Mapping the content of mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice towards universal newborn hearing screening for development of a KAP survey tool.
ABSTRACT: Understanding mother's knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is essential for the success of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) as poor compliance and follow-up remains a global challenge. To determine content area for a questionnaire that measures PCHI-related KAP in rural mothers, we trained moderators who interviewed 145 pregnant women (17 groups) from 5 ante-natal clinics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, summarised and analysed using thematic framework analysis. Four knowledge themes were identified: 1) PCHI was perceived as the malfunction of hearing leading to disability; 2) a poorly-responsive/communicative child may have PCHI; 3) lifestyle, hereditary and environmental factors are significant causes of PCHI; 4) medical management of PCHI was doubted, with some advocating birth and ancestral rituals. Two themes were identified for attitude: 1) beliefs that PCHI was emotionalised due to the negative lifelong impact on the child and family; 2) UNHS processes were favourable though some preferred other belief systems. Three themes were identified for practice: 1) doctors were the first choice followed by traditional healers; 2) willingness to continue follow-up although challenges exist; 3) minimal family support during consultation. The contextualised KAP of women regarding UNHS processes and PCHI provided content area for the design of a KAP tool.
Project description:To determine whether the benefits of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) seen at age 8?years persist through the second decade.Prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) followed up for 17?years since birth in periods with (or without) UNHS.Birth cohort of 100?000 in southern England.114 teenagers aged 13-19?years, 76 with PCHI and 38 with normal hearing. All had previously their reading assessed aged 6-10?years.Birth in periods with and without UNHS; confirmation of PCHI before and after age 9?months.Reading comprehension ability. Regression modelling took account of severity of hearing loss, non-verbal ability, maternal education and main language.Confirmation of PCHI by age 9?months was associated with significantly higher mean z-scores for reading comprehension (adjusted mean difference 1.17, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.97) although birth during periods with UNHS was not (adjusted mean difference 0.15, 95% CI -0.75 to 1.06). The gap between the reading comprehension z-scores of teenagers with early compared with late confirmed PCHI had widened at an adjusted mean rate of 0.06 per year (95% CI -0.02 to 0.13) during the 9.2-year mean interval since the previous assessment.The benefit to reading comprehension of confirmation of PCHI by age 9?months increases during the teenage years. This strengthens the case for UNHS programmes that lead to early confirmation of permanent hearing loss.ISRCTN03307358.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the development of a Positive Child Health Index (PCHI) based on 11 adverse outcomes and evaluate the association of PCHI with quality of life (QoL) scores in a preterm cohort. STUDY DESIGN:A total of 889 children enrolled in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn (ELGAN) study in 2002-2004 were followed up at 10 years of age. A parent/caregiver completed questionnaires for child QoL, asthma, visual or hearing impairment, gross motor function impairment, epilepsy, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and depression. The child was assessed for cognitive impairment, autism, and obesity. PCHI scores were computed and linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between QoL categories (psychosocial, physical, emotional, social, school, and total) and the PCHI (dichotomized and coded as a multilevel categorical predictor) and to assess sex differences. RESULTS:Among ELGAN children, higher PCHI scores were associated with higher reported QoL scores for all QoL categories. Children with no disorders and a PCHI of 100% had Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total scores that were 11 points higher than children with 1 or more adverse outcomes (PCHI of <100%). Boys had lower QoL scores for the total, psychosocial, social, and school categories. CONCLUSIONS:Positive child health assessed using a quantitative PCHI was associated with QoL across the ELGAN cohort at school age. In the current study, the PCHI encompassed 11 outcomes assessed in ELGANs. Future research could include an enhanced panel of child health outcomes to support the use of PCHI as an indicator of positive child health.
Project description:Background:Smoking is the second leading cause of death. Limited studies are available about smoking and overall diet quality. The current study was aimed at finding an association of s-KAP (smoking-related knowledge, attitude, and practices) with nutritional status and diet quality. Methodology:The current study was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Jurong city, China. Validated questionnaires were used for the collection of data regarding s-KAP and dietary intake. Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used for the association of s-KAP scores with diet quality scores and nutritional status. Results:The total numbers of participants were 7998 with a mean age of 59.3±11.4 years, including 38.5% males and 41.5% females. s-KAP scores were categorized into two groups, i.e., High s-KAP group and low s-KAP group. The High s-KAP group had significantly higher (P<0.05) diet scores and BMI but lower (P<0.05) WC (waist circumference) and WHR (waist to hip ratio) than the Low s-KAP group. Independent positive association (P<0.05) of s-KAP scores with diet scores was observed after the adjustment for age, gender, physical activity, alcohol consumptions, monthly income, and anthropometric measures (BMI, WC, and WHR). Similarly, smoking was positively associated (P<0.05) with diet scores after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion:In conclusion, the higher s-KAP scores indicated more knowledge regarding the harmful consequences of the smoking outcomes, positive attitude, less smoking practices, and having a good plan to quit smoking. Individuals with high s-KAP scores had good diet quality and lower adiposity measures. Furthermore, s-KAP scores and smoking status were having an independent positive association with diet scores.
