Staphylococcus aureus with an erm-mediated constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotype has reduced susceptibility to the new ketolide, solithromycin.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Solithromycin, the fourth generation of ketolides, has been demonstrated potent antibacterial effect against commonly-isolated gram-positive strains. However, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains with a higher solithromycin MIC have already been emerged, the mechanism of which is unknown. METHODS:Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on 266 strains of S. aureus. The antibiotic resistance phenotype of erm-positive strain was determined by D-zone test. Spontaneous mutation frequency analysis was performed to compare the risk levels for solithromycin resistance among different strains. Efflux pumps and mutational analysis of ribosomal fragments as well as erm(B) gene domains were detected. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted to compare the transcriptional expression of the erm gene between the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB)- and inducible MLSB (iMLSB)-phenotypes. RESULTS:In the erm-positive S. aureus strains, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50/90 of solithromycin (2/> 16 mg/L) was significantly higher than that in the erm-negative strains (0.125/0.25 mg/L). Of note, the MIC50 value of the strains with iMLSB (0.25 mg/L) was significantly lower than that of the strains with cMLSB (4 mg/L). A comparison among strains demonstrated that the median mutational frequency in isolates with cMLSB (> 1.2 × 10- 4) was approximately > 57-fold and > 3333-fold higher than that in iMLSB strains (2.1 × 10- 6) and in erythromycin-sensitive strains (3.6 × 10- 8), respectively. The differential antibiotic in vitro activity against strains between cMLSB and iMLSB could not be explained by efflux pump carriers or genetic mutations in the test genes. The expression of the erm genes in strains with cMLSB did not differ from that in strains with iMLSB. CONCLUSIONS:The reduced susceptibility to solithromycin by S. aureus was associated with the cMLSB resistance phenotype mediated by erm.
Project description:Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS) resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in <i>Staphylococcus</i> infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired <i>Staphylococcus</i> isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSb), inducible resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSb), resistance to macrolide/macrolide-streptogramin B (M/MSb), and resistance to lincosamide-streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b)] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes (<i>erm</i>A, <i>erm</i>B, <i>erm</i>C, <i>msr</i>A/B, <i>lnu</i>A, <i>lnu</i>B, and <i>lsa</i>A) were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%). The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6%) with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates (<i>p</i>?<?0.05). MLS resistance was mostly determined by the presence of <i>msr</i>A/B (35.0%) and <i>erm</i>C (20.8%) genes. Examined phenotypes were mostly determined by the presence of one gene, especially by <i>msr</i>A/B (26.3%) and <i>erm</i>C (14.5%), but 15.6% was determined by a combination of two or more genes. M/MSb phenotype was the most frequently encoded by <i>msr</i>A/B (95.6%) gene, LSa/b phenotype by <i>lnu</i>A (56.3%) gene, and iMLSb phenotype by <i>erm</i>C (29.4%) and <i>erm</i>A (25.5%) genes. Although cMLSb phenotype was mostly determined by the presence of <i>erm</i>C (28.9%), combinations of two or more genes have been present too. This pattern was particularly recorded in methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) (58.3%) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) (90.9%) isolates with cMLSB phenotype. The <i>msr</i>A/B gene and M/MSb phenotype were statistically significantly higher in hospital-acquired than community-acquired staphylococci strains (<i>p</i>?<?0.05). There are no statistically significant differences between staphylococci harboring the rest of MLS resistance genes acquired in community and hospital settings (<i>p</i>?>?0.05). The prevalence of iMLSb phenotypes may change over time, so it is necessary to perform periodic survey of MLS resistance phenotypes, particularly where the D-test is not performed routinely.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus, an important nosocomial pathogen, is frequently associated with infections in human. The management of the infections by it especially methicillin resistant ones is often difficult because methicillin resistant S. aureus is usually resistant to multiple antibiotics. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B family of antibiotics is commonly used to treat such infections as an alternative to vancomycin.This study was conducted over the period of one and half year from November 2013-April 2015 in Microbiology laboratory of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal to find the incidence of different phenotypes of MLSB resistance among S. aureus from clinical samples and their association with methicillin resistance. Two hundred seventy isolates of S. aureus were included in the study. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and inducible clindamycin resistance by erythromycin and clindamycin disc approximation test (D-test).Of the 270 clinical isolates of S. aureus, 25.1% (68/270) were MRSA. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was seen in 54.4% (147/270) and 41.8% (113/270) isolates respectively. