Exposure Characterization of Haloacetic Acids in Humans for Exposure and Risk Assessment Applications: An Exploratory Study.
ABSTRACT: Disinfected water is the major source of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in humans, but their inter- and intra-individual variability for exposure and risk assessment applications is under-researched. Thus, we measured HAAs in cross-sectional and longitudinal urine and water specimens from 17 individuals. Five regulated HAAs-mono, di, and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA, and TCAA) and mono- and dibromoacetic acid (MBAA and DBAA)-and one unregulated HAA-bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA)-were measured. Urinary DCAA, MBAA, DBAA, and BCAA levels were always below the limits of detection (LOD). Measured levels and interindividual variability of urinary MCAA were higher than urinary TCAA. Longitudinal urinary specimens showed MCAA levels peaked in after-shower specimens, while TCAA levels remain unchanged. Correlation between urinary MCAA and TCAA was moderate but statistically significant. The prevalence of MCAA and TCAA in urine suggest they can be considered as biomarkers of HAA. Peak urinary MCAA in post-shower specimens suggest MCAA captures short-term exposure via dermal and/or inhalation, while urinary TCAA captures long-term exposure via ingestion. However, further research is warranted in a large pool of participants to test the reliability of MCAA as exposure biomarker.
Project description:Epidemiological studies suggest that women exposed to disinfection by-products (DBPs) have an increased risk of delivering babies with cardiovascular defects (CVDs).We examined nine CVDs in relation to categorical DBP exposures including bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and summary DBP measures (HAA5, THMBr, THM4, and DBP9).We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) in a case-control study of birth defects in Massachusetts with complete quarterly 1999-2004 trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) data. We randomly matched 10 controls each to 904 CVD cases based on week of conception. Weight-averaged aggregate first-trimester DBP exposures were assigned to individuals based on residence at birth.We detected associations for tetralogy of Fallot and the upper exposure categories for TCAA, DCAA, and HAA5 (aOR range, 3.34-6.51) including positive exposure-response relationships for DCAA and HAA5. aORs consistent in magnitude were detected between atrial septal defects and bromoform (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43), as well as DBCM, chloroform, and THM4 (aOR range, 1.26-1.67). Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) were associated with the highest bromoform (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.83), MBAA (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 0.85, 3.84), and DBCM (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.37) exposure categories.To our knowledge, this is the first birth defect study to develop multi-DBP adjusted regression models as well as the first CVD study to evaluate HAA exposures and the second to evaluate bromoform exposures. Our findings, therefore, inform exposure specificity for the consistent associations previously reported between THM4 and CVDs including VSDs. Citation: Wright JM, Evans A, Kaufman JA, Rivera-Núñez Z, Narotsky MG. 2017. Disinfection by-product exposures and the risk of specific cardiac birth defects. Environ Health Perspect 125:269-277;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP103.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine associations between craniofacial birth defects (CFDs) and disinfection by-product (DBP) exposures, including the sum of four trihalomethanes (THM4) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) (ie, DBP9). METHODS:We calculated first trimester adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for different DBPs in a matched case-control study of 366 CFD cases in Massachusetts towns with complete 1999 to 2004 THM and HAA data. RESULTS:We detected elevated aORs for cleft palate with DBP9 (highest quintile aOR?=?3.52; 95% CI: 1.07, 11.60), HAA5, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and dichloroacetic acid. We detected elevated aORs for eye defects with TCAA and chloroform. CONCLUSION:This is the first epidemiological study of DBPs to examine eye and ear defects, as well as HAAs and CFDs. The associations for cleft palate and eye defects highlight the importance of examining specific defects and DBPs beyond THM4.
