Coordinating Multi-Protein Mismatch Repair by Managing Diffusion Mechanics on the DNA.
ABSTRACT: DNA mismatch repair (MMR) corrects DNA base-pairing errors that occur during DNA replication. MMR catalyzes strand-specific DNA degradation and resynthesis by dynamic molecular coordination of sequential downstream pathways. The temporal and mechanistic order of molecular events is essential to insure interactions in MMR that occur over long distances on the DNA. Biophysical real-time studies of highly conserved components on mismatched DNA have shed light on the mechanics of MMR. Single-molecule imaging has visualized stochastically coordinated MMR interactions that are based on thermal fluctuation-driven motions. In this review, we describe the role of diffusivity and stochasticity in MMR beginning with mismatch recognition through strand-specific excision. We conclude with a perspective of the possible research directions that should solve the remaining questions in MMR.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) corrects errors that occur during DNA replication. In humans, mutations in the proteins MutS? and MutL? that initiate MMR cause Lynch syndrome, the most common hereditary cancer. MutS? surveilles the DNA, and upon recognition of a replication error it undergoes adenosine triphosphate-dependent conformational changes and recruits MutL?. Subsequently, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) activates MutL? to nick the error-containing strand to allow excision and resynthesis. The structure-function properties of these obligate MutS?-MutL? complexes remain mostly unexplored in higher eukaryotes, and models are predominately based on studies of prokaryotic proteins. Here, we utilize atomic force microscopy (AFM) coupled with other methods to reveal time- and concentration-dependent stoichiometries and conformations of assembling human MutS?-MutL?-DNA complexes. We find that they assemble into multimeric complexes comprising three to eight proteins around a mismatch on DNA. On the timescale of a few minutes, these complexes rearrange, folding and compacting the DNA. These observations contrast with dominant models of MMR initiation that envision diffusive MutS-MutL complexes that move away from the mismatch. Our results suggest MutS? localizes MutL? near the mismatch and promotes DNA configurations that could enhance MMR efficiency by facilitating MutL? nicking the DNA at multiple sites around the mismatch. In addition, such complexes may also protect the mismatch region from nucleosome reassembly until repair occurs, and they could potentially remodel adjacent nucleosomes.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a DNA excision-resynthesis process that principally enhances replication fidelity. Highly conserved MutS (MSH) and MutL (MLH/PMS) homologs initiate MMR and in higher eukaryotes act as DNA damage sensors that can trigger apoptosis. MSH proteins recognize mismatched nucleotides, whereas the MLH/PMS proteins mediate multiple interactions associated with downstream MMR events including strand discrimination and strand-specific excision that are initiated at a significant distance from the mismatch. Remarkably, the biophysical functions of the MLH/PMS proteins have been elusive for decades. Here we consider recent observations that have helped to define the mechanics of MLH/PMS proteins and their role in choreographing MMR. We highlight the stochastic nature of DNA interactions that have been visualized by single-molecule analysis and the plasticity of protein complexes that employ thermal diffusion to complete the progressions of MMR.
Project description:Base-pair mismatches that occur during DNA replication or recombination can reduce genetic stability or conversely increase genetic diversity. The genetics and biophysical mechanism of mismatch repair (MMR) has been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 50 years ago. MMR is a strand-specific excision-resynthesis reaction that is initiated by MutS homolog (MSH) binding to the mismatched nucleotides. The MSH mismatch-binding signal is then transmitted to the immediate downstream MutL homolog (MLH/PMS) MMR components and ultimately to a distant strand scission site where excision begins. The mechanism of signal transmission has been controversial for decades. We have utilized single molecule Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET), Fluorescence Tracking (smFT) and Polarization Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (smP-TIRF) to examine the interactions and dynamic behaviors of single Thermus aquaticus MutS (TaqMutS) particles on mismatched DNA. We determined that TaqMutS forms an incipient clamp to search for a mismatch in ~1 s intervals by 1-dimensional (1D) thermal fluctuation-driven rotational diffusion while in continuous contact with the helical duplex DNA. When MutS encounters a mismatch it lingers for ~3 s to exchange bound ADP for ATP (ADP?ATP exchange). ATP binding by TaqMutS induces an extremely stable clamp conformation (~10 min) that slides off the mismatch and moves along the adjacent duplex DNA driven simply by 1D thermal diffusion. The ATP-bound sliding clamps rotate freely while in discontinuous contact with the DNA. The visualization of a train of MSH proteins suggests that dissociation of ATP-bound sliding clamps from the mismatch permits multiple mismatch-dependent loading events. These direct observations have provided critical clues into understanding the molecular mechanism of MSH proteins during MMR.
