Structural evidence for product stabilization by the ribosomal mRNA helicase.
ABSTRACT: Protein synthesis in all organisms proceeds by stepwise translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNAs (mRNAs), during which the helicase activity of the ribosome unwinds encountered structures in the mRNA. This activity is known to occur near the mRNA tunnel entrance, which is lined by ribosomal proteins uS3, uS4, and uS5. However, the mechanism(s) of mRNA unwinding by the ribosome and the possible role of these proteins in the helicase activity are not well understood. Here, we present a crystal structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome in which single-stranded mRNA is observed beyond the tunnel entrance, interacting in an extended conformation with a positively charged patch on ribosomal protein uS3 immediately outside the entrance. This apparent binding specificity for single-stranded mRNA ahead of the tunnel entrance suggests that product stabilization may play a role in the unwinding of structured mRNA by the ribosomal helicase.
Project description:Ribosomal protein uS4 is an essential ribosomal component involved in multiple functions, including mRNA decoding. Structural analyses indicate that during decoding, the interface between the C-terminus of uS4 and protein uS5 is disrupted and in agreement with this, C-terminal uS4 truncation mutants are readily isolated on the basis of their increased miscoding phenotypes. The same mutants can also display defects in small subunit assembly and 16S rRNA processing and some are temperature sensitive for growth. Starting with one such temperature sensitive Escherichia coli uS4 mutant, we have isolated temperature insensitive derivatives carrying additional, intragenic mutations that restore the C-terminus and ameliorate the ribosomal defects. At least one of these suppressors has no detectable ribosome biogenesis phenotype, yet still miscodes, suggesting that the C-terminal requirements for ribosome assembly are less rigid than for mRNA decoding. In contrast to the uS4 C-terminal mutants that increase miscoding, two Salmonella enterica uS4 mutants with altered C-termini have been reported as being error-restrictive. Here, reconstruction experiments demonstrate that contrary to the previous reports, these mutants have a distinct error-prone, increased misreading phenotype, consistent with the behavior of the equivalent E. coli mutants and their likely structural effects on uS4-uS5 interactions.
Project description:Ribosomal protein uS5 is an essential component of the small ribosomal subunit that is involved in subunit assembly, maintenance of translational fidelity, and the ribosome's response to the antibiotic spectinomycin. While many of the characterized uS5 mutations that affect decoding map to its interface with uS4, more recent work has shown that residues distant from the uS4-uS5 interface can also affect the decoding process. We targeted one such interface-remote area, the loop 2 region (residues 20 to 31), for mutagenesis in Escherichia. coli and generated 21 unique mutants. A majority of the loop 2 alterations confer resistance to spectinomycin and affect the fidelity of translation. However, only a minority show altered rRNA processing or ribosome biogenesis defects.
Project description:During protein synthesis, mRNA and tRNA are moved through the ribosome by the process of translocation. The small diameter of the mRNA entrance tunnel only permits unstructured mRNA to pass through. However, there are structured elements within mRNA that present a barrier for translocation that must be unwound. The ribosome has been shown to unwind RNA in the absence of additional factors, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show using single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and small angle X-ray scattering experiments a new global conformational state of the ribosome. In the presence of the frameshift inducing dnaX hairpin, the ribosomal subunits are driven into a hyper-rotated state and the L1 stalk is predominantly in an open conformation. This previously unobserved conformational state provides structural insight into the helicase activity of the ribosome and may have important implications for understanding the mechanism of reading frame maintenance.
Project description:During protein synthesis, the messenger RNA (mRNA) helicase activity of the ribosome ensures that codons are made single stranded before decoding. Here, based on recent structural and functional findings, a quantitative model is presented for a tandem arrangement of two helicase active sites on the ribosome. A distal site encounters mRNA structures first, one elongation cycle earlier than a proximal site. Although unwinding of encountered mRNA structures past the proximal site is required for translocation, two routes exist for translocation past the distal site: sliding, which requires unwinding, and stick-slip, which does not. The model accounts in detail for a number of findings related to the ribosomal helicase and provides a testable framework to further study mRNA unwinding.
Project description:Activation of the integrated stress response (ISR) or the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathway stimulates regulatory ribosomal ubiquitylation (RRub) on distinct 40S ribosomal proteins, yet the cellular role and fate of ubiquitylated proteins remain unclear. We demonstrate that uS10 and uS5 ubiquitylation are dependent upon eS10 or uS3 ubiquitylation, respectively, suggesting that a hierarchical relationship exists among RRub events establishing a ubiquitin code on ribosomes. We show that stress dependent RRub events diminish after initial stimuli and that demodification by deubiquitylating enzymes contributes to reduced RRub levels during stress recovery. Utilizing an optical RQC reporter we identify OTUD3 and USP21 as deubiquitylating enzymes that antagonize ZNF598-mediated 40S ubiquitylation and can limit RQC activation. Critically, cells lacking USP21 or OTUD3 have altered RQC activity and delayed eS10 deubiquitylation indicating a functional role for deubiquitylating enzymes within the RQC pathway.