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were higher in MRSA as compared to MSSA (erythromycin-resistance: 88.2% Vs 39.1% and clindamycin-resistance: 79.4% Vs 41.8%). The overall prevalence of iMLSB and cMLSB phenotype was 11.48% (31/270) and 29.25% (79/270) respectively. Both iMLSB and cMLSB phenotypes predominated in MRSA strains.Detection rate of MRSA in our study shows the necessity to improve in healthcare practices and to formulate new policy for the control of MRSA infections. Clindamycin resistance in the form of iMLSB and cMLSB especially among MRSA emphasizes the need of D-test to be performed routinely in our set up while using clindamycin as an alternative choice to anti-staphylococcal antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid in the treatment of staphylococcal infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infections by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (SGSP) is often underestimated. Herein, the epidemiological features and resistant characteristics of SGSP in mainland China are characterized to enable a better understanding of its role in clinical infections. METHODS:In the present work, 45 SGSP isolates were collected from the samples of bloodstream, urine, aseptic body fluid, and fetal membrane/placenta from patients in 8 tertiary general hospitals of 6 cities/provinces in China from 2011 to 2017. The identification of all isolates was performed using traditional biochemical methods, 16S rRNA and gyrB sequencing, followed by the characterization of their antibiotic resistance profiling and involved genes. RESULTS:Among 34 non-pregnancy-related patients, 4 (4/34,11.8%) patients had gastrointestinal cancer, 10 (10/34, 29.4%) patients had diabetes, and one patient had infective endocarditis. Moreover, 11 cases of pregnant women were associated with intrauterine infection (9/11, 81.2%) and urinary tract infection (1/11, 9.1%), respectively. Except one, all other SGSP isolates were correctly identified by the BD Phoenix automated system. We found that all SGSP isolates were phenotypically susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, and vancomycin. Forty strains (40/45, 88.9%) were both erythromycin and clindamycin-resistant, belonging to the cMLSB phenotype, and the majority of them carried erm(B) gene (39/40, 97.5%). Although the cMLSB/erm(B) constituted the most frequently identified phenotype/genotype combination (25/40, 62.5%) among all erythromycin-resistant cMLSB isolates, erm(B)/erm(A), erm(B)/mef(A/E), and erm(B)/erm(T) was detected in 7, 4, and 3 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, 43 strains (43/45, 95.6%) were tetracycline-resistant, and out of these, 39 strains (39/45, 86.7%) carried tet(L), 27(27/45, 60.0%) strains carried tet(O), and 7 (7/45, 15.6%) strains carried tet(M), alone or combined, respectively. All erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS:It is important to study and draw attention on SGSP, an underreported opportunistic pathogen targeting immunodeficient populations, notably elderly subjects, pregnant women and neonates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus is of great concern worldwide. This resistance is further complicated by the ability of S. aureus to confer cross-resistance to other antibiotics due to the presence of resistance genes, such as erythromycin resistance methylase (erm) genes, which render the bacterium resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics. Resistance to these antibiotics can lead to therapeutic failure, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in patients with S. aureus infections. OBJECTIVES:This study was performed to examine the distribution of MLSB-resistant strains of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), which were obtained from hospitalized patients and normal healthy individuals (carriers) using phenotypic methods, such as the double-disk diffusion (D-test) and the genotypic method by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS:A total of 183 nonduplicative MSSA isolates obtained from hospitalized patients (133) and carriers (50) in our previous studies were randomly selected for the D-test. The guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) were used for the interpretation of the results of this test. The detection of ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes by PCR was performed for isolates that had positive D-test results and that were resistant to erythromycin. RESULTS:Of the 183 MSSA isolates, 97.2% and 98.4% were highly susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. MSLB resistance was detected in four isolates (2.2%). Of the 133 MSSA isolated from hospitalized patients, only 3.0% (4/133) and 2.3% (3/133) exhibited resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. With regard to the MLSB resistance phenotypes, only 1.6% and 0.6% exhibited inducible MLSB (iMLSB) and MS phenotypes, respectively. The ermC gene was detected in all three iMLSB phenotypes, and the msrA gene was detected in the MS phenotype. Surprisingly, all MSSA isolates (100%) from carriers exhibited extremely high susceptibility to both antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence rates of iMLSB MSSA isolates vary according to geographical locations and the local antibiotic policy. The low prevalence rate of iMLSB MSSA isolates could probably be related to the judicious use of antibiotics for treating S. aureus infections in our studied population. Nonetheless, continuous antibiotic surveillance is still necessary to control any emergence of resistance isolates so that targeted therapy and effective control can be implemented accordingly.
