The Concise Health Risk Tracking-Self Report: Psychometrics within a placebo-controlled antidepressant trial among depressed outpatients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS:While substantial prior research has evaluated the psychometric properties of the 12-item Concise Health Risk Tracking-Self Report (CHRT-SR12), a measure of suicide propensity and suicidal thoughts, no prior research has investigated its factor structure, sensitivity to change over time, and other psychometric properties in a placebo-controlled trial of antidepressant medication, nor determined whether symptoms change throughout treatment. METHODS:Participants in the multi-site Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care (EMBARC) study ( n=278) provided data to evaluate the factor structure and sensitivity to change over time of the CHRT-SR12 through eight weeks of a clinical trial in which participants received either placebo or antidepressant medication (sertraline). RESULTS/OUTCOMES:Factor analysis confirmed two factors: propensity (comprised of first-order factors including pessimism, helplessness, social support, and despair) and suicidal thoughts. Internal consistency (?'s ranged from 0.69-0.92) and external validity were both acceptable, with the total score and propensity factor scores significantly correlated with total scores and single-item suicidal-thoughts scores on the self-report Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms and the clinician-rated 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Through analyzing CHRT-SR12 changes over eight treatment weeks, the total score and both the factors decreased regardless of baseline suicidal thoughts. Change in clinician-rated suicidal thoughts was reflected by change in both the total score and propensity factor score. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:These results confirm the reliability, validity, and applicability of the CHRT-SR12 to a placebo-controlled clinical trial of depressed outpatients receiving antidepressant medication.
Project description:Stimulant use disorders are both common and associated with suicidal ideation and attempts. The psychometric properties of the 12-item Concise Health Risk Tracking Scale Self-Report (CHRT-SR), a measure that was created to assess suicidal thinking and several factors associated with a propensity to act, has been established in persons with mood disorders. This is a secondary analysis to assess the CHRT-SR in 302 stimulant abusing patients that had participated in a clinical trial. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the factor validity of the 12-item CHRT-SR model with a second-order Propensity factor. The CHRT-SR total score and 2 factor scores (Propensity and Suicidal Thoughts) demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. These two subscales and the total score were modestly but significantly associated with measures of depression and life satisfaction, demonstrating construct validity. Two additional items assessing Impulsivity were also analyzed, and demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. The CHRT-SR appears to be a reliable and valid tool to assess suicidality in persons with stimulant use disorder.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:People with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide, but no clinically useful scale has been validated in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties in bipolar disorder of the 7- and 12-item versions of the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR), a scale measuring suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and associated symptoms. METHODS:The CHRT was administered to 283 symptomatic outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder who were randomized to receive lithium plus optimized personalized treatment (OPT), or OPT without lithium in a six month longitudinal comparative effectiveness trial. Participants were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews, clinician-rated assessments, and self-report questionnaires. RESULTS:The internal consistency (Cronbach ?) was 0.80 for the 7-item CHRT-SR and 0.90 for the 12-item CHRT-SR with a consistent factor structure, and three independent factors (current suicidal thoughts and plans, hopelessness, and perceived lack of social support) for the 7-item version. CHRT-SR scores are correlated with measures of depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania scores. CONCLUSIONS:The 7- and 12-item CHRT-SR both had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of symptomatic subjects with bipolar disorder. The scale is highly correlated with depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania. Future research is needed to determine whether the CHRT-SR will be able to predict suicide attempts in clinical practice.
