Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment During Active Video Gaming Using an Adapted Wii Fit Balance Board in Adults with Physical Disabilities: Observational Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Individuals with physical disabilities have fewer opportunities to participate in enjoyable physical activity. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVGs); however, many AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine energy expenditure and enjoyment in adults with mobility impairment during AVG play using off-the-shelf (OTS) and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board (Nintendo). METHODS:During visit 1, participants completed a functional assessment and the familiarization period. During visit 2, metabolic data were collected during a 20-minute baseline and four 10-minute bouts of Wii Fit Plus game play, with two bouts on each of the boards. During the resting period, participants completed the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). Statistical analyses were computed using SPSS software. Data were analyzed separately for individuals who were able to play while standing on both boards (StdStd); those who could not play while standing on the OTS board, but were able to play while standing on the adapted board (aStd); and those who could only play while sitting on the adapted board (aSit). RESULTS:Data were collected for 58 participants (StdStd, n=17; aStd, n=10; aSit, n=31). The sample included 31 men and 27 women with a mean age of 41.21 (SD 12.70) years. Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent [MET]) during game play was significantly greater than that during rest for all players. Only 17 participants (StdStd group) were able to play using the OTS board. During game play on the adapted board, the average MET values for the two game sets were 2.261 (SD 0.718) kcal/kg/hour and 2.233 (SD 0.751) kcal/kg/hour for the aSit group, 3.151 (SD 1.034) and 2.990 (SD 1.121) for the aStd group, and 2.732 (SD 0.655) and 2.777 (SD 0.803) for the StdStd group. For game play on the adapted board, self-reported ratings of perceived exertion on a 0-10 scale suggested greater exercise intensity levels, with median scores ranging from moderate (3) to very hard (7). The PACES scores indicated that all players enjoyed using the adapted board, with a median score of 4 on a 5-point scale. CONCLUSIONS:The adapted Wii Fit balance board provided an opportunity for individuals with mobility impairments, including wheelchair users, to engage in AVG. All participants were able to utilize the adapted controller and enjoyed the AVG activity. Although the average MET values achieved during AVG represented light-intensity exercise (<3 METs), 16% of sitting participants and 41% of standing participants achieved moderate-intensity exercise (3-6 METs) in at least one of the games. Factors not accounted for, which may have influenced the intensity of exercise, include game selection, limited familiarization period, and discomfort wearing the COSMED portable metabolic system for measurement of oxygen consumption. Accessible AVG controllers offer an innovative approach to overcome various barriers to participation in physical activity. The next steps include assessment of an AVG intervention using an adapted board gaming controller on health and fitness outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02994199; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02994199 (Archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/75fc0mN39).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Active video game (AVG) playing, also known as "exergaming," is increasingly employed to promote physical activity across all age groups. The Wii Fit Balance Board is a popular gaming controller for AVGs and is used in a variety of settings. However, the commercial off-the-shelf (OTS) design poses several limitations. It is inaccessible to wheelchair users, does not support the use of stabilization assistive devices, and requires the ability to shift the center of balance (COB) in all directions to fully engage in game play. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to design an adapted version of the Wii Fit Balance Board to overcome the identified limitations and to evaluate the usability of the newly designed adapted Wii Fit Balance Board in persons with mobility impairments. METHODS:In a previous study, 16 participants tried the OTS version of the Wii Fit Balance Board. On the basis of observed limitations, a team of engineers developed and adapted the design of the Wii Fit Balance Board, which was then subjected to multiple iterations of user feedback and design tweaks. On design completion, we recruited a new pool of participants with mobility impairments for a larger study. During their first visit, we assessed lower-extremity function using selected mobility tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. During a subsequent session, participants played 2 sets of games on both the OTS and adapted versions of the Wii Fit Balance Board. Order of controller version played first was randomized. After participants played each version, we administered the System Usability Scale (SUS) to examine the participants' perceived usability. RESULTS:The adapted version of the Wii Fit Balance Board resulting from the user-centered design approach met the needs of a variety of users. The adapted controller (1) allowed manual wheelchair users to engage in game play, which was previously not possible; (2) included Americans with Disabilities Act-compliant handrails as part of the controller, enabling stable and safe game play; and (3) included a sensitivity control feature, allowing users to fine-tune the controller to match the users' range of COB motion. More than half the sample could not use the OTS version of the Wii Fit Balance Board, while all participants were able to use the adapted version. All participants rated the adapted Wii Fit Balance Board at a minimum as "good," while those who could not use the OTS Wii Fit Balance Board rated the adapted Wii Fit Balance Board as "excellent." We found a significant negative correlation between lower-extremity function and differences between OTS and adapted SUS scores, indicating that as lower-extremity function decreased, participants perceived the adapted Wii Fit Balance Board as more usable. