Interferon tau-dependent and independent effects of the bovine conceptus on the endometrial transcriptome†.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated bovine conceptus-induced modifications to the endometrial transcriptome related to effects of interferon tau (IFNT), conceptus origin (in vivo vs. in vitro), and conceptus sex. In vitro (IVF) or in vivo (superovulation and artificial insemination, AI) produced blastocysts were transferred into recipient heifers on day 7 of the estrous cycle. On day 15, IVF- or AI-derived conceptuses were obtained by uterine flushing and individually placed on endometrial explants in media for 6 h. Explants were also cultured with media alone as a control or media containing 100 ng/mL IFNT. Total explant RNA was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Incubation of endometrium with IFNT or IVF- or AI-derived conceptuses changed (P ? 0.001) expression of 491, 498, and 576 transcripts, respectively, compared to the control. Further, 369 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were common between explants exposed to IFNT or a conceptus. A total of 240 DEGs were uniquely altered by conceptuses (IVF- and AI-derived) but not IFNT. Of these transcripts, 46 were shared between the IVF and AI groups, while 61 and 133 were specific to IVF and AI conceptuses, respectively. Five genes [melanophilin (MLPH), prominin-2 (PROM2), myeloid associated differentiation marker (MYADM), vomeronasal 1 receptor 4 like (VN1R4L) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A)] were more abundant in endometrium exposed to female compared to male conceptuses (P < 0.001). A single gene [ADP-ribosylation factor like GTPase 4C (ARL4C)] was more abundant in response to male conceptuses (P < 0.001) than female conceptuses. These data support the hypothesis that conceptus regulation of gene expression in the endometrium is complex and involves factors other than IFNT that may have a biological role in pregnancy establishment.
Project description:This study aimed to identify bovine conceptus-induced modifications to the endometrial transcriptome both dependent and independent of interferon tau (IFNT), dependent on conceptus origin [in vitro fertilization (IVF) or artifical insemination (AI) derived blastocysts] and dependent on conceptus sex. Major findings include identification of genes differentially expressed in endometrium in response to the conceptus but independent of IFNT and genes differentially expressed in endometrium in response to AI vs. IVF and male vs. female conceptuses. Overall design: Bovine uteri were collected during the mid luteal phase of the estrous cycle and utilized to produce endometrial explants. The explants were treated for 6 h with RPMI media only (Control, n=6), media containing 100ng/mL of ovine IFNT (IFNT, n=6) or with a Day in vitro (IVF, n=7) or Day 15 in vivo (AI, n=4) derived conceptus in media. Following treatment, conceptuses were identified as either male (Male, n=6) or female (Female, n=5). Total RNA was extracted from the treated endometrium and RNA samples (23) were submitted for RNA-seq analysis. Comparisons include Control vs. IFNT, Control vs. AI, Control vs. IVF, Control vs. Male, Control vs. Female, AI vs. IVF and Male vs. Female treatments.
Project description:This study combined in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, multiple embryo transfer techniques, and a conceptus-endometrial explant co-culture system to test the hypothesis that bovine endometrium exposed to long vs. short day 15 conceptuses would exhibit a different transcriptome profile reflective of potential for successful pregnancy establishment. Bovine endometrial explants collected at the late luteal stage of the estrous cycle were cultured in RPMI medium for 6 h with nothing (control), 100 ng/mL recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT), a long day 15 conceptus, or a short day 15 conceptus. Transcriptional profiling of the endometrial explants found that exposure of endometrium to IFNT, long conceptuses, or short conceptuses altered (P < 0.05) expression of 491, 498, and 230 transcripts, respectively, compared to the control. Further analysis revealed three categories of differentially expressed genes (DEG): (i) commonly responsive to exposure to IFNT and conceptuses, irrespective of size (n = 223); (ii) commonly responsive to IFNT and long conceptuses only (n = 168); and genes induced by the presence of a conceptus but independent of IFNT (n = 108). Of those 108 genes, 101 were exclusively induced by long conceptuses and functional analysis revealed that regulation of molecular function, magnesium-ion transmembrane transport, and clathrin coat assembly were the principal gene ontologies associated with these DEG. In conclusion, bovine endometrium responds differently to age-matched conceptuses of varying size in both an IFNT-dependent and -independent manner, which may be reflective of the likelihood of successful pregnancy establishment.
