The association between meteorological variables and road traffic injuries: a study from Macao.
ABSTRACT: Objective:Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to estimate the influence of meteorological factors on road traffic injuries stratified by severity. Crash rate was defined as mean monthly road traffic accidents per 1,000 vectors. Design:Ecological time-series study. Setting:Macao traffic accident registry database between January 1st, 2001 and November 31st, 2016. Participants:In total, 393,176 traffic accidents and 72,501 cases of road traffic injuries (RTIs) were enrolled; patients' severity was divided into mild injury, required hospitalisation, and death. Exposure:Variation of monthly meteorological factors. Main outcome measure:Weather-condition-related road traffic accidents, injuries, and deaths. Results:Windy weather significantly correlated with increased number of traffic accidents among all transport vectors (r = .375 to .637; p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed temperature (B = 0.704; p < 0.05) and humidity (B = - 0.537; p < 0.001) were independent factors for mild injury. The role of windy weather was relatively more obvious among patients with severe injuries (B = 0.304; p < 0.001) or those who died (B = 0.015; p < 0.001). A longer duration of sunshine was also associated to RTI-related deaths (B = 0.015; p < 0.001). In total, 13.4% of RTIs were attributable to meteorological factors and may be preventable. Conclusion:The World Health Organization stated that RTIs are a major but neglected public health challenge. This study demonstrates meteorological factors have significant effects on any degree of RTIs. The results may not be generalized to other climates or populations while the findings may have implications in both preventing injuries and to announce safety precautions regarding trauma and motor vehicle collisions to the general public by public agencies.
Project description:Few studies examined the associations of meteorological factors with road traffic injuries (RTIs). The purpose of the present study was to quantify the contributions of meteorological factors to RTI cases treated at a tertiary level hospital in Shantou city, China. A time-series diagram was employed to illustrate the time trends and seasonal variation of RTIs, and correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to investigate the relationships between meteorological parameters and RTIs. RTIs followed a seasonal pattern as more cases occurred during summer and winter months. RTIs are positively correlated with temperature and sunshine duration, while negatively associated with wind speed. Temperature, sunshine hour and wind speed were included in the final linear model with regression coefficients of 0.65 (t?=?2.36, P?=?0.019), 2.23 (t?=?2.72, P?=?0.007) and -27.66 (t?=?-5.67, P?<?0.001), respectively, accounting for 19.93% of the total variation of RTI cases. The findings can help us better understand the associations between meteorological factors and RTIs, and with potential contributions to the development and implementation of regional level evidence-based weather-responsive traffic management system in the future.
Project description:Background:Road traffic accidents are one of the serious disasters that cause public injury, fatality and great economic loss. They are a growing public health problem around the world. Objectives:The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological characteristics, tendency and possible influencing factors of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in China, so as to give target suggestions on preventative measures. Methods:Road traffic accident data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics of China and Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. Descriptive statistic such as RTIs frequency, trends of different accident types from 2007 to 2016; the RTIs difference between different regions and road surfaces were compared; and the possible influencing factors of RTIs were also explored. Results:Over the past decade, with the mileage of constructed highway increased, the frequency of road traffic accidents have declined substantially in China, and the death toll from road traffic accidents with motor vehicles has declined from 2007 to 2015, Conversely, the number of deaths from non-motor vehicle accidents has risen rapidly since 2012. Our study showed that the traffic accident related mortality in Guizhou province was different from the level of the whole nation, and the Eastern, Central and Western areas of China were all significantly different (P < 0.001). Linear regression suggested a significant affected of gross domestic product (GDP)-per-capita, education level, the number of health institutions, populations, and car ownership status on traffic accident death tolls (P < 0.001). Moreover, cement concrete pavement roads were associated with the highest occurrence rates of RTI, and RTIs was statistically significant (P < 0.001) on different road surfaces. Conclusion:Even though the frequency of road traffic accidents has declined, RTIs remain an urgent public health problem in China. Thus, the government should give some target preventative measures to reduce RTIs, aiming at different regions, the increasing trend of the death toll related to non-motor vehicles and the highest occurrence on cement concrete pavement roads.