The impact of sunlight exposure on mortality of patients with end stage renal disease.
ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that reduced sunlight exposure is associated with increased mortality in the general population. To date, the association between sunlight exposure and mortality in dialysis patients has not been examined. Among 134,478 dialysis patients in the Korean end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort from 2001 to 2014, 31,291 patients were enrolled from seven metropolitan cities, and data were analyzed using bi-directional case-crossover design. We examined the association between short-term sunlight exposure and mortality in ESRD patients. We adjusted for temperature, humidity, and daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and particle matter (PM10) as confounders. The characteristics of the study population included age (65.6 ± 12.26 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) years), sex (male, 59.96%; female, 41.04%), comorbidity (diabetes, 53.58%; hypertension, 40.5%), and kidney dialysis type (hemodialysis, 73.02%; peritoneal dialysis, 26.98%). The mean ± SD follow-up time was 4.68 ± 4.37 years. The daily sunlight exposure was significantly decreased in the case group compared with the control group (P = 0.004). Sunlight exposure was associated with all-cause death overall (ORs [95% CI]: 0.99 [0.98-0.99], P = 0.042) in a fully adjusted model. Patients with diabetes (ORs [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.97-0.99], P = 0.016) or aged higher than 75 years (ORs [95% CI]; 0.97 [0.96-0.99], P = 0.020) had higher risks of mortality than patients without diabetes or aged below 75 years, respectively. These findings suggest that sunlight exposure is inversely correlated with all-cause mortality in dialysis patients.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Homozygosity for a five leucine repeat (5L-5L) in the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) has been found to be cross-sectionally associated with a low frequency of diabetic nephropathy (DN), mainly in type 2 diabetes. We prospectively investigated in patients with type 1 diabetes whether: (1) 5L-5L is associated with mortality; (2) there is an interaction of 5L-5L with DN or sex for prediction of mortality; and (3) 5L-5L is associated with progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: In this prospective study in white European patients with type 1 diabetes, individuals with DN were defined by persistent albuminuria ? 300 mg/24 h. Controls without nephropathy were defined by persistent (>15 years) normoalbuminuria < 30 mg/24 h. Leucine repeats were assessed with a fluorescent DNA analysis system. Onset of ESRD was defined by need to start chronic dialysis or kidney transplantation. RESULTS: The study involved 916 patients with DN and 1,170 controls. During follow-up for 8.8 years, 107 patients (14%) with 5L-5L died compared with 182 patients (13.8%) with other genotypes (p = 0.99). There was no significant interaction of 5L-5L with DN for prediction of mortality (p = 0.57), but a trend towards interaction with sex (p = 0.08). In patients with DN, HR for ESRD in 5L-5L vs other genotypes was not constant over time, with increased risk for 5L-5L beyond 8 years of follow-up (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: CNDP1 polymorphism was not associated with mortality, and nor was there an interaction of this polymorphism with DN for prediction of mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. CNDP1 polymorphism predicts progression to ESRD in patients with DN, but only late after baseline measurements.
Project description:Although early trials suggested that intensive glycemic targets reduce the number of complications with diabetes, contemporary trials indicate no cardiovascular benefit and potentially higher mortality risk. As patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) transitioning to treatment with dialysis were excluded from these studies, the optimal glycemic level in this population remains uncertain. We hypothesized that glycemic status, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA--1c) and random glucose levels, in the pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) period is associated with higher 1-year post-ESRD mortality among patients with incident diabetes who have ESRD.Among 17,819 U.S. veterans with diabetic CKD transitioning to dialysis from October 2007 to September 2011, we examined the association of mean HbA--1c and random glucose levels averaged over the 1-year pre-ESRD transition period with mortality in the first year after dialysis initiation. All-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable survival models. Secondary analyses examined cardiovascular mortality using competing risks methods.HbA--1c levels ?8% (?64 mmol/mol) were associated with higher mortality in the first year after dialysis initiation (reference value 6% to <7% [42-53 mmol/mol]): adjusted HRs [aHRs] 1.19 [95% CI 1.07-1.32] and 1.48 (1.31-1.67) for HbA--1c 8% to <9% [64-75 mmol/mol] and ?9% [?75 mmol/mol], respectively). Random glucose levels ?200 mg/dL were associated with higher mortality (reference value 100 to <125 mg/dL): aHR 1.34 [95% CI 1.20-1.49]). Cumulative incidence curves showed that incrementally higher mean HbA--1c and random glucose levels were associated with increasingly higher cardiovascular mortality.In patients with diabetes and CKD transitioning to dialysis, higher mean HbA--1c and random glucose levels during the pre-ESRD prelude period were associated with higher 1-year post-ESRD mortality. Clinical trials are warranted to examine whether modulating glycemic status improves survival in this population.
