Regio- and Stereospecific Synthesis of Oridonin D-Ring Aziridinated Analogues for the Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer via Mediated Irreversible Covalent Warheads.
ABSTRACT: Covalent drug discovery has undergone a resurgence in recent years due to comprehensive optimization of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) and the structure-reactivity relationship (SRR) for covalent drug candidates. The natural product oridonin maintains an impressive pharmacological profile through its covalent enone warhead on the D-ring and has attracted substantial SAR studies to characterize its potential in the development of new molecular entities for the treatment of various human cancers and inflammation. Herein, for the first time, we report the excessive reactivity of this covalent warhead and mediation of the covalent binding capability through a Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed mild and concise regio- and stereospecific aziridination approach. Importantly, aziridonin 44 (YD0514), with a more-druglike irreversible covalent warhead, has been identified to significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit colony formation against triple-negative breast cancer with enhanced antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo while displaying lower toxicity to normal human mammary epithelial cells in comparison to oridonin.
Project description:Oridonin, a diterpenoid compound isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rabdosia rubescens, has shown antitumor effects to esophageal cancer. However, its molecular mechanism is not fully understood, which limits its clinical application. In the present study, we used RNA-seq analysis to check the transcriptome changes after oridonin treatment and we found genes controlling the GSH-ROS system were up-regulated, namely SLC7A11, TXNRD1, TRIM16, SRXN1, GCLM, and GCLC. Furthermore, our data suggest that oridonin significantly increased the production of ROS in EC109 and TE1 cells, which can be inhibited by NAC. Interestingly, oridonin can dramatically reduce intracellular GSH levels in TE1 cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In addition, cell death caused by oridonin was strongly inhibited by GSH (1 mM), while GSSG (1 mM) had little effect. At the same time, we also found that oridonin showed selective cytotoxicity to esophageal squamous carcinoma cell with p53 mutation since mut-p53 cells had lower SLC7A11 expression, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter. We also found that ?-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor (BSO) synergizes with oridonin to strongly inhibit EC109 cells at a low dose. These results suggested that the antitumor effects of oridonin are based on its -SH reactivity and glutathione depletion. Esophageal squamous carcinoma cells with p53-mutation showed hypersensitivity to oridonin because of the suppression of SLC7A11 expression by p53 mutation.
Project description:Oridonin, the major terpene found in Rabdosia rubescens (Henmsl.) Hara, is widely used as a dietary supplement and therapeutic drug. Oridonin has been proven to possess good anti-tumour activity, but little is known about its effect on angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiangiogenic effects of oridonin in vivo and in vitro and prove that oridonin anti-tumour activity is based on suppressing angiogenesis.In vitro, the antiangiogenesis effect was studied by proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and tube formation experiments on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, using the Tg (fli1: GFP) zebrafish model, the embryonic vasculogenesis and postnatal regeneration were evaluated. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling pathway gene expressions were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the inhibition effects on tumour growth and metastasis were observed using a xenograft zebrafish tumour model and xenograft nude mouse tumour model. Angiogenesis was assayed by immunostaining with cluster of differentiation 31. Importantly, the proteins were identified as being differentially expressed in an in vivo model by two-dimensional electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (2D-MS) and western blot (WB).The results indicated that oridonin inhibited HUVEC proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation and induced cell apoptosis. Oridonin inhibited zebrafish angiogenesis during embryonic development and tail fin regeneration. RT-PCR showed that oridonin decreased the VEGFA, VEGFR2, and VEGFR3 expressions in zebrafish, while the TP53 expression increased. Moreover, oridonin had strong effects on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. 2D-MS identified a total of 50 proteins differentially expressed (17 up-expressed, 28 down-expressed). Lastly, WB showed that Claudin 1, Claudin 4, and Claudin 7 were closely related to tumour growth and metastasis.This study demonstrated that oridonin could inhibit tumour growth and metastasis, which mainly based on oridonin antiangiogenic effects. Claudin 1, Claudin 4, and Claudin 7 were the main contributors to the mechanism.
Project description:Aging is the major risk factor for chronic diseases and disability in human. There is no effective anti-aging clinical treatment. In this study, oridonin was selected based on the drug screening strategy of Connectivity MAP (CMAP) upon transcriptomes of 102 traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) treated cell lines. Oridonin is an anti-inflammatory drug and diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens. Oridonin exhibited a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, antibacteria and anti-inflammation. Here, we found that oridonin inhibited cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts (2BS and WI-38), indicated by decreased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Compared with the elderly control group, the positive cell rate in the oridonin intervention group was 48.5%, and the cell shape was similar to young cells. Oridonin prolonged the lifespan of yeast by 14.6%~48.9%, and prolonged the average life span of naturally aged mice by 21.6%. It also increased the healthspan of aged mice. In addition, oridonin also improved doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence and mouse senescence. Compared with the model group, the percentage of SA-β-gal positive cells in the oridonin treatment group was reduced to 59.8%. It prolonged the average life span of mice by 53.8% as well as the healthspan. Mechanistically, we show that oridonin delayed aging through the AKT signaling pathways and reverses the genetic changes caused by doxorubicin-induced cell senescence. Therefore, oridonin may be an ideal candidate for the development of anti-aging drugs, and it also provides therapeutic potential in other diseases. Overall design: WI-38 cells were first induced with 1μM doxorubicin for 12 hours, and then treated with oridonin or DMSO-containing medium for 48 hours.
