Using the genome aggregation database, computational pathogenicity prediction tools, and patch clamp heterologous expression studies to demote previously published long QT syndrome type 1 mutations from pathogenic to benign.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mutations in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1). It has been suggested that ?10%-20% of rare LQTS case-derived variants in the literature may have been published erroneously as LQT1-causative mutations and may be "false positives." OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine which previously published KCNQ1 case variants are likely false positives. METHODS:A list of all published, case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants (MVs) was compiled. The occurrence of each MV within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) was assessed. Eight in silico tools were used to predict each variant's pathogenicity. Case-derived variants that were either (1) too frequently found in gnomAD or (2) absent in gnomAD but predicted to be pathogenic by ?2 tools were considered potential false positives. Three of these variants were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp technique. RESULTS:Overall, there were 244 KCNQ1 case-derived MVs. Of these, 29 (12%) were seen in ?10 individuals in gnomAD and are demotable. However, 157 of 244 MVs (64%) were absent in gnomAD. Of these, 7 (4%) were predicted to be pathogenic by ?2 tools, 3 of which we characterized functionally. There was no significant difference in current density between heterozygous KCNQ1-F127L, -P477L, or -L619M variant-containing channels compared to KCNQ1-WT. CONCLUSION:This study offers preliminary evidence for the demotion of 32 (13%) previously published LQT1 MVs. Of these, 29 were demoted because of their frequent sighting in gnomAD. Additionally, in silico analysis and in vitro functional studies have facilitated the demotion of 3 ultra-rare MVs (F127L, P477L, L619M).
Project description:Genetic testing for congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) has become common. Recent studies have shown that some variants labelled as pathogenic might be misclassified due to sparse case reports and relatively common allele frequencies (AF) in the general population. This study aims to evaluate the presence of LQTS-associated variants in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) population, and assess the functional impact of these variants.Variants associated with LQTS from the Human Gene Mutation Database were extracted and matched to the gnomAD to evaluate population-based AF. We used MetaSVM to predict the function of LQTS variants. Allele distribution by protein topology in KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A was compared between gnomAD (n = 123,136) and a cohort of LQTS patients aggregated from eight published studies (n = 2,683). Among the 1,415 LQTS-associated single nucleotide variants in 30 genes, 347 (25%) are present in gnomAD; 24% of the 347 variants were predicted as functionally tolerated compared with 4% of variants not present in gnomAD (P < 0.001). Of the 347 pathogenic variants in gnomAD, seven (2%) had an AF of ? 0.001 and 65 (19%) variants had an AF of ? 0.0001. In KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A, allele distribution by protein functional region was significantly different with gnomAD alleles appearing less frequently in highly pathogenic domains than case alleles.A significant number of LQTS variants have insufficient evidence for pathogenicity and relatively common AF in the general population. Caution should be used when ascribing pathogenicity to these variants.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Stringent variant interpretation guidelines can lead to high rates of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for genetically heterogeneous disease like long QT syndrome (LQTS) and Brugada syndrome (BrS). Quantitative and disease-specific customization of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines can address this false negative rate.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared rare variant frequencies from 1847 LQTS (KCNQ1/KCNH2/SCN5A) and 3335 BrS (SCN5A) cases from the International LQTS/BrS Genetics Consortia to population-specific gnomAD data and developed disease-specific criteria for ACMG/AMP evidence classes-rarity (PM2/BS1 rules) and case enrichment of individual (PS4) and domain-specific (PM1) variants.<h4>Results</h4>Rare SCN5A variant prevalence differed between European (20.8%) and Japanese (8.9%) BrS patients (p?=?5.7?×?10<sup>-18</sup>) and diagnosis with spontaneous (28.7%) versus induced (15.8%) Brugada type 1 electrocardiogram (ECG) (p?=?1.3?×?10<sup>-13</sup>). Ion channel transmembrane regions and specific N-terminus (KCNH2) and C-terminus (KCNQ1/KCNH2) domains were characterized by high enrichment of case variants and >95% probability of pathogenicity. Applying the customized rules, 17.4% of European BrS and 74.8% of European LQTS cases had (likely) pathogenic variants, compared with estimated diagnostic yields (case excess over gnomAD) of 19.2%/82.1%, reducing VUS prevalence to close to background rare variant frequency.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Large case-control data sets enable quantitative implementation of ACMG/AMP guidelines and increased sensitivity for inherited arrhythmia genetic testing.