Project description:Severity and incidence of vaccine-preventable infections with influenza viruses, s. pneumoniae and c. tetani increase with age. Furthermore, vaccine coverage in the elderly is often insufficient. The aim of this study is to identify socio-economic and knowledge-, attitude- and practice- (KAP)-related determinants of vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal disease and tetanus in the older German population.We analysed data from a German nationally representative questionnaire-based KAP-survey on infection prevention and hygiene behavior in the elderly (n = 1223). We used logistic regressions to assess impacts of socio-demographic- and KAP-related variables on vaccine uptake in general and on tetanus-, influenza- and pneumococcal vaccination. To generate KAP-scores, we applied factor analyses and analysed scores as predictors of specific vaccinations.A low rated personal health status was associated with a higher uptake of influenza vaccine whereas place of residence within Germany strongly impacted on pneumococcal vaccination. For tetanus and influenza vaccination, the strongest single vaccination predictor was attitude-related, i.e., the perceived importance of the vaccine (OR = 18.1, 95 % CI = 4.5-71.8; OR = 23.0, 95 % CI = 14.9-35.3, respectively). Pneumococcal vaccination was mostly knowledge-associated, i.e., knowing the recommendation predicted uptake (OR = 17.1, 95 % CI = 9.5-30.7). Regarding the generated KAP-scores, the practice-score reflecting vaccine related behavior such as having a vaccination record, was predictive for all vaccines considered. The knowledge-score was associated with influenza (OR = 1.3, 95 % CI = 1.0-1.6) and pneumococcal vaccination (OR = 1.2, 95 % CI = 1.0-1.5). Uniquely for influenza vaccination, the attitude-score was linked to vaccine uptake (OR = 1.1, 95 % CI = 1.0-1.1).Our results indicate that predictors of vaccination uptake in the elderly strongly depend on vaccine type and that scores of KAP are useful and valid to condense information from numerous individual KAP-variables. While awareness for vaccinations against influenza and tetanus is fairly high already it might have to be increased for vaccinations against pneumocoocal infections.
Project description:CONTEXT:Permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) can affect speech, language, and wider outcomes. Adverse effects are mitigated through universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) and early intervention. OBJECTIVE:We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate prevalence of UNHS-detected PCHL (bilateral loss ?26 dB HL) and its variation by admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A secondary objective was to report UNHS programme performance (PROSPERO: CRD42016051267). DATA SOURCES:Multiple electronic databases were interrogated in January 2017, with further reports identified from article citations and unpublished literature (November 2017). STUDY SELECTION:UNHS reports from very highly-developed (VHD) countries with relevant prevalence and performance data; no language or date restrictions. DATA EXTRACTION:Three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality. RESULTS:We identified 41 eligible reports from 32 study populations (1799863 screened infants) in 6195 non-duplicate references. Pooled UNHS-detected PCHL prevalence was 1.1 per 1000 screened children (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9, 1.3; I2 = 89.2%). This was 6.9 times (95% CI: 3.8, 12.5) higher among those admitted to NICU. Smaller studies were significantly associated with higher prevalences (Egger's test: p = 0.02). Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 89-100% and 92-100% respectively, positive predictive values from 2-84%, with all negative predictive values 100%. LIMITATIONS:Results are generalisable to VHD countries only. Estimates and inferences were limited by available data. CONCLUSIONS:In VHD countries, 1 per 1000 screened newborns require referral to clinical services for PCHL. Prevalence is higher in those admitted to NICU. Improved reporting would support further examination of screen performance and child demographics.