Project description:Importance:Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who receive dialysis are at high risk of lower extremity amputation. Recent studies indicate decreasing rates of lower extremity amputation in non-ESRD populations, but contemporary data for patients with ESRD who receive dialysis are lacking. Objectives:To assess rates of lower extremity amputation among patients with ESRD who receive dialysis during a recent 15-year period; to analyze whether those rates differed by age, sex, diabetes, or geographic region; and to determine 1-year mortality rates in this population after lower extremity amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective study of 3 700 902 records obtained from a US national registry of patients with ESRD who receive dialysis assessed cross-sectional cohorts for each calendar year from 2000 through 2014. Adult patients with prevalent ESRD treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis covered by Medicare Part A and B on January 1 of each cohort year were included. Data analysis was conducted from August 2017 to April 2018. Exposures:Age, sex, diabetes, and hospital referral region. Main Outcomes and Measures:Annual rates per 100 person-years of nontraumatic major (above- or below-knee) and minor (below-ankle) amputations. Results:For each annual cohort, there were fewer women (47.5% in 2000, 46.2% in 2005, 44.9% in 2010, and 44.0% in 2014) than men, more than half the patients were white individuals (58.1% in 2000, 56.9% in 2005, 56.9% in 2010, and 56.7% in 2014), and a small proportion were employed (13.9% in 2000, 15.1% in 2005, 16.1% in 2010, and 16.5% in 2014). The rate of lower extremity amputations for patients with ESRD who receive dialysis decreased by 51.0% from 2000 to 2014, driven primarily by a decrease in the rate of major amputations (5.42 [95% CI, 5.28-5.56] in 2000 vs 2.66 [95% CI, 2.59-2.72] per 100 person-years in 2014). Patients with diabetes had amputation rates more than 5 times as high as patients without diabetes. Patients younger than 65 years had higher adjusted amputation rates than older patients, and men had consistently higher adjusted amputation rates than women. Adjusted 1-year mortality rates after lower extremity amputation for patients with ESRD who receive dialysis decreased from 52.2% (95% CI, 50.9%-53.4%) in 2000 to 43.6% (95% CI, 42.5%-44.8%) in 2013. In general, amputation rates decreased among all regions from 2000 to 2014, but regional variability persisted across time despite adjustment for differences in patient demographics and comorbid conditions. Conclusions and Relevance:Although rates of lower extremity amputations among US patients with ESRD who receive dialysis decreased by 51% during a recent 15-year period, mortality rates remained high, with nearly half of patients dying within a year after lower extremity amputation. Our results highlight the need for more research on ways to prevent lower extremity amputation in this extremely high-risk population.
Project description:Despite a significant survival advantage of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis, nearly one third of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are not educated about kidney transplantation as a treatment option at the time of ESRD diagnosis. Access to individualized, evidence-based prognostic information is needed to facilitate and encourage shared decision making about the clinical implications of whether to pursue transplantation or long-term dialysis.We used a national cohort of incident ESRD patients in the US Renal Data System surveillance registry from 2005 to 2011 to develop and validate prediction models for risk of 1- and 3-year mortality among dialysis versus kidney transplantation. Using these data, we developed a mobile clinical decision aid that provides estimates of risks of death and survival on dialysis compared with kidney transplantation patients.Factors included in the mortality risk prediction models for dialysis and transplantation included age, race/ethnicity, dialysis vintage, and comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and low albumin. Among the validation cohorts, the discriminatory ability of the model for 3-year mortality was moderate (c statistic, 0.7047; 95% confidence interval, 0.7029-0.7065 for dialysis and 0.7015; 95% confidence interval, 0.6875-0.7155 for transplant). We used these risk prediction models to develop an electronic, user-friendly, mobile (iPad, iPhone, and website) clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney.The use of a mobile clinical decision aid comparing individualized mortality risk estimates for dialysis versus transplantation could enhance communication between ESRD patients and their clinicians when making decisions about treatment options.
Project description:Aim: Renal replacement therapy was primary treatment for end stage kidney (ESRD) patients. Numbers of studies comparing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality risk between diabetic PD patients and those in HD. Methods: We included cohort studies comparing the risk of death among diabetic ESRD patients who receiving peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis by searching Medline and Embase. Overall estimates were calculated using the random-effects model. Results: Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analyses. Mortality comparison between PD and HD in the diabetic ESRD patients showed PD significantly increased mortality rate (hazard ratio (HR) 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.30; I2 = 89.1%). The overall HR using an intention-to-treat analysis was 1.23 with 95% CI (1.13 to 1.34). Meta-regression demonstrated PD patients from Asian country were associated with increase in mortality risk (coefficient = 0.270, SE = 0.112, p = .033). Limitation: The high heterogeneity in our meta-analyses undermined the robustness of the findings. Conclusion: ESRD patients with diabetes may benefit more from HD than PD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To focus on the potential beneficial effects of the pleiotropic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) on attenuating progression of diabetic kidney disease in reducing the long-term effect of the acute kidney injury (AKI) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) transition. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1999, to July 31, 2011, were analyzed, and patients with diabetes weaning from dialysis-requiring AKI were identified. Cox proportional hazards models and inverse-weighted estimates of the probability of treatment were used to adjust for treatment selection bias. The outcomes were incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, and hospitalized heart failure. RESULTS:Of a total of 6165 patients with diabetes weaning from dialysis-requiring AKI identified, 5635 (91.4%) patients were DPP4i nonusers and 530 (8.6%) patients were DPP4i users. Compared with DPP4i nonusers, DPP4i users had a lower risk of ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94; P=.04) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.23-0.34; P<.001) after adjustments for CKD, advanced CKD, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker use. In contrast, the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and hospitalized heart failure did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSION:Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor users had a lower risk of ESRD and mortality than did nonusers among patients with diabetes after weaning from dialysis-requiring AKI. Therefore, a prospective study of AKI to CKD transitions after episodes of AKI is needed to optimally target DPP4i interventions.
