Variability and exposure-response relationships of isavuconazole plasma concentrations in the Phase 3 SECURE trial of patients with invasive mould diseases.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:This analysis evaluated the variability of isavuconazole plasma concentrations between subjects and between sampling times, and assessed their relationship to outcomes for subjects with invasive fungal disease (IFD) in the SECURE trial. METHODS:Isavuconazole-treated subjects received 372?mg of isavuconazonium sulphate (corresponding to 200?mg of isavuconazole) three times daily for 2?days, then once daily. Plasma samples were collected after day 4 and analysis sets were constructed as follows: analysis set 1 included all samples from subjects with proven/probable/possible IFD who received ?1 dose of isavuconazole; analysis set 2 included samples from subjects in analysis set 1 who had provided >1 sample; and analysis set 3 included samples from subjects in analysis set 1 with proven/probable invasive aspergillosis. Assessments included overall distributions of plasma concentrations and variability between samples (analysis sets 1 and 2) as well as relationships to outcomes [all-cause mortality (day 42), overall response (end of treatment) and treatment-emergent adverse events; analysis sets 1 and 3]. RESULTS:Analysis sets 1, 2 and 3 included samples from 160, 97 and 98 subjects, respectively. Trough concentrations for each were distributed similarly [mean (SD): 3406.6 (1511.5), 3495.6 (1503.3) and 3368.1 (1523.2)?ng/mL, respectively]. The mean coefficient of variation between samples in analysis set 2 was 23.2%; differences between concentrations in first samples and subsequent samples were <2-fold for 85/97 subjects. In quartiles of subject data, no concentration-dependent relationships were observed for efficacy or safety. CONCLUSIONS:Plasma concentrations of isavuconazole were reasonably consistent between subjects and sampling times, and were not associated with differences in outcomes.
Project description:Isavuconazonium sulfate is the water-soluble prodrug of isavuconazole. Population analyses have demonstrated relatively predictable pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior in diverse patient populations. We evaluated the impact of mucositis on the oral isavuconazole exposure using population PK modeling. This study included patients treated in two phase 3 trials of isavuconazole, SECURE for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and other filamentous fungi and VITAL for patients with mucormycosis, invasive fungal disease (IFD) caused by other rare fungi, or IA and renal impairment. Mucositis was reported by site investigators and its impact on oral bioavailability was assessed. Use of the oral formulation was at the discretion of the investigator. Patients with plasma samples collected during the use of isavuconazonium sulfate were included in the construction of population PK model. Of 250 patients included, 56 patients had mucositis at therapy onset or as an adverse event during oral isavuconazole therapy. Levels of oral bioavailability were comparable, at 98.3% and 99.8%, respectively. The average drug exposures (average area under the curve [AUCave]) calculated from either the mean or median parameter estimates were not different between patients with and without mucositis. Mortality and overall clinical responses were similar between patients receiving oral therapy with and without mucositis. We found that isavuconazole exposures and clinical outcomes in this subset of patients with mucositis who were able to take oral isavuconazonium sulfate were comparable to those in patients without mucositis, despite the difference in oral bioavailability. Therefore, mucositis may not preclude use of the oral formulation of isavuconazonium sulfate.
Project description:This phase 1, open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isavuconazole after a single oral dose of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate in healthy nonelderly (age, 18 to 45?years) and elderly (age, ?65?years) males and females. Overall, 48 subjects were enrolled in the study (n?=?12 each in groups of nonelderly males and females and elderly males and females). All subjects received a single oral dose of 372?mg of isavuconazonium sulfate (equivalent to 200?mg isavuconazole). PK samples were collected for analysis of isavuconazole plasma concentrations from the predose time point up to 336?h postdose. Data were analyzed using population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis. The resulting PPK model included two compartments with Weibull absorption function as well as interindividual variability with respect to clearance, intercompartment clearance, volumes of central and peripheral compartments, and two Weibull absorption parameters, RA and KAMAX. The PPK analysis showed that elderly females had the highest exposure versus males (ratio of total area under the time-concentration curve [AUC], 138; 90% confidence interval [CI], 118 to 161) and versus nonelderly females (ratio of AUC, 147; 90% CI, 123 to 176). Higher exposures in elderly females were not associated with significant toxicity or treatment-emergent adverse events, as measured in this study. No dose adjustments appear to be necessary based on either age group or sex even with an increase in exposure for elderly females. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01657890.).