Project description:Evidence for a relationship between trihalomethane (THM) or haloacetic acid (HAA) exposure and adverse fetal growth is inconsistent. Disinfection by-products exist as complex mixtures in water supplies, but THMs and HAAs have typically been examined separately.We investigated joint exposure at the individual level to THMs and HAAs in relation to birth weight in the multi-ethnic Born in Bradford birth cohort.Pregnant women reported their water consumption and activities via questionnaire. These data were combined with area-level THM and HAA concentrations to estimate integrated uptake of THMs into blood and HAA ingestion, accounting for boiling/filtering. We examined the relationship between THM and HAA exposures and birth weight of up to 7,438 singleton term babies using multiple linear regression, stratified by ethnicity.Among Pakistani-origin infants, mean birth weight was significantly lower in association with the highest versus lowest tertiles of integrated THM uptake (e.g., -53.7 g; 95% CI: -89.9, -17.5 for ? 1.82 vs. < 1.05 ?g/day of total THM) and there were significant trends (p < 0.01) across increasing tertiles, but there were no associations among white British infants. Neither ingestion of HAAs alone or jointly with THMs was associated with birth weight. Estimated THM uptake via showering, bathing, and swimming was significantly associated with lower birth weight in Pakistani-origin infants, when adjusting for THM and HAA ingestion via water consumption.To our knowledge, this is the largest DBP and fetal growth study to date with individual water use data, and the first to examine individual-level estimates of joint THM-HAA exposure. Our findings demonstrate associations between THM, but not HAA, exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth weight, but suggest this differs by ethnicity. This study suggests that THMs are not acting as a proxy for HAAs, or vice-versa.Smith RB, Edwards SC, Best N, Wright J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Toledano MB. 2016. Birth weight, ethnicity, and exposure to trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water during pregnancy in the Born in Bradford cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:681-689; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409480.
Project description:Exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), carcinogens produced when meat is cooked at high temperatures, is an emerging risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). In a cross-sectional study of 342 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy, the role of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), the three most abundant HAAs found in cooked meats, and total mutagenic activity in cooked meats were examined in relation to colorectal adenoma risk. Given that genetic differences in the ability to biotransform HAAs and repair DNA are postulated to modify the HAA-CRC relationship, gene-diet interactions were also examined. Among the total study population, no relationships were observed between dietary HAAs or meat mutagenicity, and colorectal adenoma risk; however, in males, positive associations between dietary HAAs/meat mutagenicity exposures and adenoma risk were suggestive of a relationship. In a separate analysis, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 were found to be associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Additionally, gene-diet interactions were observed for dietary PhIP and polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and XPD, dietary DiMeIQx and XPD polymorphisms, and meat mutagenicity exposure and CYP1B1 polymorphisms. Overall, increased colorectal adenoma risk was observed with higher HAA/meat mutagenicity exposures among those with polymorphisms which confer greater activity to biotransform HAAs and/or lower ability to repair DNA. This research supports the link between dietary HAAs and genetic susceptibility in colorectal adenoma etiology. The vast majority of CRCs arise from colorectal adenomas; thus, the results of this study suggest that changes in meat preparation practices limiting the production of HAAs may be beneficial for CRC prevention.
Project description:Coagulation behavior of aluminum chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) for removing corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors was discussed in this paper. CHCl3, bromine trihalomethanes (THM-Br), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) formation potential yields were correlated with specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) values in different molecular weight (MW) fractions of humic substances (HS), respectively. Correlation analyses and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationships between SUVA and different DBP precursors. To acquire more structural characters of DBP precursors and aluminum speciation, freeze-dried precipitates were analyzed by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and C 1s, Al 2p X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that TCAA precursors (no MW limits), DCAA and CHCl3 precursors in low MW fractions (MW<30 kDa) had a relatively good relations with SUVA values. These DBP precursors were coagulated more easily by in situ Al13 of AlCl3 at pH 5.0. Due to relatively low aromatic content and more aliphatic structures, THM-Br precursors (no MW limits) and CHCl3 precursors in high MW fractions (MW>30 kDa) were preferentially removed by PACl coagulation with preformed Al13 species at pH 5.0. Additionally, for DCAA precursors in high MW fractions (MW>30 kDa) with relatively low aromatic content and more carboxylic structures, the greatest removal occurred at pH 6.0 through PACl coagulation with aggregated Al13 species.