Project description:Transmission distortion of disease-causing alleles in long QT syndrome (LQTS) has been reported, suggesting a potential role of KCNQ1 and KCNH2 in reproduction. This study sought to investigate parental transmission in LQTS families according to ethnicity, gene loci (LQT1-3: KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A) or severity of channel dysfunction. We studied 3782 genotyped members from 679 European and Japanese LQTS families (2748 carriers). We determined grandparental and parental origins of variant alleles in 1903 children and 624 grandchildren, and the grandparental origin of normal alleles in healthy children from 44 three-generation control families. LQTS alleles were more of maternal than paternal origin (61 vs 39%, P<0.001). The ratio of maternally transmitted alleles in LQT1 (66%) was higher than in LQT2 (56%, P<0.001) and LQT3 (57%, P=0.03). Unlike the Mendelian distribution of grandparental alleles seen in control families, variant grandparental LQT1 and LQT2 alleles in grandchildren showed an excess of maternally transmitted grandmother alleles. For LQT1, maternal transmission differs according to the variant level of dysfunction with 68% of maternal transmission for dominant negative or unknown functional consequence variants vs 58% for non-dominant negative and variants leading to haploinsufficiency, P<0.01; however, for LQT2 or LQT3 this association was not significant. An excess of disease-causing alleles of maternal origin, most pronounced in LQT1, was consistently found across ethnic groups. This observation does not seem to be linked to an imbalance in transmission of the LQTS subtype-specific grandparental allele, but to the potential degree of potassium channel dysfunction.
Project description:Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1AP sequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.This study included 312 individuals (58% females) from two LQT1 founder populations, whereof 227 genotype positive segregating either Y111C (n = 148) or R518* (n = 79) pathogenic sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene, and 85 genotype negatives. All were genotyped for NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842, rs16847548 and rs4657139, and tested for association with QTc length (effect size presented as mean difference between derived and wildtype, in ms), using a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis. Mean QTc was obtained by repeated manual measurement (preferably in lead II) by one observer using coded 50 mm/s standard 12-lead ECGs.A substantial variance in mean QTc was seen in genotype positives 476 ± 36 ms (Y111C 483 ± 34 ms; R518* 462 ± 34 ms) and genotype negatives 433 ± 24 ms. Female sex was significantly associated with QTc prolongation in all genotype groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis including the entire study population and adjusted for KCNQ1 genotype, sex and age, NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842 and rs16847548 (but not rs4657139) were significantly associated with QT prolongation, +18 ms (p = 0.0007) and +17 ms (p = 0.006), respectively. Significant sex-interactions were detected for both sequent variants (interaction term r = 0.892, p < 0.001 and r = 0.944, p < 0.001, respectively). Notably, across the genotype groups, when stratified by sex neither rs12143842 nor rs16847548 were significantly associated with QTc in females (both p = 0.16) while in males, a prolongation of +19 ms and +8 ms (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02) was seen in multivariable analysis, explaining up to 23% of QTc variance in all males.Sex was identified as a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two LQT1 founder populations. This finding may contribute to QTc sex differences and affect the usefulness of NOS1AP as a marker for clinical risk stratification in LQTS.