Project description:Isavuconazonium sulfate is the water-soluble prodrug of the active triazole isavuconazole. Two phase 1 studies were conducted to identify the metabolic profile and mass balance of isavuconazole and BAL8728 (inactive cleavage product). Seven subjects in study 1 (isavuconazole mass balance) received a single oral dose of [cyano-14 C]isavuconazonium sulfate corresponding to 200 mg isavuconazole. Six subjects in study 2 (BAL8728 mass balance) received a single intravenous dose of [pyridinylmethyl-14 C]isavuconazonium sulfate corresponding to 75 mg BAL8728. Pharmacokinetic parameters of radioactivity in whole blood and plasma and of isavuconazole and BAL8728 in plasma were assessed. Radioactivity ratio of blood/plasma, percentage of dose, and cumulative percentage of radioactive dose recovered in urine and feces for isavuconazole and BAL8728 were assessed. Metabolic profiling was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mean plasma isavuconazole pharmacokinetic parameters included apparent clearance (2.3 ± 0.7 L/h), apparent volume of distribution (301.8 ± 105.7 L), and terminal elimination half-life (99.9 ± 44.6 hours). In study 1, isavuconazole-derived radioactivity was recovered approximately equally in urine and feces (46.1% and 45.5%, respectively). In study 2, BAL8728-derived radioactivity was predominantly recovered in urine (96.0%). Isavuconazole (study 1) and M4 (cleavage metabolite of BAL8728; study 2) were the predominant circulating components of radioactivity in plasma.
Project description:Isavuconazonium sulfate (Cresemba; Astellas Pharma Inc.), a water-soluble prodrug of the triazole antifungal agent isavuconazole, is available for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive mucormycosis. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was constructed using nonparametric estimation to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviors of isavuconazole in patients treated in the phase 3 VITAL open-label clinical trial, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of the drug for treatment of renally impaired IA patients and patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD) caused by emerging molds, yeasts, and dimorphic fungi. Covariates examined were body mass index (BMI), weight, race, impact of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on clearance (CL), and impact of weight on volume. PK parameters were compared based on IFD type and other patient characteristics. Simulations were performed to describe the MICs covered by the clinical dosing regimen. Concentrations (n = 458) from 136 patients were used to construct a 2-compartment model (first-order absorption compartment and central compartment). Weight-related covariates affected clearance, but eGFR did not. PK parameters and intersubject variability of CL were similar across different IFD groups and populations. Target attainment analyses demonstrated that the clinical dosing regimen would be sufficient for total drug area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC targets ranging from 50.5 for Aspergillus spp. (up to the CLSI MIC of 0.5 mg/liter) to 270 and 5,053 for Candida albicans (up to MICs of 0.125 and 0.004 mg/liter, respectively) and 312 for non-albicans Candida spp. (up to a MIC of 0.125 mg/liter). The estimations for Candida spp. were exploratory considering that no patients with Candida infections were included in the current analyses. (The VITAL trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT00634049.).
Project description:Invasive fungal disease (IFD) confers a substantial risk for morbidity and mortality to immunocompromised patients. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common IFD caused by moulds but the prevalence of other rare mould diseases, such as mucormycosis, hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis, may be increasing. Treatments are available for IA, but evidence to support efficacy and safety of antifungal agents for rare IFDs, or for IFDs in special patient populations, is limited or lacking. The VITAL trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of isavuconazole for the treatment of patients with IA and renal impairment, or with IFDs caused by rare moulds, yeasts or dimorphic fungi. These patients stand to benefit most from a new treatment option but are unlikely to be included in a randomised, controlled trial. In this article, we review the challenges faced in the design and conduct of the VITAL trial. We also review the findings of VITAL, which included evidence of the efficacy and safety of isavuconazole. Finally, we consider the importance of trials such as VITAL to inform therapeutic decision making for clinicians faced with the challenge of treating patients with rare IFDs and as one paradigm of how to determine efficacy and safety of new drugs for rare and resistant infections without a suitable comparator.
Project description:Isavuconazole, the active moiety of the water-soluble prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, is a triazole antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. The purpose of this analysis was to characterize the isavuconazole exposure-response relationship for measures of efficacy and safety in patients with invasive aspergillosis and infections by other filamentous fungi from the SECURE clinical trial. Two hundred thirty-one patients who received the clinical dosing regimen and had exposure parameters were included in the analysis. The primary drug exposure parameters included were predicted trough steady-state plasma concentrations, predicted trough concentrations after 7 and 14 days of drug administration, and area under the curve estimated at steady state (AUCss). The exposure parameters were analyzed against efficacy endpoints that included all-cause mortality through day 42 in the intent-to-treat (ITT) and modified ITT populations, data review committee (DRC)-adjudicated overall response at end of treatment (EOT), and DRC-adjudicated clinical response at EOT. The safety endpoints analyzed were elevated or abnormal alanine aminotransferase, increased aspartate aminotransferase, and a combination of the two. The endpoints were analyzed using logistic regression models. No statistically significant relationship (P > 0.05) was found between isavuconazole exposure and either efficacy or safety endpoints. The lack of association between exposure and efficacy indicates that the isavuconazole exposures achieved by clinical dosing were appropriate for treating the infecting organisms in the SECURE study and that increases in alanine or aspartate aminotransferase were not related to increase in exposures. Without a clear relationship, there is no current clinical evidence for recommending routine therapeutic drug monitoring for isavuconazole.
