Isozyme Specific Allosteric Regulation of Human Sulfotransferase 1A1.
ABSTRACT: The human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) comprise a 13-member enzyme family that regulates the activities of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of signaling small molecules via regiospecific transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of acceptors. Signaling molecules regulated by sulfonation include numerous steroid and thyroid hormones, epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. SULT1A1, a major phase II metabolism SULT isoform, is found at a high concentration in liver and has recently been show to harbor two allosteric binding sites, each of which binds a separate and complex class of compounds: the catechins (naturally occurring polyphenols) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among catechins, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) displays high affinity and specificity for SULT1A1. The allosteric network associated with either site has yet to be defined. Here, using equilibrium binding and pre-steady state studies, the network is shown to involve 14 distinct complexes. ECGG binds both the allosteric site and, relatively weakly, the active site of SULT1A1. It is not a SULT1A1 substrate but is sulfonated by SULT2A1. EGCG binds 17-fold more tightly when the active-site cap of the enzyme is closed by the binding of the nucleotide. When nucleotide is saturating, EGCG binds in two phases. In the first, it binds to the cap-open conformer; in the second, it traps the cap in the closed configuration. Cap closure encapsulates the nucleotide, preventing its release; hence, the EGCG-induced cap stabilization slows nucleotide release, inhibiting turnover. Finally, a comprehensive quantitative model of the network is presented.
Project description:We are just beginning to understand the allosteric regulation of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULTs) family-13 disease-relevant enzymes that regulate the activities of hundreds, if not thousands, of signaling small molecules. SULT1A1, the predominant isoform in adult liver, harbors two noninteracting allosteric sites, each of which binds a different molecular family: the catechins (naturally occurring flavonols) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Here, we present the structure of an SULT allosteric binding site-the catechin-binding site of SULT1A1 bound to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The allosteric pocket resides in a dynamic region of the protein that enables EGCG to control opening and closure of the enzyme's active-site cap. Furthermore, the structure offers a molecular explanation for the isozyme specificity of EGCG, which is corroborated experimentally. The binding-site structure was obtained without X-ray crystallography or multidimensional NMR. Instead, a SULT1A1 apoprotein structure was used to guide positioning of a small number of spin-labeled single-Cys mutants that coat the entire enzyme surface with a paramagnetic field of sufficient strength to determine its contribution to the bound ligand's transverse (T2) relaxation from its 1D solution spectrum. EGCG protons were mapped to the protein surface by triangulation using the T2 values to calculate their distances to a trio of spin-labeled Cys mutants. The final structure was obtained using distance-constrained molecular dynamics docking. This approach, which is readily extensible to other systems, is applicable over a wide range of ligand affinities, requires little protein, avoids the need for isotopically labeled protein, and has no protein molecular weight limitations.
Project description:Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide-more than 111 million prescriptions were written in the United States in 2014. NSAIDs allosterically inhibit cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) with high specificity and therapeutically relevant affinities. This study focuses on the interactions of SULT1A1 and mefenamic acid (MEF)-a potent, highly specific NSAID inhibitor of 1A1. Here, the first structure of an NSAID allosteric site-the MEF-binding site of SULT1A1-is determined using spin-label triangulation NMR. The structure is confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and provides a molecular framework for understanding NSAID binding and isoform specificity. The mechanism of NSAID inhibition is explored using molecular dynamics and equilibrium and pre-steady-state ligand-binding studies. MEF inhibits SULT1A1 turnover through an indirect (helix-mediated) stabilization of the closed form of the active-site cap of the enzyme, which traps the nucleotide and slows its release. Using the NSAID-binding site structure of SULT1A1 as a comparative model, it appears that 11 of the 13 human SULT isoforms harbor an NSAID-binding site. We hypothesize that these sites evolved to enable SULT isoforms to respond to metabolites that lie within their metabolic domains. Finally, the NSAID-binding site structure offers a template for developing isozyme-specific allosteric inhibitors that can be used to regulate specific areas of sulfuryl-transfer metabolism.