Project description:Genetic testing for long-QT syndrome (LQTS) has diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Hundreds of causative mutations in 12 known LQTS-susceptibility genes have been identified. Genetic testing that includes the 3 most commonly mutated genes is available clinically. Distinguishing pathogenic mutations from innocuous rare variants is critical to the interpretation of test results. We sought to quantify the value of mutation type and gene/protein region in determining the probability of pathogenicity for mutations.Type, frequency, and location of mutations across KCNQ1 (LQT1), KCNH2 (LQT2), and SCN5A (LQT3) were compared between 388 unrelated "definite" (clinical diagnostic score >or=4 and/or QTc >or=480 ms) cases of LQTS and >1300 healthy controls for each gene. From these data, estimated predictive values (percent of mutations found in definite cases that would cause LQTS) were determined according to mutation type and location. Mutations were 10 times more common in cases than controls (0.58 per case versus 0.06 per control). Missense mutations were the most common, accounting for 78%, 67%, and 89% of mutations in KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A in cases and >95% in controls. Nonmissense mutations have an estimated predictive value >99% regardless of location. In contrast, location appears to be critical for characterizing missense mutations. Relative frequency of missense mutations between cases and controls ranged from approximately 1:1 in the SCN5A interdomain linker to infinity in the pore, transmembrane, and linker in KCNH2. These correspond to estimated predictive values ranging from 0% in the interdomain linker of SCN5A to 100% in the transmembrane/linker/pore regions of KCNH2. The estimated predictive value is also high in the linker, pore, transmembrane, and C terminus of KCNQ1 and the transmembrane/linker of SCN5A.Distinguishing pathogenic mutations from rare variants is of critical importance in the interpretation of genetic testing in LQTS. Mutation type, mutation location, and ethnic-specificshould be viewed as variants of uncertain significance and prompt further investigation to clarify the likelihood of disease causation. However, mutations in regions such as the transmembrane, linker, and pore of KCNQ1 and KCNH2 may be defined confidently as high-probability LQTS-causing mutations. These findings will have implications for other genetic disorders involving mutational analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inheritable arrhythmic disorder which is linked to at least 17 genes. The clinical characteristics and genetic mutations may be variable among different population groups and they have not yet been studied in Thai population. METHODS:Clinical characteristics were retrospectively reviewed from children and young adults with congenital long QT syndrome whose blood samples were sent for genotyping during 1998-2017. Sangers sequencing was used to sequentially identify KCNQ1 or KCNH2 genetic variants. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was used to identify variants in all other known LQTS genes. RESULTS:Of the 20 subjects (17 families), 45% were male, mean QTc was 550.3?±?68.8?msec?(range 470-731 msec) and total Schwartz's score was 5.6?±?1.2 points (range 3-8 points). Fifty percent of patients had events at rest, 30% had symptoms after adrenergic mediated events, and 20% were asymptomatic. We discovered pathogenic and likely pathogenic genetic variants in KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A in 6 (35%), 4 (24%), and 2 (12%) families, respectively. One additional patient had variance of unknown significance (VUS) in KCNH2 and another one in ANK2. No pathogenic genetic variant was found in 3 patients (18%). Most patients received beta-blocker and 9 (45%) had ICD implanted. LQT1 patients were either asymptomatic or had stress-induced arrhythmia. Most of the LQT2 and LQT3 patients developed symptoms at rest or during sleep. CONCLUSIONS:Our patients with LQTS were mostly symptomatic at presentation. The genetic mutations were predominantly in LQT1, LQT2, and LQT3 genes.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by several ion channel genes, yet risk of arrhythmic events is not determined solely by the responsible gene pathogenic variants. Female sex after adolescence is associated with a higher risk of arrhythmic events in individuals with congenital LQTS, but the association between sex and genotype-based risk of LQTS is still unclear.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the association between sex and location of the LQTS-related pathogenic variant as it pertains to the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This retrospective observational study enrolled 1124 genotype-positive patients from 11 Japanese institutions from March 1, 2006, to February 28, 2013. Patients had LQTS type 1 (LQT1), type 2 (LQT2), and type 3 (LQT3) (616 probands and 508 family members), with KCNQ1 (n = 521), KCNH2 (n = 487) and SCN5A (n = 116) genes. Clinical characteristics such as age at the time of diagnosis, sex, family history, cardiac events, and several electrocardiographic measures were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted from January 18 to October 10, 2018.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Sex difference in the genotype-specific risk of congenital LQTS.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 1124 patients (663 females and 461 males; mean [SD] age, 20  years) no sex difference was observed in risk for arrhythmic events among those younger than 15 years; in contrast, female sex was associated with a higher risk for LQT1 and LQT2 among those older than 15 years. In patients with LQT1, the pathogenic variant of the membrane-spanning site was associated with higher risk of arrhythmic events than was the pathogenic variant of the C-terminus of KCNQ1 (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.19-2.17; P = .002), although this site-specific difference in the incidence of arrhythmic events was observed in female patients only. In patients with LQT2, those with S5-pore-S6 pathogenic variants in KCNH2 had a higher risk of arrhythmic events than did those with others (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.44-2.44; P < .001). This site-specific difference in incidence, however, was observed in both sexes. Regardless of the QTc interval, however, female sex itself was associated with a significantly higher risk of arrhythmic events in patients with LQT2 after puberty (106 of 192 [55.2%] vs 19 of 94 [20.2%]; P < .001). In patients with LQT3, pathogenic variants in the S5-pore-S6 segment of the Nav1.5 channel were associated with lethal arrhythmic events compared with others (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.09-8.36; P < .001), but no sex difference was seen.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this retrospective analysis, pathogenic variants in the pore areas of the channels were associated with higher risk of arrhythmic events than were other variants in each genotype, while sex-associated differences were observed in patients with LQT1 and LQT2 but not in those with LQT3. The findings of this study suggest that risk for cardiac events in LQTS varies according to genotype, variant site, age, and sex.
