Characterization of hemostasis in mice lacking the novel thrombosis susceptibility gene Slc44a2.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) identified a novel susceptibility locus for thrombosis, harbouring the SLC44A2 gene which encodes the Solute Carrier Family 44 Member 2 protein (SLC44A2). Thus far, SLC44A2 has not been studied in the context of thrombosis, and may be a unique contributor to thrombotic disease. Here we utilize mice lacking SLC44A2 (Slc44a2-/-) to evaluate a possible role of SLC44A2 in hemostasis. METHODS:Slc44a2-/- mice were evaluated in key aspects of normal hemostasis including a challenge of vascular damage by applying laser induced injury to the cremaster muscle arteriole. RESULTS:Slc44a2-/- mice had comparable levels of thrombin generation and gene expression of coagulation related genes, as compared to littermate wild type controls. Lower levels of circulating plasma Von Willebrand factor (VWF) were measured in Slc44a2-/- mice, while no difference in VWF multimerization or vascular localization was detected. Upon in vivo laser injury of the cremaster arterioles, we detected an impairment of clot formation for Slc44a2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS:Although mice lacking SLC44A2 are normal for several hemostasis parameters, we do observe a reduction of plasma VWF levels and an altered response upon vascular damage, which suggests that SLC44A2 contributes to hemostasis upon injury. These findings are in line with the reported GWAS data and support further research on SLC44A2 in thrombosis.
Project description:Platelet-neutrophil interactions are important for innate immunity, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we report that, under flow, von Willebrand factor/glycoprotein Ib?-dependent platelet 'priming' induces integrin ?IIb?3 activation that, in turn, mediates neutrophil and T-cell binding. Binding of platelet ?IIb?3 to SLC44A2 on neutrophils leads to mechanosensitive-dependent production of highly prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps. A polymorphism in SLC44A2 (rs2288904-A) present in 22% of the population causes an R154Q substitution in an extracellular loop of SLC44A2 that is protective against venous thrombosis results in severely impaired binding to both activated ?IIb?3 and VWF-primed platelets. This was confirmed using neutrophils homozygous for the SLC44A2 R154Q polymorphism. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unreported mode of platelet-neutrophil crosstalk, mechanosensitive NET production, and provide mechanistic insight into the protective effect of the SLC44A2 rs2288904-A polymorphism in venous thrombosis.
Project description:In humans, vWF levels predict the risk of myocardial infarction and thrombosis; however, the factors that influence vWF levels are not completely understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified syntaxin-binding protein 5 (STXBP5) as a candidate gene linked to changes in vWF plasma levels, though the functional relationship between STXBP5 and vWF is unknown. We hypothesized that STXBP5 inhibits endothelial cell exocytosis. We found that STXBP5 is expressed in human endothelial cells and colocalizes with and interacts with syntaxin 4. In human endothelial cells reduction of STXBP5 increased exocytosis of vWF and P-selectin. Mice lacking Stxbp5 had higher levels of vWF in the plasma, increased P-selectin translocation, and more platelet-endothelial interactions, which suggests that STXBP5 inhibits endothelial exocytosis. However, Stxbp5 KO mice also displayed hemostasis defects, including prolonged tail bleeding times and impaired mesenteric arteriole and carotid artery thrombosis. Furthermore, platelets from Stxbp5 KO mice had defects in platelet secretion and activation; thus, STXBP5 inhibits endothelial exocytosis but promotes platelet secretion. Our study reveals a vascular function for STXBP5, validates the functional relevance of a candidate gene identified by GWAS, and suggests that variation within STXBP5 is a genetic risk for venous thromboembolic disease.
Project description:The interaction of platelet glycoprotein Ib? (GPIb?) with von Willebrand factor (VWF) initiates hemostasis after vascular injury and also contributes to pathological thrombosis. GPIb? binding to the VWF A1 domain (VWFA1) is a target for antithrombotic intervention, but attempts to develop pharmacologic inhibitors have been hindered by the lack of animal models because of the species specificity of the interaction. To address this problem, we generated a knockin mouse with <i>Vwf</i> exon 28-encoding domains A1 and A2 replaced by the human homolog (VWF<sup>h28</sup>). VWF<sup>h28</sup> mice (M1HA) were crossbred with a transgenic mouse strain expressing human GPIb? on platelets (mGPIb?<sup>null</sup>;hGPIb?<sup>Tg</sup>; H1MA) to generate a new strain (H1HA) with humanized GPIb?-VWFA1 binding. Plasma VWF levels in the latter 3 strains were similar to those of wild-type mice (M1MA). Compared with the strains that had homospecific GPIb?-VWF pairing (M1MA and H1HA), M1HA mice of those with heterospecific pairing had a markedly greater prolongation of tail bleeding time and attenuation of thrombogenesis after injury to the carotid artery than H1MA mice. Measurements of GPIb?-VWFA1 binding affinity by surface plasmon resonance agreed with the extent of observed functional defects. Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was similar in H1HA mouse and human platelet-rich plasma, and it was comparably inhibited by monoclonal antibody NMC-4, which is known to block human GPIb?-VWFA1 binding, which also inhibited FeCl<sub>3</sub>-induced mouse carotid artery thrombosis. Thus, the H1HA mouse strain is a fully humanized model of platelet GPIb?-VWFA1 binding that provides mechanistic and pharmacologic information relevant to human hemostatic and thrombotic disorders.
