wnt/??catenin signaling, were downregulated following miR?501?3p inhibition. Transfection of APC small interfering RNA re?activated ??catenin and stimulated the expression of cyclin D1 and c?Myc. Furthermore, silencing of APC reversed the miR?501?3p inhibitor?induced cell cycle disruption, and the inhibition of cell proliferation and sphere formation in colorectal cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study identified miR?501?3p as a novel regulator of Wnt/??catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells via targeting APC, suggesting that miR?501?3p may act as a novel oncogenic miRNA in colorectal cancer.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging drivers in tumor progression, while the role of miR-503-3p in breast cancer (BC) remains largely unknown. We aimed to explore the impact of macrophage-derived exosomal miR-503-3p in the development of BC by regulating disheveled-associated binding antagonist of beta-catenin 2 (DACT2). miR-503-3p and DACT2 expression in BC tissues and cells was assessed, and the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-related proteins in BC cells was also evaluated. Macrophages were induced and exosomes were extracted. The screened BC cell lines were, respectively, treated with exosomes, miR-503-3p inhibitor/mimic or upregulated/inhibited DACT2, and then the phenotypes, glucose intake, oxygen consumption rate, and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) level of BC cells were determined. Cell growth in vivo was also observed. MiR-503-3p was elevated, DACT2 was reduced, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated in BC cells. Macrophage-derived exosomes, upregulated miR-503-3p or inhibited DACT2 promoted malignant behaviors of BC cells, glucose intake, and activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while repressed oxygen consumption rate and ATP level in BC cells. Reversely, reduced miR-503-3p or upregulated DACT2 exerted opposite effects. This study revealed that reduction of macrophage-derived exosomal miR-503-3p repressed glycolysis and promoted mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in BC by elevating DACT2 and inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our research may provide novel targets for BC treatment.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> As the leading primary bone cancer in adolescents and children, osteosarcoma patients with metastasis show a five-year-survival-rate of 20-30%, without improvement over the past 30 years. Wnt/β-catenin is important in promoting osteosarcoma development. DKK3 is a Wnt/β-catenin antagonist and predicted to have the specific binding site in 3'-UTR with miR-214-3p. <b>Methods:</b> miR-214-3p and DKK3 levels were investigated in human osteosarcoma tissues and cells by RT-qPCR; the prognostic importance of DKK3 level in osteosarcoma patients was determined with Log-rank test; direct binding between DKK3 with miR-214-3p was identified with targetscan; anti-osteosarcoma mechanism of cantharidin was investigated by miR-214-3p silence/over-expression with or without cantharidin treatment, and nuclear/cytoplasmic protein assay in osteosarcoma cells. <b>Results:</b> Down-regulated DKK3 indicated poor prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. Up-regulated miR-214-3p promoted proliferation and migration, while suppressed apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells by increasing β-catenin nuclear translocation and LEF1 translation via degradation of DKK3. Cantharidin suppressed viabilities, migration and invasion, while promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in 143B and U-2 OS cells via down-regulating miR-214-3p to up-regulate DKK3, thus inhibited p-GSK-3β expression, β-catenin nuclear translocation and LEF1 translation. Meanwhile, cantharidin inhibited tumor growth in xenograft-bearing mice with 143B cell injection in tibia. <b>Conclusion:</b> miR-214-3p mediated Wnt/β-catenin/LEF1 signaling activation by targeting DKK3 to promote oncogenesis of osteosarcoma; cantharidin inhibited proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells via down-regulating miR-214-3p to up-regulate DKK3 and decrease β-catenin nuclear translocation, indicating that cantharidin may be a prospective candidate for osteosarcoma treatment by targeting miR-214-3p/DKK3/β-catenin signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mechanism underlying breast cancer stem cell (BCSCs) characteristics remains to be fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence implies that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in regulating BCSCs stemness. METHODS:LncRNA LUCAT1 expression was assessed in breast cancer tissues (n?=?151 cases) by in situ hybridization. Sphere-formation assay and colony formation assay were used to detect cell self-renewal and proliferation, respectively. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull down and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify LUCAT1 and TCF7L2 as the direct target of miR-5582-3p. The activity of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway was analyzed by TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assays, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS:This study found LUCAT1 expression was related to tumor size (p?=?0.015), lymph node metastasis (p?=?0.002) and TNM staging (p?<?0.001). High LUCAT1 expression indicated a shorter overall survival (p?=?0.006) and disease-free survival (p?=?0.011). Furthermore, LUCAT1 was more expressed in BCSCs than in breast cancer cells (BCCs) by lncRNA microarray chips. LUCAT1 up-regulation promoted proliferation of BCCs, while LUCAT1 down-regulation inhibited self-renewal of BCSCs. MiR-5582-3p was directly bound to LUCAT1 and TCF7L2 and negatively regulated their expression. LUCAT1 affected Wnt/?-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS:LUCAT1 might be a significant biomarker to evaluate prognosis in breast cancer. LUCAT1 increased stem-like properties of BCCs and stemness of BCSCs by competitively binding miR-5582-3p with TCF7L2 and enhancing the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. The LUCAT1/miR-5582-3p/TCF7L2 axis provides insights for regulatory mechanism of stemness, and new strategies for clinical practice.
Project description:Non-coding RNAs play essential roles in breast cancer progression by regulating proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. However, our understanding of most microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in breast cancer is still limited. miR-586 has been identified as an important factor in the progression of some types of cancer, but its exact function and relative regulation mechanisms in breast cancer development need to be further investigated. In this study, we showed miR-586 functioned as an oncogene by promoting breast cancer proliferation and metastasis both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Meanwhile, miR-586 induced Wnt/β-catenin activation by directly targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonists SFRP1 and DKK2/3. Moreover, we demonstrated that LINC01189 functioned as a tumor suppressor and inhibited breast cancer progression through inhibiting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype by sponging miR-586. In addition, β-catenin/TCF4 transactivated ZEB1, resulting in a transcriptional repression of LINC01189 expression. In conclusion, our data uncovered the LINC01189-miR-586-ZEB1 feedback loop and provided a novel mechanism participating in the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer progression.
Project description:Cancer chemoresistance and metastasis are tightly associated features. However, whether they share common molecular mechanisms and thus can be targeted with one common strategy remain unclear in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report that high levels of microRNA-128-3p (miR-128-3p) is key to concomitant development of chemoresistance and metastasis in residual NSCLC cells having survived repeated chemotherapy and correlates with chemoresistance, aggressiveness and poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. Mechanistically, miR-128-3p induces mesenchymal and stemness-like properties through downregulating multiple inhibitors of Wnt/?-catenin and TGF-? pathways, leading to their overactivation. Importantly, antagonism of miR-128-3p potently reverses metastasis and chemoresistance of highly malignant NSCLC cells, which could be completely reversed by restoring Wnt/?-catenin and TGF-? activities. Notably, correlations among miR-128-3p levels, activated ?-catenin and TGF-? signalling, and pro-epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition/pro-metastatic protein levels are validated in NSCLC patient specimens. These findings suggest that miR-128-3p might be a potential target against both metastasis and chemoresistance in NSCLC.