Project description:Background:Suicidal ideations, suicide attempts, and fatal suicides are rare adverse drug reactions to antidepressant drugs, but they essentially are clinically relevant. Drawing on a larger dataset of the European drug surveillance program, the present naturalistic study updates a previous contribution (Stübner et al., 2010). Methods:First an analysis of the comprehensive data collected in 81 psychiatric hospitals from 1993 to 2014 by the European drug surveillance program Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie was made. All documented single cases of suicidal ideations or behavior judged as adverse drug reactions to antidepressant drugs were carefully assessed as to their clinical features and drug prescriptions. Results:Among 219,635 adult hospitalized patients taking antidepressant drugs under surveillance, 83 cases of suicidal adverse drug reactions occurred (0.04%): 44 cases of suicidal ideation, 34 attempted suicides, and 5 committed suicides were documented. Restlessness was present in 42 patients, ego-dystonic intrusive suicidal thoughts or urges in 39 patients, impulsiveness in 22 patients, and psychosis in 7 patients. Almost all adverse drug reactions occurred shortly after beginning antidepressant drug medication or increasing the dosage. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors caused a higher incidence of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior as adverse drug reactions than noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants or tricyclic antidepressants, as did monotherapy consisting of one antidepressant drug, compared to combination treatments. Conclusions:The study supports the view that antidepressant drug-triggered suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior (primarily with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are rare. Special clinical features (restlessness, ego-dystonic thoughts or urges, impulsiveness) may be considered as possible warning signs. A combination therapy might be preferable to antidepressant drug monotherapy when beginning treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pharmacotherapy to rapidly relieve suicidal ideation in depression may reduce suicide risk. Rapid reduction in suicidal thoughts after ketamine treatment has mostly been studied in patients with low levels of suicidal ideation. The authors tested the acute effect of adjunctive subanesthetic intravenous ketamine on clinically significant suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD:In a randomized clinical trial, adults (N=80) with current major depressive disorder and a score ?4 on the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), of whom 54% (N=43) were taking antidepressant medication, were randomly assigned to receive ketamine or midazolam infusion. The primary outcome measure was SSI score 24 hours after infusion (at day 1). RESULTS:The reduction in SSI score at day 1 was 4.96 points greater for the ketamine group compared with the midazolam group (95% CI=2.33, 7.59; Cohen's d=0.75). The proportion of responders (defined as having a reduction ?50% in SSI score) at day 1 was 55% for the ketamine group and 30% for the midazolam group (odds ratio=2.85, 95% CI=1.14, 7.15; number needed to treat=4.0). Improvement in the Profile of Mood States depression subscale was greater at day 1 for the ketamine group compared with the midazolam group (estimate=7.65, 95% CI=1.36, 13.94), and this effect mediated 33.6% of ketamine's effect on SSI score. Side effects were short-lived, and clinical improvement was maintained for up to 6 weeks with additional optimized standard pharmacotherapy in an uncontrolled follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Adjunctive ketamine demonstrated a greater reduction in clinically significant suicidal ideation in depressed patients within 24 hours compared with midazolam, partially independently of antidepressant effect.
Project description:Suicidal thoughts and behaviours during antidepressant treatment, especially during the first weeks of treatment, have prompted warnings by regulatory bodies. The aim of the present study is to investigate the course and predictors of emergence and worsening of suicidal ideation during tricyclic antidepressant and serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment.In a multicentre part-randomised open-label study, 811 adult patients with moderate to severe unipolar depression were allocated to flexible dosage of escitalopram or nortriptyline for 12 weeks. The suicidality items of three standard measures were integrated in a suicidal ideation score. Increases in this score were classified as treatment emergent suicidal ideation (TESI) or treatment worsening suicidal ideation (TWOSI) according to the absence or presence of suicidal ideation at baseline.Suicidal ideation decreased during antidepressant treatment. Rates of TESI and TWOSI peaked in the fifth week. Severity of depression predicted TESI and TWOSI. In men, nortriptyline was associated with a 9.8-fold and 2.4-fold increase in TESI and TWOSI compared to escitalopram, respectively. Retirement and history of suicide attempts predicted TWOSI.Increases in suicidal ideation were associated with depression severity and decreased during antidepressant treatment. In men, treatment with escitalopram is associated with lower risk of suicidal ideation compared to nortriptyline. Clinicians should remain alert to suicidal ideation beyond the initial weeks of antidepressant treatment.EudraCT (No.2004-001723-38) and ISRCTN (No. 03693000).