Project description:Human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) transfer the sulfuryl moiety (-SO(3)) from activated sulfate [3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)] to the hydroxyls and primary amines of numerous metabolites, drugs, and xenobiotics. Receipt of the sulfuryl group often radically alters acceptor-target interactions. How these enzymes select particular substrates from the hundreds of candidates in a complex cytosol remains an important question. Recent work reveals PAPS binding causes SULT2A1 to undergo an isomerization that controls selectivity by constricting the opening through which acceptors must pass to enter the active site. The enzyme maintains an affinity for large substrates by isomerizing between the open and closed states with nucleotide bound. Here, the molecular basis of the nucleotide-induced closure is explored in equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations predict that the active-site "cap," which covers both the nucleotide and acceptor binding sites, opens and closes in response to nucleotide. The cap subdivides into nucleotide and acceptor halves whose motions, while coupled, exhibit an independence that can explain the isomerization. In silico weakening of electrostatic interactions between the cap and base of the active site causes the acceptor half of the cap to open and close while the nucleotide lid remains shut. Simulations predict that SULT1A1, the most abundant SULT in human liver, will utilize a similar selection mechanism. This prediction is tested using fulvestrant, an anti-estrogen too large to pass through the closed pore, and estradiol, which is not restricted by closure. Equilibrium and pre-steady-state binding studies confirm that SULT1A1 undergoes a nucleotide-induced isomerzation that controls substrate selection.
Project description:Human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) regulate the activities of thousands of small molecules-metabolites, drugs, and other xenobiotics-via the transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to the hydroxyls and primary amines of acceptors. SULT1A1 is the most abundant SULT in liver and has the broadest substrate spectrum of any SULT. Here we present the discovery of a new form of SULT1A1 allosteric regulation that modulates the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme over a 130-fold dynamic range. The molecular basis of the regulation is explored in detail and is shown to be rooted in an energetic coupling between the active-site caps of adjacent subunits in the SULT1A1 dimer. The first nucleotide to bind causes closure of the cap to which it is bound and at the same time stabilizes the cap in the adjacent subunit in the open position. Binding of the second nucleotide causes both caps to open. Cap closure sterically controls active-site access of the nucleotide and acceptor; consequently, the structural changes in the cap that occur as a function of nucleotide occupancy lead to changes in the substrate affinities and turnover of the enzyme. PAPS levels in tissues from a variety of organs suggest that the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme varies across tissues over the full 130-fold range and that efficiency is greatest in those tissues that experience the greatest xenobiotic "load".
Project description:Monoamine neurotransmitters are among the hundreds of signaling small molecules whose target interactions are switched "on" and "off" via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of their scaffolds. These transfer reactions are catalyzed by a small family of broad-specificity enzymes-the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). The first structure of a SULT allosteric-binding site (that of SULT1A1) has recently come to light. The site is conserved among SULT1 family members and is promiscuous-it binds catechins, a naturally occurring family of flavanols. Here, the catechin-binding site of SULT1A3, which sulfonates monoamine neurotransmitters, is modeled on that of 1A1 and used to screen in silico for endogenous metabolite 1A3 allosteres. Screening predicted a single high-affinity allostere, tetrahydrobiopterin (THB), an essential cofactor in monoamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis. THB is shown to bind and inhibit SULT1A3 with high affinity, 23 (±2) nM, and to bind weakly, if at all, to the four other major SULTs found in brain and liver. The structure of the THB-bound binding site is determined and confirms that THB binds the catechin site. A structural comparison of SULT1A3 with SULT1A1 (its immediate evolutionary progenitor) reveals how SULT1A3 acquired high affinity for THB and that the majority of residue changes needed to transform 1A1 into 1A3 are clustered at the allosteric and active sites. Finally, sequence records reveal that the coevolution of these sites played an essential role in the evolution of simian neurotransmitter metabolism.