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated a successful adaptation of a widely used AVG controller. The adapted controller's potential to increase physical activity levels among people with mobility impairments will be evaluated in a subsequent trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02994199; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02994199 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xWTyiJWf).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. METHODS:Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For Visit 2, metabolic data were collected during an initial 20-minute baseline, followed by 40 minutes of game play. The controller (balance board or gaming mat) played was randomly selected. A set of games was played for 10 minutes, followed by 5 minutes of rest, and then another set of games was played for 10 minutes, followed by rest. Quality of game play was observed and documented for each set. During rest, the participant completed questions regarding enjoyment. Following the same procedures, the participant then played the two sets of games using the other version (off-the-shelf or adapted) of the controller. The entire procedure was repeated during Visit 3 with the controller that was not played. RESULTS:Enrollment began in February 2016 and ended in September 2016. Study results will be reported in late 2017. CONCLUSIONS:We hypothesized that the adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat would produce greater quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure in persons with mobility impairments compared to off-the-shelf versions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02994199; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02994199 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qpPszPJ7).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A common leisure-time activity amongst youth and adults in the United States is video gameplay. Playing video games is typically a sedentary endeavor; however, to encourage an increased level of physical activity in an engaging and enjoyable way, active video gaming has become popular. Unfortunately, the accessibility of gaming controllers is often an issue for persons with disabilities. A commercial off-the-shelf (OTS) gaming mat was adapted to facilitate use by individuals with mobility impairments to address this issue.<h4>Objective</h4>Our study aimed to examine energy expenditure, enjoyment, and gameplay experience in youth and adults with mobility impairment during active video gaming using an OTS and adapted versions of a gaming mat.<h4>Methods</h4>The study used an observational design. During visit 1, physical function was assessed, and participants were given a familiarization period with the gaming system. For visit 2, based on observation during the physical function tests and discussion with the participant, it was decided whether the participant would play in a standing or seated position. For standing gameplay, the mat was placed on the floor, and for seated play, the mat was placed on a height-adjustable and tilt-adjustable tabletop. Metabolic data were collected during a 20-minute baseline and four 10-minute bouts of Wii Fit Plus gameplay, with 2 bouts on each of the mats (adapted and OTS). During gameplay, the research staff observed and rated participants' ability to use the game controller (mat) and the quality of gameplay. At the end of each game set, participants reported their rating of perceived exertion on a scale from 0 to 10. During rest, participants completed the physical activity enjoyment scale. Participants also answered additional questions regarding the system's usability with each controller (adapted mat and OTS mat). Statistical analyses were computed using Stata 16 (version 16.1; StataCorp). Linear mixed-effects maximum likelihood regression was performed separately for individuals who could play standing and for those who played seated.<h4>Results</h4>A convenience sample of 78 individuals with mobility impairments between the ages of 12 and 60 years (mean 39.6, SD 15.8) participated in the study. Of the sample, 48 participants played the video games in a seated position, while 30 played the games standing. Energy expenditure and heart rate tended to be higher in the OTS mat condition for seated players, while values were similar for both conditions among standing players. However, seated participants reported greater gameplay experience, and both groups exhibited a higher quality of gameplay during the adapted mat condition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Active video gaming using an adapted gaming mat provided an enjoyable exercise activity for individuals with mobility impairments. The use of the adapted controller provides a means by which this population can engage in light to moderate intensity active video gaming, thereby reducing sedentary leisure time.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02994199; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02994199.