Project description:Oridonin (Ori) is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Rabdosia rubescens and has anti-inflammatory activity, but the target of Ori remains unknown. NLRP3 is a central component of NLRP3 inflammasome and has been involved in a wide variety of chronic inflammation-driven human diseases. Here, we show that Ori is a specific and covalent inhibitor for NLRP3 inflammasome. Ori forms a covalent bond with the cysteine 279 of NLRP3 in NACHT domain to block the interaction between NLRP3 and NEK7, thereby inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. Importantly, Ori has both preventive or therapeutic effects on mouse models of peritonitis, gouty arthritis and type 2 diabetes, via inhibition of NLRP3 activation. Our results thus identify NLRP3 as the direct target of Ori for mediating Ori's anti-inflammatory activity. Ori could serve as a lead for developing new therapeutics against NLRP3-driven diseases.
Project description:Aberrant activation of phosphatidylinosito-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling in cancer has led to pursuit of inhibitors for targeting this pathway. However, inhibitors of PI3K and AKT have failed to yield efficacious results without adverse effects. Here, we screened a library containing 441 authenticated traditional chinese medicine (TCM) plant extracts by examining their effect on cell viability of a human mammary epithelial cell line HMEC-PIK3CAH1047R, which expresses mutant PIK3CAH1047R and has constitutively active AKT signaling. We found that Oridonin, an extract from Rabdosia rubescens, reduced cell viability to the greatest extent. Oridonin binds to AKT1 and potentially functions as an ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor. Importantly, Oridonin selectively impaired tumor growth of human breast cancer cells with hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, Oridonin prevented the initiation of mouse mammary tumors driven by PIK3CAH1047R. Our results suggest that Oridonin may serve as a potent and durable therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancers with hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling.
Project description:N(?)-Thiocarbamoyl-lysine was recently demonstrated by our laboratory to be a potent catalytic mechanism-based SIRT1/2/3 inhibitory warhead, in the current study, among the prepared analogs of N(?)-thiocarbamoyl-lysine with its terminal NH2 mono-substituted with alkyl and aryl groups, we found that N(?)-methyl-thiocarbamoyl-lysine and N(?)-carboxyethyl-thiocarbamoyl-lysine, respectively, also behaved as strong inhibitory warheads against SIRT1/2/3 and SIRT5, typical deacetylases and deacylase in the human sirtuin family, respectively. Moreover, N(?)-methyl-thiocarbamoyl-lysine was found in the study to be a ? 2.5-18.4-fold stronger SIRT1/2/3 inhibitory warhead than its lead warhead N(?)-thiocarbamoyl-lysine.
Project description:Autophagy is an endogenous protective process; the loss of autophagy could destabilize proteostasis and elevate intracellular oxidative stress, which is critically involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Oridonin, a natural tetracycline diterpenoid from the Chinese herb Rabdosia, has autophagy activation properties. In this study, we tested whether oridonin protects against cardiac hypertrophy in mice and cardiomyocytes. We implemented aortic banding to induce a cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, and oridonin was given by gavage for 4 weeks. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II to simulate neurohumoural stress. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that oridonin treatment mitigated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and also preserved heart function. Mice that received oridonin exhibited increased antioxidase activities and suppressed oxidative injury compared with the aortic banding group. Moreover, oridonin enhanced myocardial autophagy in pressure-overloaded hearts and angiotensin II-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, we discovered that oridonin administration regulated myocardial P21, and cytoplasmic P21 activated autophagy via regulating Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. These findings were further corroborated in a P21 knockout mouse model. Collectively, pressure overload-induced autophagy dysfunction causes intracellular protein accumulation, resulting in ROS injury while aggravating cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, our data show that oridonin promoted P21-related autophagic lysosomal degradation, hence attenuating oxidative injury and cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Many drugs currently used are covalent inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit their targets. Most of these were discovered through serendipity. Covalent inhibitions can have many advantages from a pharmacokinetic perspective. However, until recently most organisations have shied away from covalent compound design due to fears of non-specific inhibition of off-target proteins leading to toxicity risks. However, there has been a renewed interest in covalent modifiers as potential drugs, as it possible to get highly selective compounds. It is therefore important to know how reactive a warhead is and to be able to select the least reactive warhead possible to avoid toxicity. A robust NMR based assay was developed and used to measure the reactivity of a variety of covalent warheads against serine and cysteine - the two most common targets for covalent drugs. A selection of these warheads also had their reactivity measured against threonine, tyrosine, lysine, histidine and arginine to better understand our ability to target non-traditional residues. The reactivity was also measured at various pHs to assess what effect the environment in the active site would have on these reactions. The reactivity of a covalent modifier was found to be very dependent on the amino acid residue.
Project description:While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common high-grade human primary malignant bone sarcoma with lower survival in the past decades. Oridonin, a bioactive diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been proved to possess potent anti-cancer effects. However, its potential mechanism still remains not fully clear nowadays. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of oridonin on human osteosarcoma and illuminated the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, oridonin inhibited the cell viability of various osteosarcoma cells. We demonstrated that oridonin induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activating caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage in MG-63 and HOS cells. Moreover, we found that oridonin triggered ROS by inhibiting NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and induced mitochondrial apoptosis via inhibiting nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR-?) in MG-63 and HOS cells. We further confirmed the results by PPAR-? inhibitor GW9662, PPAR-? siRNA as well as overexpression of PPAR-? and Nrf2 in vitro. Furthermore, our in vivo study showed that oridonin inhibited tumor growth with high safety via inducing apoptosis through activating PPAR-? and inhibiting Nrf2 activation in xenograft model inoculated HOS tumor. Taken together, oridonin exerted a dramatic pro-apoptotic effect by activating PPAR-? and inhibiting Nrf2 pathway in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, oridonin may be a promising and effective agent for human osteosarcoma in the future clinical applications.