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to give a description of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) characteristics of floating migrant population by comparing with those of local residents in a harbor city of China. METHODS: A population-based descriptive study was carried out between 2007 and 2010 with RTI patient records from the Fifth Center Hospital of Tianjin. Inpatient diagnoses of RTI patients were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes. We analyzed the demographics and general characteristics of RTI patients that were in the hospital during the four years. In order to compare the group differences between local resident patients and floating migrant patients, the distribution of their ages, diagnoses, severity of injuries, duration of inpatient stays, hospitalization cost were analyzed. RESULTS: People between the ages of 16 and 55 were the most likely to suffer RTIs. The floating migrant patients between the ages of 16 and 45 had a higher incidence of accidents, while local resident patients between 46 and 55 had a higher incidence of accidents. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrant patients were more vulnerable to open injuries and severe traffic injuries. With the severity of injuries ranked from mild to severe, floating migrant patients had lower duration of inpatient stay, but higher hospitalization costs compared to local resident patients. CONCLUSIONS: Floating migrant patients had a different age distribution, severity of injuries, diseases, inpatient duration and hospitalization cost compared with local resident patients. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrants had a higher risk to RTIs and were more vulnerable to severer traffic accidents at lower ages.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To identify key intervention factors and reduce road traffic injury (RTI)-associated mortality, this study compared outcomes and influencing factors of single and multiple road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Shanghai. METHODS:Based on the design of National Trauma Data Bank, this study collected demographic, injury, and outcome data from RTI patients treated at the four largest trauma centers in Shanghai from January 2011 to January 2015. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and hierarchical logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Among 2397 participants, 59.4% had a single injury, and 40.6% had multiple injuries. Most patients' outcome was cure or improvement. For single-RTI patients, length of stay, body region, central nervous system injury, acute renal failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, bacterial infection, and coma were significantly related to outcome. For multiple-RTI patients, age, admission pathway, prehospital time, length of stay, number of body regions, body region, injury condition, injury severity score, and coma were significantly related to outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Emergency rescue in road traffic accidents should focus on high-risk groups (the elderly), high-incidence body regions (head, thorax, pelvis) and number of injuries, injury condition (central nervous system injury, coma, complications, admission pathway), injury severity (critically injured patients), and time factors (particularly prehospital time).
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Pacific Island countries and territories, the burden of road traffic injuries and their attendant risks are considered significant but are poorly quantified. As with other low and middle-income countries, understanding the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Pacific countries is critical to informing sustainable research and policy initiatives aimed at reducing this burden. METHODS:We undertook a systematic review and critical appraisal of the relevant epidemiological literature between January 1980 and December 2010, using key search strings for incidence and aetiological studies focusing on RTIs in less resourced Pacific countries. RESULTS:Nineteen studies were identified. The majority were descriptive and were unable to provide population-based estimates of the burden of road crash injury, or reliable information on risk factors using well-designed aetiological research methods. All studies were published more than 10 years ago, and all but three reported on data from Papua New Guinea, thereby limiting the generalisability of findings to the current status in the region. Studies undertaken in Papua New Guinea suggested that RTIs were more frequent among young males, with head injuries the most common cause of death or hospital admission. Two thirds of fatalities occurred at the crash site or soon after admission. Most road crash victims were passengers or pedestrians. Factors postulated to influence the risk of RTIs were travel in open-back utility vehicles, utility vehicle overcrowding, and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS:This review suggests that, despite increasing awareness of the importance of addressing road safety among stakeholders in less resourced Pacific Island countries, road traffic injuries have not been a research priority with little relevant current evidence from the region to inform policy. Robust epidemiological research that can assess the magnitude and key determinants of road traffic injuries in these settings is essential to determine context-specific road safety initiatives that are relevant and affordable. Greater attention to harnessing routinely collected data (e.g., hospital information systems and police crash statistics) to inform policy is also required.