Project description:This phase 1 trial evaluated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the novel triazole antifungal agent isavuconazole and warfarin in healthy adults. Multiple doses of isavuconazole were administered as the oral prodrug, isavuconazonium sulfate (372 mg 3 times a day for 2 days loading dose, then 372 mg once daily thereafter; equivalent to isavuconazole 200 mg), in the presence and absence of single doses of oral warfarin sodium 20 mg. Coadministration with isavuconazole increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to infinity of S- and R-warfarin by 11% and 20%, respectively, but decreased the mean maximum plasma concentrations of S- and R-warfarin by 12% and 7%, respectively, relative to warfarin alone. Mean area under the international normalized ratio curve and maximum international normalized ratio were 4% lower in the presence vs absence of isavuconazole. Mean warfarin area under the prothrombin time curve and maximum prothrombin time were 3% lower in the presence vs absence of isavuconazole. There were no serious treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), and no subjects discontinued the study due to TEAEs. All TEAEs were mild in intensity. These findings indicate that coadministration with isavuconazole has no clinically relevant effects on warfarin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Under certain circumstances, clinicians treating patients with isavuconazole for invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis may use therapeutic drug monitoring. However, the accuracy and reproducibility of the various assays used by different laboratories for the quantification of isavuconazole plasma concentrations have yet to be determined. METHODS:Human plasma samples spiked with known concentrations of isavuconazole were provided to 27 European laboratories that took part in a "round-robin" test (an interlaboratory test performed independently at least 2 times; 2 rounds performed in the current study). Assay methods included liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), LC with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV), LC with fluorescence detection (LC-FL), and bioassay. The accuracy and reproducibility compared with the known concentrations for each sample in each round were compared overall, between assays, and between laboratories. RESULTS:Twenty-seven laboratories participated in the study (LC-MS/MS, n = 15; LC-UV; n = 9; LC-FL, n = 1; bioassay, n = 2). In round 1, for nominal concentrations of 1000, 1700, 2500, and 4000 ng/mL, the mean (SD) determined concentrations were 1007 (183), 1710 (323), 2528 (540), and 3898 (842) ng/mL, respectively. In round 2, for nominal concentrations of 1200, 1800, 2400, and 4000 ng/mL, the mean (SD) determined concentrations were 1411 (303), 2111 (409), 2789 (511), and 4723 (798) ng/mL, respectively. Over both rounds, determined concentrations were consistently within 15% of the nominal concentrations for 10 laboratories (LC-MS/MS, n = 4; LC-UV, n = 5; bioassay, n = 1) and consistently exceeded the upper 15% margin for 7 laboratories (LC-MS/MS and LC-UV, n = 3 each; LC-FL, n = 1). CONCLUSIONS:Alignment of methodologies among laboratories may be warranted to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of therapeutic drug measurements.
Project description:The effects of isavuconazole (active moiety of isavuconazonium sulfate) on cardiac ion channels in vitro and cardiac repolarization clinically were assessed in a phase I, randomized, double-blind study in healthy individuals who received isavuconazole (after 2-day loading dose), at therapeutic or supratherapeutic doses daily for 11 days, moxifloxacin (400 mg q.d.), or placebo. A post-hoc analysis of the phase III SECURE trial assessed effects on cardiac safety. L-type Ca2+ channels were most sensitive to inhibition by isavuconazole. The 50% inhibitory concentrations for ion channels were higher than maximum serum concentrations of nonprotein-bound isavuconazole in vivo. In the phase I study (n = 161), isavuconazole shortened the QT interval in a dose- and plasma concentration-related manner. There were no serious treatment-emergent adverse events; palpitations and tachycardia were observed in placebo and supratherapeutic isavuconazole groups; no cardiac safety signals were detected in the SECURE study (n = 257). Isavuconazole was associated with a shortened cardiac QT interval.
Project description:This article summarizes 4 phase 1 trials that explored interactions between the novel, triazole antifungal isavuconazole and substrates of the drug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein-1 (MATE1), organic anion transporters 1/3 (OAT1/OAT3), organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), organic cation transporters 1/2 (OCT1/OCT2), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Healthy subjects received single doses of atorvastatin (20 mg; OATP1B1 and P-gp substrate), digoxin (0.5 mg; P-gp substrate), metformin (850 mg; OCT1, OCT2, and MATE1 substrate), or methotrexate (7.5 mg; BCRP, OAT1, and OAT3 substrate) in the presence and absence of clinical doses of isavuconazole (200 mg 3 times a day for 2 days; 200 mg once daily thereafter). Coadministration with isavuconazole increased mean area under the plasma concentration-time curves (90% confidence interval) of atorvastatin, digoxin, and metformin to 137% (129, 145), 125% (117, 134),? and 152% (138, 168) and increased mean maximum plasma concentrations to 103% (88, 121), 133% (119, 149), and 123% (109, 140), respectively. Methotrexate parameters were unaffected by isavuconazole. There were no serious adverse events. These findings indicate that isavuconazole is a weak inhibitor of P-gp, as well as OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, or a combination thereof but not of BCRP, OATP1B1, OAT1, or OAT3.