Project description:Interferon Tau (IFNT), the conceptus-derived pregnancy recognition signal in cattle, significantly modifies the transcriptome of the endometrium. However, the endometrium also responds to IFNT-independent conceptus-derived products. The aim of this study was to determine what proteins are produced by the bovine conceptus that may facilitate the pregnancy recognition process in cattle. We analysed by mass spectrometry the proteins present in conceptus-conditioned media (CCM) after 6 h culture of Day 16 bovine conceptuses (n = 8) in SILAC media (arginine- and lysine-depleted media supplemented with heavy isotopes) and the protein content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of Day 16 pregnant (n = 7) and cyclic (n = 6) cross-bred heifers on day 16. In total, 11,122 proteins were identified in the CCM. Of these, 5.95% (662) had peptides with heavy labelled amino acids, i.e., de novo synthesised by the conceptuses. None of these proteins were detected in the EVs isolated from ULF. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 11, Trophoblast Kunitz domain protein 1 and DExD-Box Helicase 39A were de novo produced and present in the CCM from all conceptuses and in previously published CCM data following 6 and 24 h. A total of 463 proteins were present in the CCM from all the conceptuses in the present study, and after 6 and 24 h culture in a previous study, while expression of their transcripts was not detected in endometrium indicating that they are likely conceptus-derived. Of the proteins present in the EVs, 67 were uniquely identified in ULF from pregnant heifers; 35 of these had been previously reported in CCM from Day 16 conceptuses. This study has narrowed a set of conceptus-derived proteins that may be involved in EV-mediated IFNT-independent embryo-maternal communication during pregnancy recognition in cattle.
Project description:In cattle, maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs on Day 16 via secretion of interferon tau (IFNT) by the conceptus. The endometrium can distinguish between embryos with different developmental competencies. In eutherian mammals, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is required to ensure an equal transcriptional level of most X-linked genes for both male and female embryos in adult tissues, but this process is markedly different in cattle than mice. We examined how sexual dimorphism affected conceptus transcript abundance and amino acid composition as well as the endometrial transcriptome during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Of the 5132 genes that were differentially expressed on Day 19 in male compared to female conceptuses, 2.7% were located on the X chromosome. Concentrations of specific amino acids were higher in the uterine luminal fluid of male compared to female conceptuses, while female conceptuses had higher transcript abundance of specific amino acid transporters (SLC6A19 and SLC1A35). Of note, the endometrial transcriptome was not different in cattle gestating a male or a female conceptus. These data support the hypothesis that, far from being a blastocyst-specific phenomenon, XCI is incomplete before and during implantation in cattle. Despite differences in transcript abundance and amino acid utilization in male versus female conceptuses, the sex of the conceptus itself does not elicit a different transcriptomic response in the endometrium.
Project description:Preimplantation horse conceptuses require nutrients and signals from histotroph, the composition of which is regulated by luteal progesterone and conceptus-secreted factors. To distinguish progesterone and conceptus effects we shortened the period of endometrial progesterone-priming by asynchronous embryo transfer. Day 8 embryos were transferred to synchronous (day 8) or asynchronous (day 3) recipients, and RNA sequencing was performed on endometrium and conceptuses recovered 6 and 11 days later (embryo days 14 and 19). Asynchrony resulted in many more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in conceptus membranes (3473) than endometrium (715). Gene ontology analysis identified upregulation in biological processes related to organogenesis and preventing apoptosis in synchronous conceptuses on day 14, and in cell adhesion and migration on day 19. Asynchrony also resulted in large numbers of DEGs related to 'extracellular exosome'. In endometrium, genes involved in immunity, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis regulation were upregulated during synchronous pregnancy and, again, many genes related to extracellular exosome were differentially expressed. Interestingly, only 14 genes were differentially expressed in endometrium recovered 6 days after synchronous versus 11 days after asynchronous transfer (day 14 recipient in both). Among these, KNG1 and IGFBP3 were consistently upregulated in synchronous endometrium. Furthermore bradykinin, an active peptide cleaved from KNG1, stimulated prostaglandin release by cultured trophectoderm cells. The horse conceptus thus responds to a negatively asynchronous uterus by extensively adjusting its transcriptome, whereas the endometrial transcriptome is modified only subtly by a more advanced conceptus.