Project description:The mismatch repair pathway (MMR) is essential for removing DNA polymerase errors, thereby maintaining genomic stability. Loss of MMR function increases mutation frequency and is associated with tumorigenesis. However, how MMR is executed at active DNA replication forks is unclear. This has important implications for understanding how MMR repairs O6-methylguanine/thymidine (MeG/T) mismatches created upon exposure to DNA alkylating agents. If MeG/T lesion recognition by MMR initiates mismatch excision, the reinsertion of a mismatched thymidine during resynthesis could initiate futile repair cycles. One consequence of futile repair cycles might be a disruption of overall DNA replication in the affected cell. Herein, we show that in MMR-proficient HeLa cancer cells, treatment with a DNA alkylating agent slows S phase progression, yet cells still progress into the next cell cycle. In the first S phase following treatment, they activate ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) signaling, which limits DNA damage, while inhibition of ATR kinase activity accelerates DNA damage accumulation and sensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent. We also observed that exposure of human embryonic stem cells to alkylation damage severely compromised DNA replication in a MMR-dependent manner. These cells fail to activate the ATR-Chk1 signaling axis, which may limit their ability to handle replication stress. Accordingly, they accumulate double-strand breaks and undergo immediate apoptosis. Our findings implicate the MMR-directed response to alkylation damage as a replication stress inducer, suggesting that repeated MMR processing of mismatches may occur that can disrupt S phase progression.
Project description:The mismatch repair (MMR) system detects non-Watson-Crick base pairs and strand misalignments arising during DNA replication and mediates their removal by catalyzing excision of the mispair-containing tract of nascent DNA and its error-free resynthesis. In this way, MMR improves the fidelity of replication by several orders of magnitude. It also addresses mispairs and strand misalignments arising during recombination and prevents synapses between nonidentical DNA sequences. Unsurprisingly, MMR malfunction brings about genomic instability that leads to cancer in mammals. But MMR proteins have recently been implicated also in other processes of DNA metabolism, such as DNA damage signaling, antibody diversification, and repair of interstrand cross-links and oxidative DNA damage, in which their functions remain to be elucidated. This article reviews the progress in our understanding of the mechanism of replication error repair made during the past decade.
Project description:A problem in understanding eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanisms is linking insights into MMR mechanisms from genetics and cell-biology studies with those from biochemical studies of MMR proteins and reconstituted MMR reactions. This type of analysis has proven difficult because reconstitution approaches have been most successful for human MMR whereas analysis of MMR in vivo has been most advanced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe the reconstitution of MMR reactions using purified S. cerevisiae proteins and mispair-containing DNA substrates. A mixture of MutS homolog 2 (Msh2)-MutS homolog 6, Exonuclease 1, replication protein A, replication factor C-?1N, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA polymerase ? was found to repair substrates containing TG, CC, +1 (+T), +2 (+GC), and +4 (+ACGA) mispairs and either a 5' or 3' strand interruption with different efficiencies. The Msh2-MutS homolog 3 mispair recognition protein could substitute for the Msh2-Msh6 mispair recognition protein and showed a different specificity of repair of the different mispairs whereas addition of MutL homolog 1-postmeiotic segregation 1 had no affect on MMR. Repair was catalytic, with as many as 11 substrates repaired per molecule of Exo1. Repair of the substrates containing either a 5' or 3' strand interruption occurred by mispair binding-dependent 5' excision and subsequent resynthesis with excision tracts of up to ~2.9 kb occurring during the repair of the substrate with a 3' strand interruption. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction now makes possible detailed biochemical studies of the wealth of mutations identified that affect S. cerevisiae MMR.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways coordinate the excision and re-synthesis of newly-replicated DNA if a mismatched base-pair has been identified by protein MutS or MutS homologues (MSHs) after replication. DNA excision during MMR is initiated at single-strand breaks (SSBs) in vitro, and several redundant processes have been observed in reconstituted systems which either require a pre-formed SSB in the DNA or require a mismatch-activated nicking endonuclease to introduce a SSB in order to initiate MMR. However, the conditions under which each of these processes may actually occur in living cells have remained obscured by the limitations of current MMR assays. Here we use a novel assay involving chemically-modified oligonucleotide probes to insert targeted DNA 'mismatches' directly into the genome of living bacteria to interrogate their replication-coupled repair processes quantitatively in a strand-, orientation-, and mismatched nucleotide-specific manner. This 'semi-protected oligonucleotide recombination' (SPORE) assay reveals direct evidence in Escherichia coli of an efficient endonuclease-independent MMR process on the lagging strand-a mechanism that has long-since been considered for lagging-strand repair but never directly shown until now. We find endonuclease-independent MMR is coordinated asymmetrically with respect to the replicating DNA-directed primarily from 3'- of the mismatch-and that repair coordinated from 3'- of the mismatch is in fact the primary mechanism of lagging-strand MMR. While further work is required to explore and identify the molecular requirements for this alternative endonuclease-independent MMR pathway, these findings made possible using the SPORE assay are the first direct report of this long-suspected mechanism in vivo.