Project description:The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) component of the multi-center EUSCREEN project is being piloted in Albania since January 1st 2018. The aim of this study was to explore mothers' perceptions about various elements of UNHS in Albania. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the three sites of UNHS in Albania, namely in Tirana, Kukës and Pogradec during May-June 2019. During this period 512 consecutively approached mothers giving birth to included maternity hospitals were interviewed face-to-face about different aspects of UNHS. Basic socio-demographic and socioeconomic information was also collected. Mean age of participating mothers was 28.6 years ± 5.5 years. The overwhelming majority (93%) of mothers knew what their baby was being tested for, 33% were aware that hearing screening was offered in maternity hospital, 94% were very satisfied/satisfied with UNHS and about 62% were very stressed/stressed waiting for screening results, with significant sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences. The main information source about UNHS was screening staff in the maternity hospitals where mothers gave birth, reported in 67% of cases. All mothers (100%) agreed on the importance of early detection of newborn hearing problems, all mothers were willing to be informed early if their newborn baby had a hearing problem and all mothers were willing to contribute financially for testing the hearing of their newborn baby. These findings should guide information and education campaigns about UNHS in Albania. The public willingness to financially support neonatal hearing testing should be considered as an opportunity to achieve universal newborn hearing screening in the country.
Project description:The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practices in Tehranian adults, who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 572 individuals, aged ?20 years from public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of a literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire (D-KAP-38) with four subscales was developed: (1) general knowledge; (2) nutritional knowledge; (3) attitudes; (4) behaviors. Validity of the D-KAP-38 questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2 ± 7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0%, 1.1%, 2.4%, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59 ± 14.52) and nutrition knowledge had the lowest (42.58 ± 20.40), among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of D-KAP-38 questionnaire. Further investigations in different populations are recommended.
Project description:Postnatal permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is frequent (0.25%-0.99%) and difficult to detect in the early stage, which may impede the speech, language and cognitive development of affected children. Genetic tests of common variants associated with postnatal PCHI in newborns may provide an efficient way to identify those at risk. In this study, we detected a strong association of the p.V37I exclusive genotype of GJB2 with postnatal PCHI in Chinese Hans (P = 1.4×10(-10); OR 62.92, 95% CI 21.27-186.12). This common genotype in Eastern Asians was present in a substantial percentage (20%) of postnatal PCHI subjects, and its prevalence was significantly increased in normal-hearing newborns who failed at least one newborn hearing screen. Our results indicated that the p.V37I exclusive genotype of GJB2 may cause subclinical hearing impairment at birth and increases risk for postnatal PCHI. Genetic testing of GJB2 in East Asian newborns will facilitate prompt detection and intervention of postnatal PCHI.
Project description:Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), when accompanied by timely access to intervention services, can improve language outcomes for children born deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) and result in economic benefits to society. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs promote UNHS and using information systems support access to follow-up diagnostic and early intervention services so that infants can be screened no later than 1 month of age, with those who do not pass their screen receiving diagnostic evaluation no later than 3 months of age, and those with diagnosed hearing loss receiving intervention services no later than 6 months of age. In this paper, we first document the rapid roll-out of UNHS/EHDI policies and programs at the national and state/territorial levels in the United States between 1997 and 2005. We then review cost analyses and economic arguments that were made in advancing those policies in the United States. Finally, we examine evidence on language and educational outcomes that pertain to the economic benefits of UNHS/EHDI. In conclusion, although formal cost-effectiveness analyses do not appear to have played a decisive role, informal economic assessments of costs and benefits appear to have contributed to the adoption of UNHS policies in the United States.
Project description:There is a global lack of data concerning shark consumption trends, consumer attitudes, and public knowledge regarding sharks. This is the case in Trinidad and Tobago, where shark is a popular culinary delicacy. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) survey was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago. Six hundred and seven questionnaires were administered. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regressions were performed to test the association between KAP and demographic categories. The response rate was 93.4% with 567 questionnaires returned (473 from Trinidad and 94 from Tobago). Two hundred and seventeen (38.3%) participants were knowledgeable, 422 (74.4%) displayed attitudes in favour of shark conservation and sustainable use, and 270 (47.6%) displayed practices promoting shark conservation and sustainable use. Island (AOR = 2.81, CI = 1.78, 4.46) and tertiary education (AOR = 2.31, CI = 1.20, 4.46) significantly influenced knowledge level. Gender (AOR = 1.50, CI = 1.02, 2.20) and island (AOR = 0.56, CI = 0.35, 0.90) significantly influenced attitude. Gender (COR = 1.59, CI = 1.14, 2.22) was significantly associated with practices. Over 70% of respondents ate shark, and 54.7% ate shark infrequently enough to avoid risks from heavy metal toxicity. Our results may be useful to develop public awareness and practice improvement initiatives in order to improve KAP regarding shark meat consumption.