Project description:SLC44A2 was discovered as the target of an antibody that causes hearing loss. Knockout mice develop age related hearing loss, loss of sensory cells and spiral ganglion neurons. SLC44A2 has polymorphic sites implicated in human disease. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is linked to rs2288904 and genome wide association studies link rs2288904 and rs9797861 to venous thromboembolism (VTE), coronary artery disease and stroke. Here we report linkage disequilibrium of rs2288904 with rs3087969 and the association of these SLC44A2 SNPs with Meniere's disease severity. Tissue-specific isoform expression differences suggest that the N-terminal domain is linked to different functions in different cell types. Heterozygosity at rs2288904 CGA/CAA and rs3087969 GAT/GAC showed a trend for association with intractable Meniere's disease compared to less severe disease and to controls. The association of SLC44A2 SNPs with VTE suggests that thrombi affecting cochlear vessels could be a factor in Meniere's disease.
Project description:Antibodies to the solute carrier protein, CTL2/SLC44A2, cause hearing loss in animals, are frequently found in autoimmune hearing loss patients, and are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury. We cloned a novel CTL2/SLC44A2 isoform (CTL2 P1) from inner ear and identified an alternate upstream promoter and exon 1a encoding a protein of 704 amino acids which differs in the first 10-12 amino acids from the known exon 1b isoform (CTL2 P2; 706 amino acids). The expression of these CTL2/SLC44A2 isoforms, their posttranslational modifications in tissues and their localization in HEK293 cells expressing rHuCTL2/SLC44A2 were assessed. P1 and P2 isoforms with differing glycosylation are variably expressed in cochlea, tongue, heart, colon, lung, kidney, liver and spleen suggesting tissue specific differences that may influence function in each tissue. Because antibodies to CTL2/SLC44A2 have serious pathologic consequences, it is important to understand its distribution and modifications. Heterologous expression in X. laevis oocytes shows that while human CTL2-P1 does not transport choline, human CTL2-P2 exhibits detectable choline transport activity.
Project description:Essentials Platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) is critical for hemostasis and thrombosis. Whether VWF can undergo phosphorylation is unknown. Family with sequence similarity 20 kinase phosphorylates VWF A2 domain at S1517 and S1613. Phosphorylation of VWF and VWF A1A2A3 domain at S1613 enhances platelet adhesion. SUMMARY: Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) mediates platelet adhesion and contributes to hemostasis at sites of vascular injury as well as to arterial thrombosis. The A1A2A3 domains of VWF contain important sites that differentially participate in supporting platelet adhesion. FAM20c (family with sequence similarity 20, member C) has emerged as a serine/threonine kinase, which phosphorylates extracellular proteins containing the S-X-E/pS motifs that are also found within the VWF A domains. This is of interest because we and others have shown that structural modifications within these A domains influence the ability of VWF to support platelet adhesion. Objective We assessed if VWF A domains can be phosphorylated and the functional consequence of phosphorylated VWF. Results Here, we show that FAM20c phosphorylated purified plasma VWF, VWF A1A2A3 protein, isolated A2 domain, but not A1 and A3 domain proteins, in vitro. FAM20c phosphorylated the isolated A2 domain at S1517 and S1613 within the S-X-E recognition motif, with S1613 being the major phosphorylation site. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified plasma VWF from healthy donors revealed several phosphorylation sites, including the S1613 in the A2 domain. VWF A1A2A3 domain protein phosphorylated at S1613 promoted stable platelet adhesion and microthrombi at high shear stress. Lastly, under high shear stress VWF treated with FAM20c and ATP robustly supported platelet adhesion, compared to VWF treated with FAM20c in the absence of ATP. Conclusion These outcomes indicate that VWF can be phosphorylated by FAM20c in vitro, and this novel post-translational modification enhances the adhesiveness of VWF to platelets.