Project description:The human sulfotransferases (SULTs) regulate the activities of hundreds, if not thousands, of small molecule metabolites via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO3) from the nucleotide donor, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to the hydroxyls and amines of the recipients. Our understanding of the molecular basis of SULT catalysis has expanded considerably in recent years. The basic kinetic mechanism of these enzymes, previously thought to be ordered, has been redefined as random for SULT2A1, a representative member of the superfamily. An active-site cap whose structure and dynamics are highly responsive to nucleotides was discovered and shown to be critical in determining SULT selectivity, a topic of longstanding interest to the field. We now realize that a given SULT can operate in two specificity modes-broad and narrow-depending on the disposition of the cap. More recent work has revealed that the caps of the SULT1A1 are controlled by homotropic allosteric interactions between PAPS molecules bound at the dimer's active sites. These interactions cause the catalytic efficiency of SULT1A1 to vary in a substrate-dependent fashion by as much as two orders of magnitude over a range of PAPS concentrations that spans those found in human tissues. SULT catalysis is further complicated by the fact that these enzymes are frequently inhibited by their substrates. This review provides an overview of the mechanistic features of SULT1A1 that are important for the design and interpretation of SULT1A1 assays.
Project description:It is known that catechins interact with the tryptophan (Trp) residue at the drug-binding site of serum albumin. In this study, we used catechin derivatives to investigate which position of the catechin structure strongly influences the binding affinity against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). A docking simulation showed that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) interacted with both Trp residues of BSA (one at drug-binding site I and the other on the molecular surface), mainly by ?-? stacking. Fluorescence analysis showed that EGCg and substituted EGCg caused a red shift of the peak wavelength of Trp similarly to warfarin (a drug-binding site I-specific compound), while 3-O-acyl-catechins caused a blue shift. To evaluate the binding affinities, the quenching constants were determined by the Stern-Volmer equation. A gallate ester at the C-3 position increased the quenching constants of the catechins. Against BSA, acyl substitution increased the quenching constant proportionally to the carbon chain lengths of the acyl group, whereas methyl substitution decreased the quenching constant. Against HSA, neither acyl nor methyl substitution affected the quenching constant. In conclusion, substitution at the C-3 position of catechins has an important influence on the binding affinity against serum albumin.
Project description:Although tea catechins in green tea and green tea beverages must be stable to deliver good sensory quality and healthy benefits, they are always unstable during processing and storage. Ascorbic acid (AA) is often used to protect catechins in green tea beverages, and AA is easily oxidized to form dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). However, the function of DHAA on the stability of catechins is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of DHAA on the stability of catechins and clarify the mechanism of effects by conducting a series of experiments that incubate DHAA with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or catechins. Results showed that DHAA had a dual function on EGCG stability, protecting its stability by inhibiting hydrolysis and promoting EGCG consumption by forming ascorbyl adducts. DHAA also reacted with (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) to form ascorbyl adducts, which destabilized them. After 9 h of reaction with DHAA, the depletion rates of EGCG, ECG, EC, and EGC were 30.08%, 22.78%, 21.45%, and 13.55%, respectively. The ability of DHAA to promote catechins depletion went from high to low: EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC. The results are important for the processing and storage of tea and tea beverages, as well as the general exploration of synergistic functions of AA and catechins.
Project description:Green tea's health benefits have been attributed to its major polyphenols, the catechins: (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC). Catechins (especially EGCG) modulate a wide range of biologically important molecules, including many membrane proteins. Yet, little is known about their mechanism(s) of action. We tested the catechins' bilayer-modifying potency using gramicidin A (gA) channels as molecular force probes. All the catechins alter gA channel function and modify bilayer properties, with a 500-fold range in potency (EGCG>ECG?EGC>EC). Additionally, the gallate group causes current block, as evident by brief downward current transitions (flickers).
Project description:Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that green tea and green tea catechins exert beneficial effects on a variety of diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In most cases, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to play a central role in these effects by green tea. Catechins from other plant sources have also shown health benefits. Many studies have revealed that the binding of EGCG and other catechins to proteins is involved in its action mechanism. Computational docking analysis (CMDA) and X-ray crystallographic analysis (XCA) have provided detailed information on catechin-protein interactions. Several of these studies have revealed that the galloyl moiety anchors it to the cleft of proteins through interactions with its hydroxyl groups, explaining the higher activity of galloylated catechins such as EGCG and epicatechin gallate than non-galloylated catechins. In this paper, we review the results of CMDA and XCA of EGCG and other plant catechins to understand catechin-protein interactions with the expectation of developing new drugs with health-promoting properties.