Project description:Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are mutagens and potential human carcinogens. Our group and others have demonstrated that HAAs may also produce selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity, potentially relevant to Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of HAA-induced neurotoxicity through examining a translational biochemical weakness of common PD models. Neuromelanin is a pigmented byproduct of dopamine metabolism that has been debated as being both neurotoxic and neuroprotective in PD. Importantly, neuromelanin is known to bind and potentially release dopaminergic neurotoxicants, including HAAs (eg, ?-carbolines such as harmane). Binding of other HAA subclasses (ie, aminoimidazoaazarenes) to neuromelanin has not been investigated, nor has a specific role for neuromelanin in mediating HAA-induced neurotoxicity been examined. Thus, we investigated the role of neuromelanin in modulating HAA-induced neurotoxicity. We characterized melanin from Sepia officinalis and synthetic dopamine melanin, proposed neuromelanin analogs with similar biophysical properties. Using a cell-free assay, we demonstrated strong binding of harmane and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) to neuromelanin analogs. To increase cellular neuromelanin, we transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with tyrosinase. Relative to controls, tyrosinase-expressing cells exhibited increased neuromelanin levels, cellular HAA uptake, cell toxicity, and oxidative damage. Given that typical cellular and rodent PD models form far lower neuromelanin levels than humans, there is a critical translational weakness in assessing HAA-neurotoxicity. The primary impacts of these results are identification of a potential mechanism by which HAAs accumulate in catecholaminergic neurons and support for the need to conduct neurotoxicity studies in systems forming neuromelanin.
Project description:While rhamnolipids of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type are commercially available, the natural diversity of rhamnolipids and their origin have barely been investigated. Here, we collected known and identified new rhlA genes encoding the acyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of the lipophilic rhamnolipid precursor 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acid (HAA). Generally, all homologs were found in Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria A likely horizontal gene transfer event into Actinobacteria is the only identified exception. The phylogeny of the RhlA homologs from Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species is consistent with the organism phylogeny, and genes involved in rhamnolipid synthesis are located in operons. In contrast, RhlA homologs from the Enterobacterales do not follow the organisms' phylogeny but form their own branch. Furthermore, in many Enterobacterales and Halomonas from the Oceanospirillales, an isolated rhlA homolog can be found in the genome. The RhlAs from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 05825, Pantoea ananatis LMG 20103, Burkholderia plantarii PG1, Burkholderia ambifaria LMG 19182, Halomonas sp. strain R57-5, Dickeya dadantii Ech586, and Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for HAA production. Indeed, except for the Serratia RhlA, HAAs were produced with the engineered strains. A detailed analysis of the produced HAA congeners by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) highlights the congener specificity of the RhlA proteins. The congener length varies from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, with the main congeners consisting of different combinations of saturated or monounsaturated C10, C12, and C14 fatty acids. The results are discussed in the context of the phylogeny of this unusual enzymatic activity.IMPORTANCE The RhlA specificity explains the observed differences in 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acid (HAA) congeners. Whole-cell catalysts can now be designed for the synthesis of different congener mixtures of HAAs and rhamnolipids, thereby contributing to the envisaged synthesis of designer HAAs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to water disinfection by-products (DBPs) may increase the risk of certain birth defects. However, evidence for musculoskeletal defects (MSDs) is limited. Previous MSD studies have not examined DBPs beyond trihalomethanes (THMs) and have not separately examined limb or diaphragm defects which may have distinct developmental etiologies.