Project description:A major unresolved issue in the cloning of mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the mechanism by which the process fails after embryos are transferred to the uterus of recipients before or during the implantation window. We investigated this problem by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare the transcriptomes in cattle conceptuses produced by SCNT and artificial insemination (AI) at day (d) 18 (preimplantation) and d 34 (postimplantation) of gestation. In addition, endometrium was profiled to identify the communication pathways that might be affected by the presence of a cloned conceptus, ultimately leading to mortality before or during the implantation window. At d 18, the effects on the transcriptome associated with SCNT were massive, involving more than 5,000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them are 121 genes that have embryonic lethal phenotypes in mice, cause defects in trophoblast and placental development, and/or affect conceptus survival in mice. In endometria at d 18, <0.4% of expressed genes were affected by the presence of a cloned conceptus, whereas at d 34, ?36% and <0.7% of genes were differentially expressed in intercaruncular and caruncular tissues, respectively. Functional analysis of DEGs in placental and endometrial tissues suggests a major disruption of signaling between the cloned conceptus and the endometrium, particularly the intercaruncular tissue. Our results support a "bottleneck" model for cloned conceptus survival during the periimplantation period determined by gene expression levels in extraembryonic tissues and the endometrial response to altered signaling from clones.
Project description:Biochemical and/or physical communication between the conceptus and the uterine endometrium is required for conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium, leading to placentation and the establishment of pregnancy. We previously reported that in vitro co-culture system with bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, primary uterine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs), and uterine flushings (UFs) mimics in vivo conceptus attachment process. To identify molecules in UFs responsible for this change, we first characterized protein contents of UFs from day 17 cyclic (C17) and pregnant (P17) ewes through the use of two dimensional-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), followed by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. These analyses identified 266 proteins specific for P17 UFs, from which 172 proteins were identified as exosomal proteins. Among 172 exosomal proteins, 8 proteins that had been identified as exosomal proteins were chosen for further analysis, including macrophage-capping protein (CAPG), aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 protein (AKR1B1), bcl-2-like protein 15 (BCL2L15), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (EEF2), moesin (MSN), and ezrin (EZR). CAPG and AKR1B1 were again confirmed in P15 and P17 UFs, and more importantly CAPG and AKR1B1, mRNA and protein, were found only in P15 and P17 conceptuses. Moreover, exosomes were isolated from C15, C17, P15, or P17 UFs. Only P15 and P17 exosomes, originated from the conceptus, contained interferon tau (IFNT) as well as CAPG and AKR1B1, and up-regulated STAT1, STAT2, MX1, MX2, BST2, and ISG15 transcripts in EECs. These observations indicate that in addition to endometrial derived exosomes previously described, conceptus-derived exosomes are present in UFs and could function to modify endometrial response. These results suggest that exosomes secreted from conceptuses as well as endometria are involved in cell to cell interactions for conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sire fertility status on conceptus-induced changes in the endometrial transcriptome. Holstein Friesian bulls (3 High fertility, HF, 3 Low fertility, LF) were selected from the Irish national population of AI bulls (minimum of 500 inseminations/bull) based on adjusted fertility scores (HF: +4.37% and LF: -12.7%; mean = 0%). To generate elongated conceptuses, Day 7 blastocysts produced in vitro using sperm from these six bulls were transferred in groups of 5-10 to synchronized heifers (n=7 heifers per bull; total 42 heifers). Conceptuses were recovered following slaughter on Day 15 (recovery rate: HF 59.4% vs. LF 45.0%; P<0.05). In parallel, Day 15 endometrial explants were recovered from synchronized cyclic heifers (n=4). Explants from each heifer were co-cultured for 6 h in RPMI medium with (i) nothing, control (ii) 100 ng/ml ovine recombinant interferon tau (IFNT) (iii) a single conceptus from each high fertility bull, or (iv) a single conceptus from each low fertility bull. To minimize variation, explants from the same uterus were used across all treatments, replicated across 4 heifers. After 6 h, explants were snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Extracted mRNA was subjected to RNA-seq (Illumina NextSeq 500) and the resulting data were analyzed through a bioinformatic pipeline with R software. Overall design: Endometrial explants were co-cultured for 6 h in RPMI medium with (i) nothing, control (ii) 100 ng/ml ovine recombinant interferon tau (IFNT) (iii) a single conceptus from each high fertility bull, or (iv) a single conceptus from each low fertility bull.