Project description:To evaluate suicidal thoughts in relationship to depressive symptom severity and reasons for living in patients hospitalized for major depressive disorder (MDD).A post hoc analysis was conducted of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial involving hospitalized patients with MDD (DSM-IV criteria) who received duloxetine 60 mg once daily or duloxetine 60 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, the dose for nonresponders receiving 60 mg once daily could be increased to 60 mg twice daily (double-blind). The study was conducted between February 9, 2007, and August 26, 2008 at 43 centers in 4 countries across Europe and South Africa. Suicidal thoughts were assessed with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 10, depression severity was assessed with the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale, and protective factors were assessed with the patient-rated Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) assessing 6 domains. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and linear regression analysis were performed.At baseline, patients (N = 336) had varying severity of suicidal thoughts: 18% had a score ? 4. The proportion of patients with a score ? 4 decreased to 7% at week 1 and 1% at week 8 of treatment. The RFL scores at baseline were lower in patients with higher baseline suicidal thoughts and increased significantly during treatment (P < .0001). A regression model revealed that only 16% of variance in baseline total RFL score is explained by the different MADRS items. Eight patients had suicidal behavior or ideation recorded as an adverse event during the study; no consistent pattern was found in the different psychometric scores either at baseline or at the visit preceding the suicidal behavior/ideation.Suicidality rapidly decreased in hospitalized patients with severe depression treated with duloxetine. The RFL scores were low at baseline but increased during treatment, suggesting that they are at least partially state rather than trait variables. Since RFL scores are lower in depressed inpatients, these scores lose the predictive value that they have in a general population sample.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00422162.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Accurate and prospective assessments of treatment-emergent suicidal thoughts and behaviors are essential to both clinical care and randomized clinical trials. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale is a prospective, patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks both treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was incorporated into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active comparator study examining the efficacy of an experimental corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (BMS-562086) for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. METHOD:The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was administered to subjects at baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8 or early termination. Subjects completed theSheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale by self report. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was designated as an exploratory outcome measure in the study protocol, and post-hoc analyses were performed to examine the performance of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. RESULTS:A total of 82 subjects completed the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale during the course of the study. Altogether, these subjects provided 297 completed Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale ratings across the study time points. Sixty-one subjects (n=25 placebo, n=24 BMS-562086, and n=12 escitalopram) had a baseline and at least one post-baseline Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale measurement. The mean change from baseline at Week 8 in the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale total score was -0.10, -0.02, and -0.06 for escitalopram, placebo, and BMS-562086 groups, respectively. The sensitivity of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale and HAM-D Item #3 (suicide) for identifying subjects with suicidal thoughts or behaviors was 100 percent and 63 percent, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale may be a sensitive psychometric tool to prospectively assess for treatment-emergent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Despite the small sample size and low occurrence of suicidal ideation during the course of this clinical trial, the self-reported Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale demonstrated increased sensitivity over the rater administered HAM-D Item #3 in identifying suicide related ideations and behaviors. Further research in larger study samples as well as in other psychiatric disorders are needed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine suicide decedents' use of mental health treatment and perceived barriers to initiating and maintaining treatment. METHOD:We used a psychological autopsy study conducted as part of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience Among Servicemembers (Army STARRS) that compared suicide decedents (n = 135) to soldiers in two control conditions: those propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic and Army history variables (n = 137) and those with a history of suicidal thoughts in the past 12 months (n = 118). Informants were next of kin and Army