<h4>Methods</h4>We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) in a registry-based case-control study of birth defects in Massachusetts with complete quarterly 1999-2004 data on four THMs and five haloacetic acids (HAAs). We matched 10 controls each to 187 MSD cases based on week of conception. Weight-averaged town-level first-trimester DBP exposures were individually assigned based on residence at birth. We adjusted THM models for exposure to the sum of five HAAs (HAA5), and HAA models for the sum of four THMs (THM4).<h4>Results</h4>We detected positive exposure-response associations for all grouped MSDs with THM4 quintiles (aOR range: 1.90-3.18) and chloroform quartiles (aOR range: 1.30-2.21), and for reduction of upper or lower limbs with chloroform quartiles (aOR range: 2.39-3.52). We detected elevated aORs for diaphragmatic hernia with DBP9 (sum of THM4 and HAA5), and chloroform and bromodichloromethane tertiles and an exposure-response relationship for THM4 tertiles (aOR range: 1.67-1.80).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first epidemiological study to examine HAAs in relation to MSDs. Given the indirect nature of our exposure assessment data and small case numbers, the exposure-response relationships that we detected for THM4 and chloroform warrant further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during pregnancy was associated with reduced foetal growth. Genetic susceptibility might play a role, especially for genes encoding for the Cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) enzymes, involved in metabolism and activation of DBPs. Few epidemiological studies evaluated these gene-environment interactions and their results were never replicated. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to examine interactions between trihalomethanes (THM) or haloacetic acids (HAA) exposure and genetic polymorphisms on small for gestational age (SGA) neonates by investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2E1 gene and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions in mothers-children pairs. METHODS:A population-based case-control study of 1549 mothers and 1455 children was conducted on SGA and THM/HAA exposure. DNA was extracted from blood or saliva cells. Targeted SNPs and deletions were genotyped. Statistical interaction between SNPs/deletions and THMs or HAAs in utero exposure with regard to SGA occurrence was evaluated by unconditional logistic regression with control of potential confounders. RESULTS:Previously reported positive modification of the effect of THM uterine exposure by mothers or newborns CYP2E1 rs3813867 C allele or GSTM1 deletion was not replicated. However interactions with CYP2E1 rs117618383 and rs2515641 were observed but were not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS:Previous positive interactions between THMs exposure and CYP2E1 and GSTM1 were not replicated but interactions with other CYP2E1 polymorphisms are reported.
Project description:2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formed in cooked meat, is a rodent and possible human prostate carcinogen. Recently, we identified DNA adducts of PhIP in the genome of prostate cancer patients, but adducts of 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-9 H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), other prominent HAAs formed in cooked meats, were not detected. We have investigated the bioactivation of HAAs by Phase I and II enzymes in the human prostate (LNCaP) cell line using cytotoxicity and DNA adducts as endpoints. PhIP, MeIQx, and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, another HAA found in cooked meats, were poorly bioactivated and not toxic. The synthetic genotoxic N-hydroxylated-HAAs were also assayed in LNCaP cells with Phase II enzyme inhibitors. Notably, 2-hydroxy-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP), but not other HONH-HAAs, induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, PhIP-DNA adduct formation was 20-fold greater than adducts formed with other HONH-HAAs. Pretreatment of LNCaP cells with mefenamic acid, a specific inhibitor of sulfotransferase (SULT1A1), decreased PhIP-DNA adducts by 25%, whereas (Z)-5-(2'-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one and pentachlorophenol, inhibitors of SULTs and N-acetyltransferases (NATs), decreased the PhIP-DNA adduct levels by 75%. NATs in cytosolic fractions of LNCaP cells and human prostate catalyzed DNA binding of HONH-PhIP by up to 100-fold greater levels than for SULT and kinase activities. Recombinant NAT2 is catalytically superior to recombinant NAT1 in the bioactivation of HONH-PhIP; however, the extremely low levels of NAT2 activity in prostate suggest that NAT1 may be the major isoform involved in PhIP-DNA damage. Thus, the high susceptibility of LNCaP cells recapitulates the DNA-damaging effect of HONH-PhIP in rodent and human prostate.