Organophosphorus-Catalyzed Deoxygenation of Sulfonyl Chlorides: Electrophilic (Fluoroalkyl)sulfenylation by PIII /PV =O Redox Cycling.
ABSTRACT: A method for electrophilic sulfenylation by organophosphorus-catalyzed deoxygenative O-atom transfer from sulfonyl chlorides is reported. This C-S bond-forming reaction is catalyzed by a readily available small-ring phosphine (phosphetane) in conjunction with a hydrosilane terminal reductant to afford a general entry to sulfenyl electrophiles, including valuable trifluoromethyl, perfluoroalkyl, and heteroaryl derivatives that are otherwise difficult to access. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the twofold deoxygenation of the sulfonyl substrate proceeds by the intervention of an off-cycle resting state thiophosphonium ion. The catalytic method represents an operationally simple protocol using a stable phosphine oxide as a precatalyst and exhibits broad functional-group tolerance.
Project description:Experimental, spectroscopic, and computational studies are reported that provide an evidence-based mechanistic description of an intermolecular reductive C-N coupling of nitroarenes and arylboronic acids catalyzed by a redox-active main-group catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane P-oxide, i.e., 1·[O]). The central observations include the following: (1) catalytic reduction of 1·[O] to PIII phosphetane 1 is kinetically fast under conditions of catalysis; (2) phosphetane 1 represents the catalytic resting state as observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy; (3) there are no long-lived nitroarene partial-reduction intermediates observable by 15N NMR spectroscopy; (4) the reaction is sensitive to solvent dielectric, performing best in moderately polar solvents (viz. cyclopentylmethyl ether); and (5) the reaction is largely insensitive with respect to common hydrosilane reductants. On the basis of the foregoing studies, new modified catalytic conditions are described that expand the reaction scope and provide for mild temperatures (T ? 60 °C), low catalyst loadings (?2 mol%), and innocuous terminal reductants (polymethylhydrosiloxane). DFT calculations define a two-stage deoxygenation sequence for the reductive C-N coupling. The initial deoxygenation involves a rate-determining step that consists of a (3+1) cheletropic addition between the nitroarene substrate and phosphetane 1; energy decomposition techniques highlight the biphilic character of the phosphetane in this step. Although kinetically invisible, the second deoxygenation stage is implicated as the critical C-N product-forming event, in which a postulated oxazaphosphirane intermediate is diverted from arylnitrene dissociation toward heterolytic ring opening with the arylboronic acid; the resulting dipolar intermediate evolves by antiperiplanar 1,2-migration of the organoboron residue to nitrogen, resulting in displacement of 1·[O] and formation of the target C-N coupling product upon in situ hydrolysis. The method thus described constitutes a mechanistically well-defined and operationally robust main-group complement to the current workhorse transition-metal-based methods for catalytic intermolecular C-N coupling.
Project description:3-Sulfanyloxindoles were synthesised by triphenylphosphine-mediated transition-metal-free thiolation of oxindoles using sulfonyl chlorides as sulfenylation reagents. The above reaction was promoted by iodide anions, which was ascribed to the in situ conversion of sulfenyl chlorides into the more reactive sulfenyl iodides. Moreover, the thiolation of 3-aryloxindoles was facilitated by bases. The use of a transition-metal-free protocol, readily available reagents, and mild reaction conditions make this protocol more practical for preparing 3-sulfanyloxindoles than traditional methods.
Project description:A method for the annulation of amines and carboxylic acids to form pharmaceutically relevant azaheterocycles via organophosphorus PIII/PV redox catalysis is reported. The method employs a phosphetane catalyst together with a mild bromenium oxidant and terminal hydrosilane reductant to drive successive C-N and C-C bond-forming dehydration events via the serial action of a catalytic bromophosphonium intermediate. These results demonstrate the capacity of PIII/PV redox catalysis to enable iterative redox-neutral transformations in complement to the common reductive driving force of the PIII/PV couple.
Project description:3-Sulfenyl- and 3-selenylindoles are readily synthesized by a two-step process involving the palladium/copper-catalyzed crossing coupling of N,N-dialkyl-ortho-iodoanilines and terminal alkynes and subsequent electrophilic cyclization of the resulting N,N-dialkyl-ortho-(1-alkynyl)anilines with arylsulfenyl chlorides or arylselenyl chlorides. The presence of a stoichiometric amount of n-Bu(4)NI is crucial to the success of the electrophilic cyclization. A variety of 3-sulfenyl- and 3-selenylindole derivatives bearing alkyl, vinylic, aryl, and heteroaryl substituents have been prepared in good to excellent yields (up to 99%). By employing N,N-dibenzyl-ortho-iodoanilines, a 3-sulfenyl-N-H-indole has been successfully prepared. In addition, 3-sulfonyl- and 3-sulfinylindoles have also been successfully prepared by facile oxidation of the corresponding 3-sulfenylindoles.