Project description:The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation is the primary pathogenic mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although thrombohemorrhagic incidents are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with MPNs, the events causing these clotting abnormalities remain unclear. To identify the cells responsible for the dysfunctional hemostasis, we used transgenic mice expressing JAK2V617F in specific lineages involved in thrombosis and hemostasis. When JAK2V617F was expressed in both hematopoietic and endothelial cells (ECs), the mice developed a significant MPN, characterized by thrombocytosis, neutrophilia, and splenomegaly. However, despite having significantly higher platelet counts than controls, these mice showed severely attenuated thrombosis following injury. Interestingly, platelet activation and aggregation in response to agonists was unaltered by JAK2V617F expression. Subsequent bone marrow transplants revealed the contribution of both endothelial and hematopoietic compartments to the attenuated thrombosis. Furthermore, we identified a potential mechanism for this phenotype through JAK2V617F-regulated inhibition of von Willebrand factor (VWF) function and/or secretion. JAK2V617F(+) mice display a condition similar to acquired von Willebrand syndrome, exhibiting significantly less high molecular weight VWF and reduced agglutination to ristocetin. These findings greatly advance our understanding of thrombohemorrhagic events in MPNs and highlight the critical role of ECs in the pathology of hematopoietic malignancies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The human neutrophil antigen-3 (HNA-3) epitopes reside on the choline transporter-like protein-2 (CTL2). A single-nucleotide substitution (461G>A; Arg154Gln) on the CTL2 gene (SLC44A2) defines the allele SLC44A2*1, which expresses HNA-3a, and SLC44A2*2, which expresses HNA-3b; an additional substitution (457C>T; Leu153Phe) in SLC44A2*1:2 may impact genotyping systems. People who only express HNA-3b may develop anti-HNA-3a. These alloantibodies have been linked to severe transfusion-related acute lung injury, which may be a reason to screen blood donors for SLC44A2*2 homozygosity. For Caucasian and Asian populations, SLC44A2 allele frequencies are known. Our primary objective was to determine the SLC44A2 allele frequencies in the African American population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:Purified DNA from 334 individuals (202 male, 132 female; 241 African American, 93 Caucasian) was collected. Two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to genotype all samples; results were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. RESULTS:In 241 African American donors, the allele frequency of SLC44A2*1 was 93% (85%-<100%; 95% confidence intervals, Poisson distribution) while SLC44A2*2 was 7% (5%-10%). In 93 Caucasian donors, the allele frequency of SLC44A2*1 was 83% (71%-98%) and SLC44A2*2 was 17% (11%-24%), matching previously reported data for Caucasians but differing from African Americans (p?<?0.001, Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSIONS:This study describes the allele frequencies of the three known HNA-3 variants in an African American population. We found that African Americans have a significantly lower probability of possessing the SLC44A2*2 allele and may thus be less likely to form the clinically relevant anti-HNA-3a.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, is a complex thrombotic disorder with environmental and genetic determinants. Although several genetic variants have been found associated with VTE, they explain a minor proportion of VTE risk in cases. We undertook a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify additional VTE susceptibility genes. Twelve GWASs totaling 7,507 VTE case subjects and 52,632 control subjects formed our discovery stage where 6,751,884 SNPs were tested for association with VTE. Nine loci reached the genome-wide significance level of 5 × 10(-8) including six already known to associate with VTE (ABO, F2, F5, F11, FGG, and PROCR) and three unsuspected loci. SNPs mapping to these latter were selected for replication in three independent case-control studies totaling 3,009 VTE-affected individuals and 2,586 control subjects. This strategy led to the identification and replication of two VTE-associated loci, TSPAN15 and SLC44A2, with lead risk alleles associated with odds ratio for disease of 1.31 (p = 1.67 × 10(-16)) and 1.21 (p = 2.75 × 10(-15)), respectively. The lead SNP at the TSPAN15 locus is the intronic rs78707713 and the lead SLC44A2 SNP is the non-synonymous rs2288904 previously shown to associate with transfusion-related acute lung injury. We further showed that these two variants did not associate with known hemostatic plasma markers. TSPAN15 and SLC44A2 do not belong to conventional pathways for thrombosis and have not been associated to other cardiovascular diseases nor related quantitative biomarkers. Our findings uncovered unexpected actors of VTE etiology and pave the way for novel mechanistic concepts of VTE pathophysiology.
Project description:The large plasma glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF) senses hydrodynamic forces in the bloodstream and responds to elevated forces with abrupt elongation, thereby increasing its adhesiveness to platelets and collagen. Remarkably, forces on VWF are elevated at sites of vascular injury, where VWF's hemostatic potential is important to mediate platelet aggregation and to recruit platelets to the subendothelial layer. Adversely, elevated forces in stenosed vessels lead to an increased risk of VWF-mediated thrombosis. To dissect the remarkable force-sensing ability of VWF, we have performed atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force measurements on dimers, the smallest repeating subunits of VWF multimers. We have identified a strong intermonomer interaction that involves the D4 domain and critically depends on the presence of divalent ions, consistent with results from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Dissociation of this strong interaction occurred at forces above [Formula: see text]50 pN and provided [Formula: see text]80 nm of additional length to the elongation of dimers. Corroborated by the static conformation of VWF, visualized by AFM imaging, we estimate that in VWF multimers approximately one-half of the constituent dimers are firmly closed via the strong intermonomer interaction. As firmly closed dimers markedly shorten VWF's effective length contributing to force sensing, they can be expected to tune VWF's sensitivity to hydrodynamic flow in the blood and to thereby significantly affect VWF's function in hemostasis and thrombosis.