Project description:Eukaryotic mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins MutSalpha and MutLalpha couple recognition of base mismatches to strand-specific excision, initiated in vivo at growing 3' ends and 5' Okazaki-fragment ends or, in human nuclear extracts, at nicks in exogenous circular substrates. We addressed five biochemical questions relevant to coupling models. Excision remained fully efficient at DNA:MutSalpha ratios of nearly 1 to 1 at various mismatch-nick distances, suggesting a requirement for only one MutSalpha molecule per substrate. As the mismatch-nick DNA contour distance D in exogenous substrates increased from 0.26 to 0.98 kbp, initiation of excision in extracts decreased as D(-0.43) rather than the D(-1) to D(-2) predicted by some translocation or diffusion models. Virtually all excision was along the shorter (3'-5') nick-mismatch, even when the other (5'-3') path was less than twice as long. These observations argue against stochastically directed translocating/diffusing recognition complexes. The failure of mismatched DNA in trans to provoke excision of separate nicked homoduplexes argues against one-stage (concerted) triggering of excision initiation by recognition complexes acting through space. However, proteins associated with gapped DNA did appear to compete in trans with those in cis to mismatch-associated proteins. Thus, as in Escherichia coli, eukaryotic MMR may involve distinct initial-activation and excision-path-commitment stages.
Project description:The genome of all organisms is constantly being challenged by endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage. Errors like base:base mismatches or small insertions and deletions, primarily introduced by DNA polymerases during DNA replication are repaired by an evolutionary conserved DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. The MMR system, together with the DNA replication machinery, promote repair by an excision and resynthesis mechanism during or after DNA replication, increasing replication fidelity by up-to-three orders of magnitude. Consequently, inactivation of MMR genes results in elevated mutation rates that can lead to increased cancer susceptibility in humans. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of MMR with a focus on the different MMR protein complexes, their function and structure. We also discuss how recent findings have provided new insights in the spatio-temporal regulation and mechanism of MMR.
Project description:During DNA replication, mismatches and small loops in the DNA resulting from insertions or deletions are repaired by the mismatch repair (MMR) machinery. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in both mismatch-recognition and resynthesis stages of MMR. Previously, two mutant forms of PCNA were identified that cause defects in MMR with little, if any, other defects. The C22Y mutant PCNA protein completely blocks MutS?-dependent MMR, and the C81R mutant PCNA protein partially blocks both MutS?-dependent and MutS?-dependent MMR. In order to understand the structural and mechanistic basis by which these two amino acid substitutions in PCNA proteins block MMR, we solved the X-ray crystal structures of both mutant proteins and carried out further biochemical studies. We found that these amino acid substitutions lead to subtle, distinct structural changes in PCNA. The C22Y substitution alters the positions of the ?-helices lining the central hole of the PCNA ring, whereas the C81R substitution creates a distortion in an extended loop near the PCNA subunit interface. We conclude that the structural integrity of the ?-helices lining the central hole and this loop are both necessary to form productive complexes with MutS? and mismatch-containing DNA.