Project description:The carbon-carbon double bond of unsaturated carbonyl compounds was readily reduced by using a phosphetane oxide catalyst in the presence of a simple organosilane as the terminal reductant and water as the hydrogen source. Quantitative hydrogenation was observed when 1.0?mol?% of a methyl-substituted phosphetane oxide was employed as the catalyst. The procedure is highly selective towards activated double bonds, tolerating a variety of functional groups that are usually prone to reduction. In total, 25 alkenes and two alkynes were hydrogenated to the corresponding alkanes in excellent yields of up to 99?%. Notably, less active poly(methylhydrosiloxane) could also be utilized as the terminal reductant. Mechanistic investigations revealed the phosphane as the catalyst resting state and a protonation/deprotonation sequence as the crucial step in the catalytic cycle.
Project description:A main group-catalyzed method for the synthesis of aryl- and heteroarylamines by intermolecular C-N coupling is reported. The method employs a small-ring organophosphorus-based catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane) and a terminal hydrosilane reductant (phenylsilane) to drive reductive intermolecular coupling of nitro(hetero)arenes with boronic acids. Applications to the construction of both Csp2-N (from arylboronic acids) and Csp3-N bonds (from alkylboronic acids) are demonstrated; the reaction is stereospecific with respect to Csp3-N bond formation. The method constitutes a new route from readily available building blocks to valuable nitrogen-containing products with complementarity in both scope and chemoselectivity to existing catalytic C-N coupling methods.
Project description:A small-ring phosphacycloalkane (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane, 3) catalyzes intramolecular C-N bond forming heterocyclization of o-nitrobiaryl and -styrenyl derivatives in the presence of a hydrosilane terminal reductant. The method provides scalable access to diverse carbazole and indole compounds under operationally trivial homogeneous organocatalytic conditions, as demonstrated by 17 examples conducted on 1 g scale. In situ NMR reaction monitoring studies support a mechanism involving catalytic PIII/PV?O cycling, where tricoordinate phosphorus compound 3 represents the catalytic resting state. For the catalytic conversion of o-nitrobiphenyl to carbazole, the kinetic reaction order was determined for phosphetane catalyst 3 (first order), substrate (first order), and phenylsilane (zeroth order). For differentially 5-substituted 2-nitrobiphenyls, the transformation is accelerated by electron-withdrawing substituents (Hammett factor ? = +1.5), consistent with the accrual of negative charge on the nitro substrate in the rate-determining step. DFT modeling of the turnover-limiting deoxygenation event implicates a rate-determining (3 + 1) cheletropic addition between the phosphetane catalyst 3 and 2-nitrobiphenyl substrate to form an unobserved pentacoordinate spiro-bicyclic dioxazaphosphetane, which decomposes via (2 + 2) cycloreversion giving 1 equiv of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] and 2-nitrosobiphenyl. Experimental and computational investigations into the C-N bond forming event suggest the involvement of an oxazaphosphirane (2 + 1) adduct between 3 and 2-nitrosobiphenyl, which evolves through loss of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] to give the observed carbazole product via C-H insertion in a nitrene-like fashion.
Project description:Polyborylated organic compounds have been emerging as versatile building blocks in chemical synthesis. Here we report a selective cobalt-catalyzed deoxygenative 1,1,3-triborylation reaction of allylic ethers with pinacolborane to prepare 1,1,3-triborylalkane compounds. With naturally abundant and/or synthetic cinnamic methyl ethers as starting materials, we have achieved the synthesis of a variety of 1,1,3-triborylalkanes (25 examples). The synthetic utility of these 1,1,3-triborylalkanes is demonstrated through site-selective allylation, protodeborylation, and consecutive carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. Mechanistic studies including deuterium-labeling and control experiments suggest that this 1,1,3-triborylation reaction proceeds through initial cobalt-catalyzed deoxygenative borylation of allylic ethers to form allylic boronates followed by cobalt-catalyzed 1,1-diborylation of the resulting allylic boronates.
Project description:A metal- and additive-free, highly efficient, step-economical deoxygenative C2-heteroarylation of quinolines and isoquinolines was achieved from readily available N-oxides and N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles. A variety of ?-triazolylquinoline derivatives were synthesized with good regioselectivity and in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Further, a gram-scale and one-pot synthesis illustrated the efficacy and simplicity of the developed protocol. The current transformation was also found to be compatible for the late-stage modification of natural products.
Project description:Deoxygenative hydrogenation of amides to amines homogeneously catalyzed by a complex of an Earth-abundant metal is presented. This manganese-catalyzed reaction features high efficiency and selectivity. A plausible reaction mechanism, involving metal-ligand cooperation of the manganese pincer complex, is proposed based on NMR studies and relevant stoichiometric reactions.