Project description:The receptor for activated c-kinase (RACK1, Asc1 in yeast) is a eukaryotic ribosomal protein located in the head region of the 40S subunit near the mRNA exit channel. This WD-repeat ?-propeller protein acts as a signaling molecule and is involved in metabolic regulation, cell cycle progression, and translational control. However, the exact details of the RACK1 recruitment and stable association with the 40S ribosomal subunit remain only partially known. X-ray analyses of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ribosome revealed that the RACK1 propeller blade (4-5) interacts with the eukaryote-specific C-terminal domain (CTD) of ribosomal protein S3 (uS3 family). To check the functional significance of this interaction, we generated mutant yeast strains harboring C-terminal deletions of uS3. We found that deletion of the 20 C-terminal residues (interacting with blade 4-5) from the uS3-CTD abrogates RACK1 binding to the ribosome. Strains with truncated uS3-CTD exhibited compromised cellular growth and protein synthesis similar to that of RACK1? strain, thus suggesting that the uS3-CTD is crucial not only for the recruitment and association of RACK1 with the ribosome, but also for its intracellular function. We suggest that eukaryote-specific RACK1-uS3 interaction has evolved to act as a link between the ribosome and the cellular signaling pathways.
Project description:The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs and mRNA; here, the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal structures are used to construct various model systems of the 70S complex with/without tRNA, elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal proteins. Computed motions reveal the well-known ratchet-like rotational motion of the large subunits, as well as the head rotation of the small subunit and the high flexibility of the L1 and L7/L12 stalks, even in the absence of ribosomal proteins. This result indicates that these experimentally observed motions during translocation are inherently controlled by the ribosomal shape and only partially dependent upon GTP hydrolysis. Normal mode analysis further reveals the mobility of A- and P-tRNAs to increase in the absence of the E-tRNA. In addition, the dynamics of the E-tRNA is affected by the absence of the ribosomal protein L1. The mRNA in the entrance tunnel interacts directly with helicase proteins S3 and S4, which constrain the mRNA in a clamp-like fashion, as well as with protein S5, which likely orients the mRNA to ensure correct translation. The ribosomal proteins S7, S11 and S18 may also be involved in assuring translation fidelity by constraining the mRNA at the exit site of the channel. The mRNA also interacts with the 16S 3' end forming the Shine-Dalgarno complex at the initiation step; the 3' end may act as a 'hook' to reel in the mRNA to facilitate its exit.
Project description:Clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, binds to 23S ribosomal RNA and inhibits protein synthesis. The A2058G mutation in 23S RNA results in bacterial resistance to clindamycin. To understand the influence of this mutation on short-range interactions of clindamycin with 23S RNA, we carried out full-atom molecular dynamics simulations of a ribosome fragment containing clindamycin binding site. We compared the dynamical behavior of this fragment simulated with and without the A2058G mutation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that clindamycin in the native ribosomal binding site is more internally flexible than in the A2058G mutant. Only in the native ribosome fragment did we observe intramolecular conformational change of clindamycin around its C7-N1-C10-C11 dihedral. In the mutant, G2058 makes more stable hydrogen bonds with clindamycin hindering its conformational freedom in the ribosome-bound state. Clindamycin binding site is located in the entrance to the tunnel through which the newly synthesized polypeptide leaves the ribosome. We observed that in the native ribosome fragment, clindamycin blocks the passage in the tunnel entrance, whereas in the mutated fragment the aperture is undisturbed due to a different mode of binding of clindamycin in the mutant. Restricted conformational freedom of clindamycin in a position not blocking the tunnel entrance in the A2058G mutant could explain the molecular mechanism of bacterial resistance against clindamycin occurring in this mutant.
Project description:The essential aspects of the ribosome's mechanism can be extracted from coarse-grained simulations, including the ratchet motion, the movement together of critical bases at the decoding center, and movements of the peptide tunnel lining that assist in the expulsion of the synthesized peptide. Because of its large size, coarse graining helps to simplify and to aid in the understanding of its mechanism. Results presented here utilize coarse-grained elastic network modeling to extract the dynamics, and both RNAs and proteins are coarse grained. We review our previous results, showing the well-known ratchet motions and the motions in the peptide tunnel and in the mRNA tunnel. The motions of the lining of the peptide tunnel appear to assist in the expulsion of the growing peptide chain, and clamps at the ends of the mRNA tunnel with three proteins ensure that the mRNA is held tightly during decoding and essential for the helicase activity at the entrance. The entry clamp may also assist in base recognition to ensure proper selection of the incoming tRNA. The overall precision of the ribosome machine-like motions is remarkable.
Project description:It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome.