Involvement of gliadin, a component of wheat gluten, in increased intestinal permeability leading to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small-intestinal damage.
ABSTRACT: Gliadin, a component of wheat gluten known to be an important factor in the etiology of celiac disease, is related to several other diseases through its enhancing effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. We investigated the significance of gliadin in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small-intestinal damage in mice. 7-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were divided into the following groups: standard diet group, in which mice were fed with wheat-containing standard rodent diet (CE-2); gluten-free diet group, in which mice were fed with gluten-free diet (AIN-76A); and gliadin-administered group, in which mice fed with gluten-free diet were administered with gliadin (~250 mg/kg BW). Each group was subdivided into negative, healthy control group and NSAID-treated group. To some mice fed with gluten-free diet and administered with gliadin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor was administered for clarification of the significance of EGFR in NSAID-induced small intestinal damage and intestinal permeability. In mice fed with a gluten-free diet, indomethacin or diclofenac induced very mild mucosal damage in the small intestine compared with that in mice fed with a wheat-containing standard diet. Gliadin exacerbated the NSAID-induced small-intestinal damage in mice fed with a gluten-free diet. With the administration of indomethacin, MPO activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration into the mucosa and mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1? in the small intestine were higher in the gliadin-administered mice. Gliadin increased the intestinal paracellular permeability without indomethacin administration (4.3-fold) and further increased the permeability after indomethacin administration (2.1-fold). Gliadin induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in small-intestinal tissues, and erlotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) attenuated the indomethacin-induced intestinal damage and permeability exacerbated by gliadin, accompanied by inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation. These results suggest that gliadin plays an important role in the induction and exacerbation of NSAID-induced small-intestinal damage, and that increase in intestinal permeability via the EGFR signalling pathway is involved in its mechanism.
Project description:Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause damage in the small intestine in a bacteria-dependent manner. As high-fat diet (HFD) is a potent inducer of gut dysbiosis, we investigated the effects of HFD on bacterial flora in the small intestine and NSAID-induced enteropathy. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the population of Bifidobacterium spp. significantly decreased by fold change of individual operational taxonomic units in the small intestine of mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. HFD increased intestinal permeability, as indicated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran absorption and serum lipopolysaccharide levels, accompanied by a decrease in the protein expressions of ZO-1 and occludin and elevated mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-17A in the small intestine. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased susceptibility to indomethacin-induced damage in the small intestine; this phenotype was observed in normal diet-fed mice that received small intestinal microbiota from HFD-fed mice. Administration of neutralizing antibodies against IL-17A to HFD-fed mice reduced intestinal permeability and prevented exacerbation of indomethacin-induced damage. Thus, HFD-induced microbial dysbiosis in small intestine caused microinflammation through the induction of IL-17A and increase in intestinal permeability, resulting in the aggravation of NSAID-induced small intestinal damage.
Project description:Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed. Mice fed the gliadin-containing HFD displayed higher glycated hemoglobin and higher insulin resistance as evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment, more hepatic lipid accumulation and smaller adipocytes than mice fed the gliadin-free HFD. This was accompanied by alterations in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota, gut barrier function, urine metabolome, and immune phenotypes within liver and adipose tissue. Our results reveal that gliadin disturbs the intestinal environment and affects metabolic homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting a detrimental effect of gluten intake in gluten-tolerant subjects consuming a high-fat diet.
Project description:Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gliadin, a component of the grain protein gluten. Gliadin induces an MyD88-dependent zonulin release that leads to increased intestinal permeability, a postulated early element in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. We aimed to establish the molecular basis of gliadin interaction with intestinal mucosa leading to intestinal barrier impairment.Alpha-gliadin affinity column was loaded with intestinal mucosal membrane lysates to identify the putative gliadin-binding moiety. In vitro experiments with chemokine receptor CXCR3 transfectants were performed to confirm binding of gliadin and/or 26 overlapping 20mer alpha-gliadin synthetic peptides to the receptor. CXCR3 protein and gene expression were studied in intestinal epithelial cell lines and human biopsy specimens. Gliadin-CXCR3 interaction was further analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy, laser capture microscopy, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis. Ex vivo experiments were performed using C57BL/6 wild-type and CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestines to measure intestinal permeability and zonulin release.Affinity column and colocalization experiments showed that gliadin binds to CXCR3 and that at least 2 alpha-gliadin 20mer synthetic peptides are involved in this binding. CXCR3 is expressed in mouse and human intestinal epithelia and lamina propria. Mucosal CXCR3 expression was elevated in active celiac disease but returned to baseline levels following implementation of a gluten-free diet. Gliadin induced physical association between CXCR3 and MyD88 in enterocytes. Gliadin increased zonulin release and intestinal permeability in wild-type but not CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestine.Gliadin binds to CXCR3 and leads to MyD88-dependent zonulin release and increased intestinal permeability.
