The classical NLRP3 inflammasome controls FADD unconventional secretion through microvesicle shedding.
ABSTRACT: Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is a key adaptor molecule involved in numerous physiological processes including cell death, proliferation, innate immunity and inflammation. Therefore, changes in FADD expression have dramatic cellular consequences. In mice and humans, FADD regulation can occur through protein secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms accounting for human FADD secretion were still unknown. Here we report that canonical, non-canonical, but not alternative, NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human monocytes/macrophages induced FADD secretion. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the bacterial toxin nigericin led to the proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release and to the induction of cell death by pyroptosis. However, we showed that FADD secretion could occur in absence of increased IL-1β release and pyroptosis and, reciprocally, that IL-1β release and pyroptosis could occur in absence of FADD secretion. Especially, FADD, but not IL-1β, secretion following NLRP3 inflammasome activation required extracellular glucose. Thus, FADD secretion was an active process distinct from unspecific release of proteins during pyroptosis. This FADD secretion process required K+ efflux, NLRP3 sensor, ASC adaptor and CASPASE-1 molecule. Moreover, we identified FADD as a leaderless protein unconventionally secreted through microvesicle shedding, but not exosome release. Finally, we established human soluble FADD as a new marker of joint inflammation in gout and rheumatoid arthritis, two rheumatic diseases involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Whether soluble FADD could be an actor in these diseases remains to be determined. Nevertheless, our results advance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the regulation of the FADD protein expression in human cells.
Project description:Necroptosis is a physiological cell suicide mechanism initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) phosphorylation of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which results in disruption of the plasma membrane. Necroptotic cell lysis, and resultant release of proinflammatory mediators, is thought to cause inflammation in necroptotic disease models. However, we previously showed that MLKL signaling can also promote inflammation by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome to recruit the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC) and trigger caspase-1 processing of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Here, we provide evidence that MLKL-induced activation of NLRP3 requires (i) the death effector four-helical bundle of MLKL, (ii) oligomerization and association of MLKL with cellular membranes, and (iii) a reduction in intracellular potassium concentration. Although genetic or pharmacological targeting of NLRP3 or caspase-1 prevented MLKL-induced IL-1β secretion, they did not prevent necroptotic cell death. Gasdermin D (GSDMD), the pore-forming caspase-1 substrate required for efficient NLRP3-triggered pyroptosis and IL-1β release, was not essential for MLKL-dependent death or IL-1β secretion. Imaging of MLKL-dependent ASC speck formation demonstrated that necroptotic stimuli activate NLRP3 cell-intrinsically, indicating that MLKL-induced NLRP3 inflammasome formation and IL-1β cleavage occur before cell lysis. Furthermore, we show that necroptotic activation of NLRP3, but not necroptotic cell death alone, is necessary for the activation of NF-κB in healthy bystander cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential importance of NLRP3 inflammasome activity as a driving force for inflammation in MLKL-dependent diseases.
Project description:Sterile particles cause several chronic, inflammatory diseases, characterized by repeating cycles of particle phagocytosis and inflammatory cell death. Recent studies have proposed that these processes are driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform activated by phagocytosed particles, which controls both caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) and mature IL-1β secretion. After phagocytosis, particles can disrupt lysosomes, and inhibitor studies have suggested that the resulting release of a lysosomal protease-cathepsin B-into the cytosol somehow activates NLRP3. However, using primary murine macrophages, we found that particle-induced cell death occurs independent of NLRP3/caspase-1 and depends instead on multiple, redundant cathepsins. In contrast, nigericin, a soluble activator of NLRP3 inflammasomes, induced cell death that was dependent on the NLRP3. Interestingly, nigericin-induced cell death depended partly on a single cathepsin, cathepsin X. By inhibiting or silencing multiple cathepsins in macrophages, several key proinflammatory events induced by sterile particles are blocked, including cell death, pro-IL-1β production, and IL-1β secretion. These data suggest that cathepsins might be potential therapeutic targets in particulate-mediated inflammatory disease. In support of this concept, we find that a broad-spectrum cathepsin inhibitor can suppress particle-induced IL-1-dependent peritonitis.
Project description:Inflammasome activation is important for antimicrobial defense because it induces cell death and regulates the secretion of IL-1 family cytokines, which play a critical role in inflammatory responses. The inflammasome activates caspase-1 to process and secrete IL-1?. However, the mechanisms governing IL-1? release are less clear. Recently, a non-canonical inflammasome was described that activates caspase-11 and mediates pyroptosis and release of IL-1? and IL-1?. Caspase-11 activation in response to Gram-negative bacteria requires Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-? (TRIF)-dependent interferon production. Whether additional bacterial signals trigger caspase-11 activation is unknown. Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into the cytosol of host cells. These secretion systems can also deliver flagellin into the cytosol, which triggers caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis. However, even in the absence of flagellin, these secretion systems induce inflammasome activation and the release of IL-1? and IL-1?, but the inflammasome pathways that mediate this response are unclear. We observe rapid IL-1? and IL-1? release and cell death in response to the type IV or type III secretion systems of Legionella pneumophila and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Unlike IL-1?, IL-1? secretion does not require caspase-1. Instead, caspase-11 activation is required for both IL-1? secretion and cell death in response to the activity of these secretion systems. Interestingly, whereas caspase-11 promotes IL-1? release in response to the type IV secretion system through the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome, caspase-11-dependent release of IL-1? is independent of both the NAIP5/NLRC4 and NLRP3/ASC inflammasomes as well as TRIF and type I interferon signaling. Furthermore, we find both overlapping and non-redundant roles for IL-1? and IL-1? in mediating neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in response to pulmonary infection by L. pneumophila. Our findings demonstrate that virulent, but not avirulent, bacteria trigger a rapid caspase-11-dependent innate immune response important for host defense.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in response to stress or danger signals and leads to unconventional secretion of proinflammatory IL-1. FADD is an NLRP3 inflammasome component. Here we found that classical NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human monocytes/macrophages induced FADD secretion, which required potassium efflux, functional NLRP3 sensor, ASC adaptor and caspase-1 scaffold molecule. FADD is a leaderless protein unconventionally secreted through plasma membrane-derived microvesicles. Blood-derived monocytes from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients secreted more FADD following NLRP3 inflammasome activation than those from healthy donors, and we found increased levels of FADD in the sera (ESPOIR cohort) and synovial fluids from RA patients. Levels of synovial FADD correlated with the inflammatory status of the joint. These data reveal that FADD secretion occurs during inflammatory disease in vivo.