Project description:Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a corner-stone of trachoma control however it may drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In a cluster-randomized trial (Clinical trial gov NCT00792922), we compared the reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma in communities that received three annual rounds of MDA to that in communities that received a single treatment round. We used the framework of this trial to carry out an opportunistic study to investigate if the increased rounds of treatment resulted in increased prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two villages receiving three annual rounds of MDA (3?×?treatment arm). Surveys were conducted immediately before the third round of MDA (CSS-1) and at one (CSS-2) and six (CSS-3) months after MDA. The final survey also included six villages that had received only one round of MDA 30 months previously (1?×?treatment arm).In the 3?×?treatment arm, a short-term increase in prevalence of S. aureus carriage was seen following MDA from 24.6% at CSS-1 to 38.6% at CSS-2 (p?<?0.001). Prevalence fell to 8.8% at CSS-3 (p?<?0.001). A transient increase was also seen in prevalence of carriage of azithromycin resistant (AzmR) strains from 8.9% at CSS-1 to 34.1% (p?<?0.001) in CSS-2 and down to 7.3% (p?=?0.417) in CSS-3. A similar trend was observed for prevalence of carriage of macrolide-inducible-clindamycin resistant (iMLSB) strains. In CSS-3, prevalence of carriage of resistant strains was higher in the 3?×?treatment arm than in the 1?×?treatment (AzmR 7.3% vs. 1.6%, p?=?0.010; iMLSB 5.8% vs. 0.8%, p?<?0.001). Macrolide resistance was attributed to the presence of msr and erm genes.Three annual rounds of MDA with azithromycin were associated with a short-term increase in both the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus and prevalence of carriage of AzmR and iMLSB S. aureus.This study was ancillary to the Partnership for the Rapid Elimination of Trachoma, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00792922 , registration date November 17, 2008.
Project description:Multidrug resistance efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial and biocide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The detection of strains capable of efflux is time-consuming and labor-intensive using currently available techniques. A simple and inexpensive method to identify such strains is needed. Ethidium bromide is a substrate for all but one of the characterized S. aureus multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pumps (NorC), leading us to examine the utility of simple broth microtiter MIC determinations using this compound in identifying efflux-proficient strains. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR identified the increased expression of one or more MDR efflux pump genes in 151/309 clinical strains (49%). Ethidium bromide MIC testing was insensitive (48%) but specific (92%) in identifying strains with gene overexpression, but it was highly sensitive (95%) and specific (99%) in identifying strains capable of ethidium efflux. The increased expression of norA with or without other genes was most commonly associated with efflux, and in the majority of cases that efflux was inhibited by reserpine. Ethidium bromide MIC testing is a simple and straightforward method to identify effluxing strains and can provide accurate predictions of efflux prevalence in large strain sets in a short period of time.