Project description:To assess the effect of exercise training by using the Nintendo Wii Fit video game and balance board system on balance and gait in adults with Parkinson disease (PD).A prospective interventional cohort study.An outpatient group exercise class.Ten subjects with PD, Hoehn and Yahr stages 2.5 or 3, with a mean age of 67.1 years; 4 men, 6 women.The subjects participated in supervised group exercise sessions 3 times per week for 8 weeks by practicing 3 different Wii balance board games (marble tracking, skiing, and bubble rafting) adjusted for their individualized function level. The subjects trained for 10 minutes per game, a total of 30 minutes training per session.Pre-and postexercise training, a physical therapist evaluated subjects' function by using the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, and Sharpened Romberg with eyes open and closed. Postural sway was assessed at rest and with tracking tasks by using the Wii balance board. The subjects rated their confidence in balance by using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale.Balance as measured by the Berg Balance Scale improved significantly, with an increase of 3.3 points (P = .016). The Dynamic Gait Index improved as well (mean increase, 2.8; P = .004), as did postural sway measured with the balance board (decreased variance in stance with eyes open by 31%; P = .049). Although the Sharpened Romberg with eyes closed increased by 6.85 points and with eyes opened by 3.3 points, improvements neared significance only for eyes closed (P = .07 versus P = .188). There were no significant changes on patient ratings for the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (mean decrease, -1%; P = .922) or the Geriatric Depression Scale (mean increase, 2.2; P = .188).An 8-week exercise training class by using the Wii Fit balance board improved selective measures of balance and gait in adults with PD. However, no significant changes were seen in mood or confidence regarding balance.
Project description:(1) Background: Childhood obesity has become a main global health problem and active video games (AVG) could be used to increase energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure during an AVG intervention combined with exercise, differentiating by gender. (2) Methods: A total of 45 children with overweight or obesity (19 girls) performed an AVG intervention combined with exercise. The AVG used were the Xbox Kinect, Nintendo Wii, dance mats, BKOOL cycling simulator, and Nintendo Switch. The energy expenditure was estimated from the heart rate recorded during the sessions and the data from the individual maximal tests. (3) Results: The mean energy expenditure was 315.1 kilocalories in a one-hour session. Participants spent the most energy on BKOOL, followed by Ring Fit Adventures, Dance Mats, Xbox Kinect, and the Nintendo Wii, with significant differences between BKOOL and the Nintendo Wii. Significant differences between boys and girls were found, but were partially due to the difference in weight, VO2max, and fat-free mass. (4) Conclusions: The energy expenditure with AVG combined with multi-component exercise was 5.68 kcal/min in boys and 4.66 kcal/min in girls with overweight and obesity. AVG could be an effective strategy to increase energy expenditure in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.
Project description:Lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is effective but needs a special local setting and is costly. Therefore, in a randomized-controlled trial we tested the hypothesis that the autonomous use of the interactive exercise game Wii Fit Plus over a period of 12 weeks improves metabolic control, with HbA1c reduction as the primary outcome, and weight loss, reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors, physical activity and quality of life (secondary outcomes) in T2DM patients.Participants (n?=?220) were randomized into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group was provided with a Wii console, a balance board and the exercise game Wii Fit Plus for 12 weeks. The control group remained under routine care and received the items 12 weeks later. At baseline and after 12 weeks (and for the control group additionally after 12 weeks of intervention) the participants' health parameters, medication, physical activity and validated questionnaires for quality of life (PAID, SF12, WHO-5, CES-D) were requested and compared in a complete case analysis using the Mann-Whitney test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test.80% of participants completed the 12-week study. Patients in the intervention group significantly improved HbA1c (from 7.1?±?1.3% to 6.8?±?0.9%; -0.3?±?1.1%; p?=?0.0002) in comparison to the control group (from 6.8?±?0.9% to 6.7?±?0.7%; -0.1?±?0.5%) and also significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (from 135.8?±?38.9 mg/dl to 126.6?±?36.6 mg/dl; p?=?0.04), weight (from 97.6?±?19.2 kg to 96.3?±?18.7 kg; p?<?0.001) and body mass index (from 34.1?±?6.5 kg/m2 to 33.5?±?6.5 kg/m2; p?<?0.001). Daily physical activity increased significantly (p?<?0.001). Diabetes-dependent impairment, mental health, subjective wellbeing and quality of life also improved significantly, and the number of patients with depression decreased. Similar improvements were seen in the control group after exercise game intervention.In this trial a low-threshold intervention with the interactive exercise game Wii Fit Plus was able to motivate T2DM patients to improve physical activity, glucometabolic control and quality of life.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01735643.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. DESIGN:With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. RESULTS:Energy expenditure was significantly higher (~145%; P < 0.001) during the AVG condition than during the resting control and seated video game conditions; however, no significant differences in energy expenditure were observed 24 h (~6%; P > 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (~3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (~2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (~5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (~9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in male adolescents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01655901.