Project description:Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited disorder characterized by prolonged QT intervals and life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmias. LQT1 caused by KCNQ1 mutations is the most common form of LQTS.Patients diagnosed with LQTS were screened for disease-associated mutations in KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNJ2, and SCN5A. A novel mutation was identified in KCNQ1 caused by a three-base deletion at the position 824-826, predicting a deletion of phenylalanine at codon 275 in segment 5 of KCNQ1 (DeltaF275). Wild-type (WT) and DeltaF275-KCNQ1 constructs were generated and transiently transfected together with a KCNE1 construct in CHO-K1 cells to characterize the properties of the slowly activating delayed rectifier current (IKs) using conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Cells transfected with WT-KCNQ1 and KCNE1 (1:1.3 molar ratio) produced slowly activating outward current with the characteristics of IKs. Tail current density measured at -40 mV following a two-second step to +60 mV was 381.3 +/- 62.6 pA/pF (n = 11). Cells transfected with DeltaF275-KCNQ1 and KCNE1 exhibited essentially no current. (Tail current density: 0.8 +/- 2.1 pA/pF, n = 11, P = 0.00001 vs WT). Cotransfection of WT- and DeltaF275- KCNQ1 (50/50), along with KCNE1, produced little to no current (tail current density: 10.3 +/- 3.5 pA/pF, n = 11, P = 0.00001 vs WT alone), suggesting a potent dominant negative effect. Immunohistochemistry showed normal membrane trafficking of DeltaF275-KCNQ1.Our data suggest that a DeltaF275 mutation in KCNQ1 is associated with a very potent dominant negative effect leading to an almost complete loss of function of IKs and that this defect underlies a LQT1 form of LQTS.
Project description:Long QT interval syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1) has been reported to arise from mutations in the S3 domain of KCNQ1, but none of the seven S3 mutations in the literature have been characterized with respect to trafficking or biophysical deficiencies. Surface channel expression was studied using a proteinase K assay for KCNQ1 D202H/N, I204F/M, V205M, S209F, and V215M coexpressed with KCNE1 in mammalian cells. In each case, the majority of synthesized channel was found at the surface, but mutant I(Ks) current density at +100 mV was reduced significantly for S209F, which showed approximately 75% reduction over wild type (WT). All mutants except S209F showed positively shifted V(1/2)'s of activation and slowed channel activation compared with WT (V(1/2) = +17.7 +/- 2.4 mV and tau(activation) of 729 ms at +20 mV; n = 18). Deactivation was also accelerated in all mutants versus WT (126 +/- 8 ms at -50 mV; n = 27), and these changes led to marked loss of repolarizing currents during action potential clamps at 2 and 4 Hz, except again S209F. KCNQ1 models localize these naturally occurring S3 mutants to the surface of the helices facing the other voltage sensor transmembrane domains and highlight inter-residue interactions involved in activation gating. V207M, currently classified as a polymorphism and facing lipid in the model, was indistinguishable from WT I(Ks). We conclude that S3 mutants of KCNQ1 cause LQTS predominantly through biophysical effects on the gating of I(Ks), but some mutants also show protein stability/trafficking defects, which explains why the kinetic gain-of-function mutation S209F causes LQT1.
Project description:We report on a young woman admitted to our Cardiology Unit because of an episode of cardiac arrest related to a long-QT syndrome (LQTS). This manifestation was part of a broader phenotype, which was recognized as a mild form of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of BWS owing to a maternally inherited deletion of the centromeric imprinting center, or ICR2, an extremely rare genetic mechanism in BWS. The deletion interval (198?kb) also included exons 11-16 of the KCNQ1 gene, known to be responsible for LQTS at locus LQT1. No concomitant mutations were found in any other of the known LQT genes. The proposita's mother carries the same deletion in her paternal chromosome and shows manifestations of the Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). This report describes the smallest BWS-causing ICR2 deletion and provides the first evidence that a paternal deletion of ICR2 leads to a SRS-like phenotype. In addition, our observation strongly suggests that in cases of LQTS due to mutation of the KCNQ1 gene (LQT1), an accurate clinical genetic evaluation should be done in order to program the most appropriate genetic tests.