supervisors. RESULTS:Results revealed that suicide decedents were significantly more likely to be referred to services and to use more intensive treatments (e.g., medication, overnight stay in hospital) than propensity-matched controls. However, decedents also were more likely to perceive significant barriers to treatment-seeking. All differences observed in the current study were between propensity-matched controls and decedents, with no observed differences between suicide ideators and decedents. CONCLUSIONS:Many suicide decedents used some form of mental health care at some point in their lives; however, they also were more likely than propensity-matched controls to perceive barriers that may have prevented service use. The lack of differences between suicide ideators and decedents suggests that more information is needed, beyond knowledge of treatment utilization or perceived barriers, to identify and intervene on those at highest risk for suicide. These findings underscore the importance of reducing attitudinal barriers that may deter suicidal soldiers from seeking treatment, and also improving risk detection among those who are attending treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Irritability in pediatric samples is associated with higher rates of subsequent suicide-related outcomes. No study, to date, has evaluated the longitudinal association between irritability and suicidal ideation (SI) in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). This report evaluated whether irritability is associated with SI at the same visit (i.e., concurrently) and whether early changes in irritability with antidepressant treatment predict subsequent levels of SI. Participants of Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED, n = 665), Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care (EMBARC, n = 296), and Suicide Assessment Methodology Study (SAMS, n = 266) were included. Repeated-measures mixed model analyses evaluated concurrent association throughout the trial between irritability (five-item irritability domain of Concise Associated Symptom Tracking scale) and SI (three-item suicidal thoughts factor of Concise Health Risk Tracking scale) after controlling for overall depression (excluding suicidality-related item), and predicted subsequent levels of SI (repeated observations from week-2-to-week-8) based on early (baseline-to-week-2) changes in irritability after controlling for early changes in overall depression. Higher irritability was associated with higher SI concurrently; estimates (standard error) were 0.18 (0.02, p < 0.0001), 0.64 (0.02, p < 0.0001), and 0.26 (0.04, p < 0.0001) in CO-MED, EMBARC, and SAMS respectively. Greater baseline-to-week-2 reductions in irritability predicted lower levels of subsequent SI; estimates (standard errors) were -0.08 (0.03, p = 0.023), -0.50 (0.05, p < 0.0001), and -0.12 (0.05, p = 0.024) in CO-MED, EMBARC, and SAMS, respectively. Controlling for anxiety or insomnia produced similar results. In conclusion, irritability and SI were consistently linked in adults with MDD. These findings support careful assessment of irritability in suicide risk assessment.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Several studies have shown increased suicide rates among veterinarians. We investigated the self-reported prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours and contributing and independent factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours among veterinarians in Norway.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional, nationwide survey.<h4>Participants</h4>2596 veterinarians in Norway (response rate: 75%).<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Paykel's five-item questionnaire.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 27% (n=682/2567) of veterinarians in Norway felt that life was not worth living during the last year, 5% (n=139/2562) had serious suicidal thoughts, and 0.2% (n=6/2537) had attempted suicide. Female veterinarians reported significantly higher prevalence of suicidal feelings and thoughts than males. For serious suicidal thoughts, women had nearly twice the prevalence as their male colleagues (6.2% (n=108/1754) vs 3.6% (n=28/766), χ<sup>2</sup>: 6.5, p=0.011). Independent factors associated with serious suicidal thoughts were being single (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.72, p<0.05), negative life events (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.68, p<0.001) and the presence of mental distress (OR 2.75, 95% CI 2.14 to 3.52, p<0.001). The veterinarians related their serious suicidal thoughts to work and personal problems, and a lesser degree to family, social and other problems. Nearly twice as many women (53%, n=57/108) as men (28%, n=7/25) reported work problems as the most important contributing factor to their serious suicidal thoughts (χ<sup>2</sup>: 4.99, p=0.03). 4% (n=6/139) reported work problems as the only factor of importance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Veterinarians in Norway have relatively high prevalence of suicidal feelings and thoughts, including serious suicidal thoughts. In multivariable analyses, the individual factors were more important than work-related ones, while work problems were the most reported contributing factor to serious suicidal thoughts by the veterinarians themselves. The role of gender and specific work-related factors should be further investigated to better understand the complexity of suicidal behaviour among veterinarians.