Project description:In ruminants, Interferon tau (IFNT) is the pregnancy recognition protein produced by the mononuclear trophectoderm of the conceptus, and is secreted into the uterine lumen during the peri-attachment period. In our previous study, the high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from bovine conceptuses during the peri-attachment period identified two IFNT mRNAs, IFNT2 and IFNTc1. However, how each of these IFNT variants regulates endometrial gene expression has not been characterized. Using RNA-seq analysis, we evaluated how IFNT2 and IFNTc1 affected transcript expression in primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). IFNT treatment induced 348 differentially expressed genes (DEGs); however, there are few DEGs in IFNT2 or IFNTc1 treated EECs, indicating that IFNT2-induced DEGs were similar to those induced by IFNTc1 treatment. In in silico analysis, we identified four IFNT2- and IFNTc1-induced pathways: 1) type II interferon signaling, 2) proteasome degradation, 3) type III interferon signaling, and 4) DNA damage response. We further demonstrated that IFNT2 and IFNTc1 up-regulated several transcription factors, among which forkhead box S1 (FOXS1) was identified as the most highly expressed gene. Furthermore, the knockdown of FOXS1 in IFNT2- or IFNTc1-treated EECs similarly down-regulated 9 genes including IRF3 and IRF9, and up-regulated 9 genes including STAT1, STAT2, and IRF8. These represent the first demonstration that effects of each IFNT on EECs were studied, and suggest that endometrial response as well as signaling mechanisms were similar between two IFNT variants existed in utero.
Project description:Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is abundantly expressed by endometrial glands of the ovine uterus and processed into different bioactive peptides, including GRP1-27, GRP18-27, and a C-terminus, that affect cell proliferation and migration. However, little information is available concerning the hormonal regulation of endometrial GRP and expression of GRP receptors in the ovine endometrium and conceptus. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy, progesterone (P4), interferon tau (IFNT), placental lactogen (CSH1), and growth hormone (GH) on expression of GRP in the endometrium and GRP receptors (GRPR, NMBR, BRS3) in the endometrium, conceptus, and placenta. In pregnant ewes, GRP mRNA and protein were first detected predominantly in endometrial glands after Day 10 and were abundant from Days 18 through 120 of gestation. Treatment with IFNT and progesterone but not CSH1 or GH stimulated GRP expression in the endometrial glands. Western blot analyses identified proGRP in uterine luminal fluid and allantoic fluid from Day 80 unilateral pregnant ewes but not in uterine luminal fluid of either cyclic or early pregnant ewes. GRPR mRNA was very low in the Day 18 conceptus and undetectable in the endometrium and placenta; NMBR and BRS3 mRNAs were undetectable in ovine uteroplacental tissues. Collectively, the present studies validate GRP as a novel IFNT-stimulated gene in the glands of the ovine uterus, revealed that IFNT induction of GRP is dependent on P4, and found that exposure of the ovine uterus to P4 for 20 days induces GRP expression in endometrial glands.