Project description:Injuries are assuming epidemic proportions globally; and in India. Also, previous decade witnessed carnage on Indian roads, with nearly 12 lakh people killed and 55 lakhs disabled in road crashes. The trend in Armed Forces is reflective of the aforesaid patterns. Behaviour and socio-demographic background of the victims are significant determinants of injuries and road accidents. Community-based epidemiological information on these aspects is envisaged to contribute in their preventive strategy. Towards this direction, the present study was conducted with aim to generate socio-behavioural profile of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) amongst service personnel in a large defence station; and to evaluate their determinants.A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 796 Naval personnel onboard warships in large Naval station. Data on socio-behavioural aspects and determinants of injuries and road accidents was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire; and by scrutiny of relevant records. Data was analysed using MSExcel, Epi-info and SPSS 17.Young and middle-aged persons were predominantly involved in injuries and road accidents. Two-wheeler users sustained maximum road accidents. Human factor was a significant determinant in RTAs and injuries. A majority of victims admitted that human factors were the predominant cause of road accidents; and opined that the events were preventable.Age-specific Behavioural Change Communication strategies aimed at refining user outlook are imperative; tailored to sociodemographic milieu of user/victim. Incorporation of a dynamic feedback/reporting mechanism, creation of 'armed forces-specific road safety and injury prevention policy' and safety audits on injuries and road crashes are measures in this direction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries are a serious public health problem worldwide. The incidence rate of fatal road traffic injuries is 26.4 per 100000 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Iran. Different routine sources are available for road traffic injuries in Iran, but they present several limitations.This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in greater Tehran, using a population-based approach which is less prone to under-estimation compared to service-based data. METHODS: In the year 2008, 2488 households were randomly selected for a face to face interview. Trained interviewers referred to the selected households to collect the subjects' demographic information, as well as their motor vehicle utilization and traffic injuries during the year prior to data collection. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and reviewed by a quality control team the day after the interview. The Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze continuous variables. Chi-square test -including a test for trend for ordinal data- was used to analyze categorical variables. Ninety-five percent confidence interval was calculated for point estimates of incidences using Poisson or binomial distribution assumptions accordingly. RESULTS: There were 119 traffic injury cases including 3 deaths (33 per 100 000) in the survey sample (n = 9100). The annual incidence of all traffic injuries for 1000 population was 13.1 (95% CI: 10.8 - 15.6), and that of fatal traffic injuries was 33.0 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 6.80 - 96.32). The annual incidence of collision traffic injury for 1000 motorcycles was 95. CONCLUSION: This population-based study demonstrates that the morbidity rate of RTIs is about ten times higher than the national figures reported by other available sources; and this can serve as an important warning to countries like Iran to prioritize this issue in their public health activities. To ensure more safety on our roads, we need to establish an injury surveillance system, and a more accurate national data capture system on RTIs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are recognized as one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Human behavior is reportedly one of the critical factors in the occurrence of such injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of abnormal driving behaviors with the frequency and severity of RTIs among drivers in Hamadan, west of Iran. METHODS:The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 800 people driving, who were selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using a three-part self-administered questionnaire including demographic, social and driving characteristics; the Manchester driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ); as well as information on a history of the occurrence of the injuries caused by the crashes and the severity of them. Data were statistically analyzed using numerical indices, linear regression analysis, Pearson correlation, ordinal logistic regression model and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS:The highest and lowest mean percentages of abnormal driving behavior were related to unintentional violations (19.13) and Lapses (16.44), respectively. "Changing radio stations and listening to music while driving", "overtaking a driver who drives slowly", and "unintentionally exceeding the speed limit" were the three highest behaviors associated with road traffic injuries, with the mean and standard deviation of (1.93 ± 1.4), (1.90±1.4), (1.58±1.3), respectively. Age, gender, educational level, driving experience and driving hours during the day were significantly associated with DBQ dimensions and severity of road traffic injuries. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study showed that socio-demographic characteristics were significantly correlated with driving behavior. In addition, driving behaviors were correlated with traffic crashes and the resulting injuries. The findings of this study can be utilized to develop driving behavior interventions among the drivers.
Project description:To investigate the major injury patterns associated with traffic accidents and evaluate the risk factors of the main injury, a survey of Taiwan's national insurance admission data between 2002 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of traffic-accidents-related hospitalization was between 9.17% and 11.54% and the average mortality rate of the inpatients admitted due to traffic accidents was 0.68%. Of all inpatients due to road traffic accidents in Taiwan, orthopedic fractures were the most common injuries that accounted for 29.36% of them. There were a total of 391,197 cases of three orthopedic fracture groups that were divided into (1) fracture of upper limb, (2) fracture of lower limb, and (3) fracture of spine and trunk. An increase in national medical cost used for inpatients with orthopedic fractures was noted and ranged from US$ 45.6 million to US$ 86 million annually. These orthopedic fracture patterns were frequently associated with other injuries especially head injuries (ranged from 14% to 26%). A significant relation to male gender, older age, low income, and admission to high-level hospital to the observed fracture patterns was observed.
Project description:Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs) are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52), absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26), high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54), high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55), and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56). Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82) and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99).Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.