Project description:AIMS:Exercise is known to be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF), and these patients should therefore be routinely advised to exercise and to be or to become physically active. Despite the beneficial effects of exercise such as improved functional capacity and favourable clinical outcomes, the level of daily physical activity in most patients with HF is low. Exergaming may be a promising new approach to increase the physical activity of patients with HF at home. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the structured introduction and access to a Wii game computer in patients with HF to improve exercise capacity and level of daily physical activity, to decrease healthcare resource use, and to improve self-care and health-related quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS:A multicentre randomized controlled study with two treatment groups will include 600 patients with HF. In each centre, patients will be randomized to either motivational support only (control) or structured access to a Wii game computer (Wii). Patients in the control group will receive advice on physical activity and will be contacted by four telephone calls. Patients in the Wii group also will receive advice on physical activity along with a Wii game computer, with instructions and training. The primary endpoint will be exercise capacity at 3?months as measured by the 6?min walk test. Secondary endpoints include exercise capacity at 6 and 12 months, level of daily physical activity, muscle function, health-related quality of life, and hospitalization or death during the 12 months follow-up. CONCLUSION:The HF-Wii study is a randomized study that will evaluate the effect of exergaming in patients with HF. The findings can be useful to healthcare professionals and improve our understanding of the potential role of exergaming in the treatment and management of patients with HF. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01785121.
Project description:Patients with cerebral palsy (CP) typically receive limited physical therapy services. However, the Nintendo Wii system offers a simple and affordable mode of virtual reality therapy. There are no clinical trials assessing the Nintendo Wii balance board for improving standing balance in CP.This randomised clinical trial will evaluate the effectiveness of an 18-session/six-week protocol using Wii therapy (W-t) compared with conventional therapy (C-t) in Chilean CP patients. The C-t group will perform the typical exercises prescribed by physical therapists for 40 min each session. W-t will consist of a virtual reality training session using the Nintendo Wii balance board console for 30 min each session. The primary outcome variable is the area of centre-of-pressure (CoP) sway (CoPSway). The secondary outcomes are the standard deviation (SDML; SDAP) and velocity (VML; VAP) of CoP in the ML and AP directions. For a mean difference of 21.5 cm2 (CoPSway) between the groups, we required a minimum of 16 participants in each group. Data will be collected at baseline (week 0), during the study (weeks 2 and 4), at the end of the study (week 6), and during the follow-up (weeks 8 and 10). Measurements of postural control during quiet standing for both groups will be assessed on a force platform AMTI OR67.This is the first trial that measures and compares the effects of a Nintendo Wii Balance Board exercise programme on standing balance in children with cerebral palsy compared to conventional therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Active video games (AVGs) can increase physical activity (PA) and help produce higher physiological expenditure. Animated narrative videos (NVs) possess unique immersive and motivational properties. When added to AVGs, they have been found to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as opposed to the original no video condition. However, there is no evidence of whether that was due to the NV or the addition of an animated video to an AVG. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate the differential effect of adding an NV versus a nonnarrative video (NNV) to an AVG on PA parameters and physiological responses and to explore the mediating role of immersion. METHODS:A total of 22 children aged 8 to 12 years were randomly assigned to the NV or NNV condition. They were instructed to play an AVG (on Xbox Kinect) for as long as they wanted. We used accelerometers to estimate the time spent (in minutes) in MVPA. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before, during, and after the AVG play session. The participants then reported their experience of narrative immersion via a questionnaire. RESULTS:The NV group had significantly higher narrative immersion (mean 3.50, SD 0.55 vs mean 2.91, SD 0.59; P=.03) and MVPA than the NNV group (mean 20.11, SD 13.75 vs mean 7.85, SD 5.83; P=.02). Narrative immersion was positively correlated with MVPA (r=0.52; P=.01) and average HR during AVG (r=0.43; P=.05). Mediation analysis indicated that narrative immersion mediated the effect of NV (NV vs NNV) on MVPA (direct effect: beta=7.51; P=.01). The indirect effect was that NV was positively correlated with the mediator variable narrative immersion (beta=.59; P=.03), which was itself marginally associated with MVPA (beta=6.95; P=.09); when narrative immersion was included in the model, the regression coefficient was attenuated. CONCLUSIONS:AVG with added narratives elicits more narrative immersion, resulting in more minutes in MVPA. Narrative immersion served as a mediator between NV and MVPA via its elicitation of an elevated HR without increasing RPE. The inclusion of immersive narratives in AVG could be helpful for inducing MVPA, to enhance AVG engagement without additional exertion.