Project description:Novel antibacterial drugs that treat multidrug resistant pathogens are in high demand. We have synthesized analogs of solithromycin using Cu(I)-mediated click chemistry. Evaluation of the analogs using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays against resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and multidrug resistant pathogens Enterococcus faecium and Acinetobacter baumannii showed they possess potencies similar to those of solithromycin, thus demonstrating their potential as future therapeutics to combat the existential threat of multidrug resistant pathogens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The quest for novel sources of antibacterial compounds have necessitated the inclusion of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ERM) commonly found within the root of ericaceous plants. Agar-well diffusion method was used to detect antibacterial activity and was followed by the microbroth diffusion method [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)]. RESULTS:The results of the phytochemical screening indicated that only alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids were present, while steroids and tannins were absent. The MIC of the extracts ranged between 2 and 16?mg/mL, and the lowest MIC was obtained with Staphylococcus aureus. Also, the result of the MBC study indicated that the fungal extract was most active at concentrations of 2 and 4?mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This bioassay showed, for the first time, antibacterial activity of L. incrustata against some bacterial species. Subsequently, ERM fungi should be given attention when searching for antimicrobial agents because they could provide a solution to solve problems associated with conventional disease treatments (i.e. pathogenic microorganisms resistance).
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major clinical concerns, making the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs desirable. Moringin (MOR), the major isothiocyanate produced from Moringa oleifera seeds, could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy to commonly used antibiotics. The aim of our study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of MOR conjugated with ?-cyclodextrin (MOR/?-CD), a complex with an improved solubility and stability in aqueous solutions. Our data demonstrated that MOR/?-CD was able to exert antimicrobial activity against the S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 25923, ATCC 6538, and ATCC BAA-977). Moreover, MOR/?-CD showed bacteriostatic effects (MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.5 mg/mL) and bactericidal properties (MBC = minimum bactericidal concentration = 1 mg/mL) against the overall assessed strains. In addition, MOR/?-CD showed bactericidal activity against the S. aureus strain ATCC BAA-977 after treatment with erythromycin (Ery), which induced clindamycin-resistance on the erm (A) gene. This evidence led us to assume that MOR/?-CD could be a promising antimicrobial agent against strains with the clindamycin-resistant phenotype (CC-resistant).
Project description:The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus as an aggressive pathogen resistant to multiple antibiotics causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections is increasing with limited therapeutic options. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) family of antibiotics represents an important alternative therapy for staphylococcal infections. This study was conducted over a period of five years from August 2013 to July 2018 to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology in Iran of inducible resistance in S. aureus. In the current study, 126 inducible methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n = 106) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 20) isolates were characterized by in vitro susceptibility analysis, resistance and virulence encoding gene distribution, phenotypic and genotypic analysis of biofilm formation, prophage typing, S. aureus protein A locus (spa) typing, staphylocoagulase (SC) typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Of the 126 isolates, 76 (60.3%) were classified as hospital onset, and 50 (39.7%) were classified as community onset (CO). Biofilm formation was observed in 97 strains (77%). A total of 14 sequence types (STs), 26 spa types, 7 coagulase types, 9 prophage types, 3 agr types (no agr IV), and 9 clonal complexes (CCs) were identified in this study. The prevalence of the inducible MLSB (iMLSB) S. aureus increased from 7.5% (25/335) to 21.7% (38/175) during the study period. The iMLSB MRSA isolates were distributed in nine CCs, whereas the MSSA isolates were less diverse, which mainly belonged to CC22 (7.95%) and CC30 (7.95%). High-level mupirocin-resistant strains belonged to ST85-SCCmec IV/t008 (n = 4), ST5-SCCmec IV/t002 (n = 4), ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (n = 2), and ST8-SCCmec IV/t064 (n = 2) clones, whereas low-level mupirocin-resistant strains belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 5), ST239-SCCmec III/t860 (n = 3), and ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (n = 3) clones. All the fusidic acid-resistant iMLSB isolates were MRSA and belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 2), ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (n = 2), ST1-SCCmec V/t6811 (n = 1), ST80-SCCmec IV/t044 (n = 1), and ST59-SCCmec IV/t437 (n = 1). The CC22 that was predominant in 2013-2014 (36% of the isolates) had almost disappeared in 2017-2018, being replaced by the CC8, which represented 39.5% of the 2017-2018 isolates. This is the first description of temporal shifts of iMLSB S. aureus isolates in Iran that identifies predominant clones and treatment options for iMLSB S. aureus-related infections.