Project description:Depression in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD is often undiagnosed, empirically overlooked, and associated with higher risk of death, progression to ESRD, and hospitalization. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the association between the presence of depression in patients with advanced nondialysis-dependent CKD and post-ESRD mortality, particularly among those in the transition period from late-stage nondialysis-dependent CKD to maintenance dialysis.From a nation-wide cohort of 45,076 United States veterans who transitioned to ESRD over 4 contemporary years (November of 2007 to September of 2011), we identified 10,454 (23%) patients with a depression diagnosis during the predialysis period. We examined the association of pre-ESRD depression with all-cause mortality after transition to dialysis using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sociodemographics, comorbidities, and medications.Patients were 72±11 years old (mean±SD) and included 95% men, 66% patients with diabetes, and 23% blacks. The crude mortality rate was similar in patients with depression (289/1000 patient-years; 95% confidence interval, 282 to 297) versus patients without depression (286/1000 patient-years; 95% confidence interval, 282 to 290). Compared with patients without depression, patients with depression had a 6% higher all-cause mortality risk in the adjusted model (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.09). Similar results were found across all selected subgroups as well as in sensitivity analyses using alternate definitions of depression.Pre-ESRD depression has a weak association with post-ESRD mortality in veterans transitioning to dialysis.
Project description:It remains unclear whether infection events before entering end stage renal disease (ESRD) have a long-term negative impact on patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) who survive to permanent dialysis. We enrolled 62,872 patients with advanced CKD who transitioned to maintenance dialysis between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013. We used multivariable Cox as well as Fine and Gray models to determine the association of pre-dialysis infection exposure with all-cause mortality after starting dialysis. Compared with no infection during advanced CKD, the presence of infection exposure during that period was independently associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in the first year of dialysis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.42) and also during the entire follow-up period (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.16-1.22). The increased risks of all-cause mortality increased incrementally with higher annual number of infections during advanced CKD. Similar results were found for all other adverse outcomes, e.g. post-ESRD infection-related hospitalization and major cardiac and cerebrovascular events. In conclusion, infection events during advanced CKD was associated with increased risks of adverse outcomes after dialysis has been started. Timely interventions in such a vulnerable group may help attenuate these risks.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rising prevalence of CKD requires active involvement of general practitioners to limit ESRD and mortality risk. However, the outcomes of patients with CKD exclusively managed by general practitioners are ill defined. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We prospectively evaluated 30,326 adult patients with nondialysis CKD stages 1-5 who had never received consultation in tertiary nephrology care recruited from 700 general practitioner offices in Italy during 2002 and 2003. CKD stages were classified as stages 1 and 2 (GFR ? 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and either albuminuria or an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for kidney disease), stage 3a (GFR=59-45), stage 3b (GFR=44-30), stage 4 (GFR=29-15), and stage 5 (GFR<15). Primary outcome was the risk of ESRD (dialysis or transplantation) or all-cause death. RESULTS: Overall 64% of patients were in stage 3a, and 4.5% of patients were in stages 3b-5. Patients with stages 1 and 2 were younger, were predominantly men, more frequently had diabetes, and had lower prevalence of previous cardiovascular disease than patients with stages 3a-5. Hypertension was frequent in all CKD stages (80%-94%), whereas there was a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia, albuminuria, and obesity associated with more advanced CKD. During the follow-up (median=7.2 years; interquartile range=4.7-7.7), 6592 patients died and 295 started ESRD. Compared with stages 1 and 2 (reference), mortality risk (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) was higher in stages 3b-5 (1.66, 1.49-1.86, 2.75, 2.41-3.13 and 2.54, 2.01-3.22, respectively) but not stage 3a (1.11, 0.99-1.23). Similarly, ESRD risk (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) was not higher at stage 3a (1.44, 0.79-2.64) but was greater in stages 3b-5 (11.0, 6.3-19.5, 91.2, 53.2-156.2 and, 122.8, 67.9-222.0, respectively). Among modifiable risk factors, anemia and albuminuria significantly predicted either outcome, whereas hypertension only predicted mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CKD not referred to nephrology, risks of ESRD and mortality were higher in those with CKD stages 3b-5.
Project description:AKI-dialysis patients had a higher incidence of long-term ESRD and mortality than the patients without AKI. The patients who recovered from dialysis were associated with a lower incidence of long-term ESRD and mortality than in the patients who still required dialysis.