Project description:PURPOSE: Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. METHODS: 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG), anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA)-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE); specific systemic antibodies: ?-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG), deamidated-gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG), total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: ?, ?, ?, and ?), ?-lactoglobulin IgG, ?-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE,-lactoglobulin IgE, and ?-lactalbumin IgE. RESULTS: AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. CONCLUSIONS: Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Excessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in gluten-sensitized HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice were sensitized with gluten, and gavaged with indomethacin plus gluten. Intestinal permeability was assessed by Ussing chamber; epithelial cell (EC) ultra-structure by electron microscopy; RNA expression of genes coding for junctional proteins by Q-real-time PCR; immune response by in-vitro antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine analysis by cytometric bead array; intestinal microbiota by fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of systemic antibodies against intestinal microbiota by surface staining of live bacteria with serum followed by FACS analysis. Indomethacin led to a more pronounced increase in intestinal permeability in gluten-sensitized mice. These changes were accompanied by severe EC damage, decreased E-cadherin RNA level, elevated IFN-gamma in splenocyte culture supernatant, and production of significant IgM antibody against intestinal microbiota. CONCLUSION:Indomethacin potentiates barrier dysfunction and EC injury induced by gluten, affects systemic IFN-gamma production and the host response to intestinal microbiota antigens in HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice. The results suggest that environmental factors that alter the intestinal barrier may predispose individuals to an increased susceptibility to gluten through a bystander immune activation to intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Coeliac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory disorder that results from a breach of intestinal tolerance to dietary gluten proteins, driven by gluten-reactive effector T cells. We aimed to assess the pathogenic role of gluten-reactive T cells and to generate a model of gluten-induced enteropathy.CD4+CD25- T cell fractions were adoptively transferred into lymphopenic mice, leading to "baseline" small intestinal inflammation.Rag1-/- recipients of gliadin-presensitised CD4+CD45RBlowCD25- T cells, but not CD4+CD45RBhigh naive T cells, gained less weight and suffered from more severe duodenitis when challenged with oral gluten than recipients on gluten-free diet, or recipients of control (ovalbumin)-presensitised T cells. This was accompanied by deterioration of mucosal histological features characteristic of coeliac disease, and increased Th1/Th17 cell polarisation in the duodenum and the periphery. Interestingly, reintroduction of a gluten-free diet led to weight gain, improvement of histological duodenitis, and a decrease in duodenal interferon gamma and interleukin 17 transcripts. Moreover, B cell-competent nude recipients of gliadin-presensitised CD4+CD45RBlowCD25- T cells produced high levels of serum anti-gliadin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG1/IgG2c only when challenged with oral gluten.CD4+ T cell immunity to gluten leads to a breach of oral gluten tolerance and small intestinal pathology in lymphopenic mice, similar to human coeliac disease. This model will be useful for the study of coeliac disease pathogenesis, and also for testing novel non-dietary therapies for coeliac disease.
Project description:Undernutrition is a global health issue leading to 1 out 5 all deaths in children under 5 years. Undernutrition is often associated with environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a syndrome associated with increased intestinal permeability and gut inflammation. We aimed to develop a novel murine model of undernutrition with these EED features. Post-weaning mice were fed with low-protein diet (LP) alone or combined with a gastrointestinal insult trigger (indomethacin or liposaccharides). Growth, intestinal permeability and inflammation were assessed. LP diet induced stunting and wasting in post-weaning mice but did not impact gut barrier. We therefore combined LP diet with a single administration of indomethacin or liposaccharides (LPS). Indomethacin increased fecal calprotectin production while LPS did not. To amplify indomethacin effects, we investigated its repeated administration in addition to LP diet and mice exhibited stunting and wasting with intestinal hyperpermeability and gut inflammation. The combination of 3-weeks LP diet with repeated oral indomethacin administration induced wasting, stunting and gut barrier dysfunction as observed in undernourished children with EED. As noninvasive methods for investigating gut function in undernourished children are scarce, the present pre-clinical model provides an affordable tool to attempt to elucidate pathophysiological processes involved in EED and to identify novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Gluten promotes type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and likely also in humans. In NOD mice and in non-diabetes-prone mice, it induces inflammation in the pancreatic lymph nodes, suggesting that gluten can initiate inflammation locally. Further, gliadin fragments stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells directly. We hypothesized that gluten fragments may cross the intestinal barrier to be distributed to organs other than the gut. If present in pancreas, gliadin could interact directly with the immune system and the beta cells to initiate diabetes development. We orally and intravenously administered 33-mer and 19-mer gliadin peptide to NOD, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice and found that the peptides readily crossed the intestinal barrier in all strains. Several degradation products were found in the pancreas by mass spectroscopy. Notably, the exocrine pancreas incorporated large amounts of radioactive label shortly after administration of the peptides. The study demonstrates that, even in normal animals, large gliadin fragments can reach the pancreas. If applicable to humans, the increased gut permeability in prediabetes and type 1 diabetes patients could expose beta cells directly to gliadin fragments. Here they could initiate inflammation and induce beta cell stress and thus contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Based on clinical, histopathological and serological similarities to human celiac disease (CD), we recently established the rhesus macaque model of gluten sensitivity. In this study, we further characterized this condition based on presence of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibodies, increased intestinal permeability and transepithelial transport of a proteolytically resistant, immunotoxic, 33-residue peptide from alpha(2)-gliadin in the distal duodenum of gluten-sensitive macaques.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Six rhesus macaques were selected for study from a pool of 500, including two healthy controls and four gluten-sensitive animals with elevated anti-gliadin or anti-TG2 antibodies as well as history of non-infectious chronic diarrhea. Pediatric endoscope-guided pinch biopsies were collected from each animal's distal duodenum following administration of a gluten-containing diet (GD) and again after remission by gluten-free diet (GFD). Control biopsies always showed normal villous architecture, whereas gluten-sensitive animals on GD exhibited histopathology ranging from mild lymphocytic infiltration to villous atrophy, typical of human CD. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis of biopsies revealed IgG+ and IgA+ plasma-like cells producing antibodies that colocalized with TG2 in gluten-sensitive macaques only. Following instillation in vivo, the Cy-3-labeled 33-residue gluten peptide colocalized with the brush border protein villin in all animals. In a substantially enteropathic macaque with "leaky" duodenum, the peptide penetrated beneath the epithelium into the lamina propria.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The rhesus macaque model of gluten sensitivity not only resembles the histopathology of CD but it also may provide a model for studying intestinal permeability in states of epithelial integrity and disrepair.
Project description:Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD). We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate) (P(HEMA-co-SS)) binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats) and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies). In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans.