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Regulation of Hepatic Long Noncoding RNAs by Pregnane X Receptor and Constitutive Androstane Receptor Agonists in Mouse Liver.


ABSTRACT: Altered expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) by environmental chemicals modulates the expression of xenobiotic biotransformation-related genes and may serve as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers of exposure. The pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2) is a critical xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of many drug-processing genes, and it has similar target-gene profiles and DNA-binding motifs with another xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor, namely, constitutive andronstrane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3). To test our hypothesis that lncRNAs are regulated by PXR in concert with protein-coding genes (PCGs) and to compare the PXR-targeted lncRNAs with CAR-targeted lncRNAs, RNA-Seq was performed from livers of adult male C57BL/6 mice treated with corn oil, the PXR agonist PCN, or the CAR agonist 1, 4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP). Among 125,680 known lncRNAs, 3843 were expressed in liver, and 193 were differentially regulated by PXR (among which 40% were also regulated by CAR). Most PXR- or CAR-regulated lncRNAs were mapped to the introns and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of PCGs, as well as intergenic regions. Combining the RNA-Seq data with a published PXR chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing; cytochrome P450 (P450; ChIP-Seq) data set, we identified 774 expressed lncRNAs with direct PXR-DNA binding sites, and 26.8% of differentially expressed lncRNAs had changes in PXR-DNA binding after PCN exposure. De novo motif analysis identified colocalization of PXR with liver receptor homolog (LRH-1), which regulates bile acid synthesis after PCN exposure. There was limited overlap of PXR binding with an epigenetic mark for transcriptional activation (histone-H3K4-di-methylation, H3K4me2) but no overlap with epigenetic marks for transcriptional silencing [H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) and DNA methylation]. Among differentially expressed lncRNAs, 264 were in proximity of PCGs, and the lncRNA-PCG pairs displayed a high coregulatory pattern by PXR and CAR activation. This study was among the first to demonstrate that lncRNAs are regulated by PXR and CAR activation and that they may be important regulators of PCGs involved in xenobiotic metabolism.

SUBMITTER: Dempsey JL 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6382996 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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