Project description:Activating germline mutations in the human inflammasome sensor NLRP1 causes palmoplantar dyskeratosis and susceptibility to Mendelian autoinflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cytosolic serine dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 suppress inflammasome activation upstream of NLRP1 and CARD8 in human keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of DPP8/DPP9 protease activity was shown to induce pyroptosis in murine C57BL/6 macrophages without eliciting other inflammasome hallmark responses. Here, we show that DPP8/DPP9 inhibition in macrophages that express a Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LeTx)-sensitive Nlrp1b allele triggered significantly accelerated pyroptosis concomitant with caspase-1 maturation, ASC speck assembly, and secretion of mature IL-1β and IL-18. Genetic ablation of ASC prevented DPP8/DPP9 inhibition-induced caspase-1 maturation and partially hampered pyroptosis and inflammasome-dependent cytokine release, whereas deletion of caspase-1 or gasdermin D triggered apoptosis in the absence of IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. In conclusion, blockade of DPP8/DPP9 protease activity triggers rapid pyroptosis and canonical inflammasome hallmarks in primary macrophages that express a LeTx-responsive Nlrp1b allele.
Project description:The NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an oligomeric complex comprised of the NOD-like receptor NLRP3, the adaptor ASC, and caspase-1. This complex is crucial to the host's defense against microbes as it promotes IL-1? and IL-18 secretion and induces pyroptosis. NLRP3 recognizes variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated during viral replication that triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent antiviral immune responses and facilitates viral eradication. Meanwhile, several viruses have evolved elaborate strategies to evade the immune system by targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this review, we will focus on the crosstalk between the NLRP3 inflammasome and viruses, provide an overview of viral infection-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and the immune escape strategies of viruses through their modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome activity.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome is an important regulator of inflammation and immunity. It is a multimolecular platform formed within cells that facilitates the activation of proinflammatory caspases to drive secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Knowledge of the mechanisms regulating formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is incomplete. Here we report Cl- channel-dependent formation of dynamic ASC oligomers and inflammasome specks that remain inactive in the absence of K+ efflux. Formed after Cl- efflux exclusively, ASC specks are NLRP3 dependent, reversible, and inactive, although they further prime inflammatory responses, accelerating and enhancing release of IL-1β in response to a K+ efflux-inducing stimulus. NEK7 is a specific K+ sensor and does not associate with NLRP3 under conditions stimulating exclusively Cl- efflux, but does after K+ efflux, activating the complex driving inflammation. Our investigation delivers mechanistic understanding into inflammasome activation and the regulation of inflammatory responses.
Project description:The innate immune system is the first line of defense against inhaled particles. Macrophages serve important roles in particle clearance and inflammatory reactions. Following recognition and internalization by phagocytes, particles are taken up in vesicular phagolysosomes. Intracellular phagosomal leakage, redox unbalance and ionic movements induced by toxic particles result in pro-IL-1β expression, inflammasome complex engagement, caspase-1 activation, pro-IL-1β cleavage, biologically-active IL-1β release and finally inflammatory cell death termed pyroptosis. In this review, we summarize the emerging signals and pathways involved in the expression, maturation and secretion of IL-1β during these responses to particles. We also highlight physicochemical characteristics of particles (size, surface and shape) which determine their capacity to induce inflammasome activation and IL-1β processing.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that typically comprise a sensor, an adaptor and the zymogen procaspase-1. An inflammasome assembles in response to a diverse range of pathogen-associated or danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs). The inflammasome platform leads to activation of caspase-1 through proximity-induced self-cleavage, which further induces maturation of interleukins 1β and 18 (IL-1β and IL-18) through proteolytic cleavage of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. Activated caspase-1 also cleaves gasdermin D, which leads to a particular form of cell death called pyroptosis. Mutations in genes that encode inflammasome components are associated with many inflammatory disorders, and studies in the past decade have highlighted the importance of appropriate activation of the inflammasome in homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Therefore, much attention is being paid to uncover the modulators and regulators of inflammasome assembly and pyroptosis. This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster outlines the concepts in the activation of inflammasome sensors and assembly of the inflammasome platform. We also discuss recent insights into the mechanisms of regulation of inflammasome activity and the induction of cell death by pyroptosis.
Project description:The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome plays an important role in inflammation by controlling the maturation and secretion of the cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 in response to multiple stimuli including pore-forming toxins, particulate matter, and ATP. Although the pathways activated by the latter stimuli lead to a decrease in intracellular K(+) concentration, which is required for inflammasome activation, the mechanism by which microbial RNA activates Nlrp3, remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that cytosolic poly(I:C), but not total RNA from healthy macrophages, macrophages undergoing pyroptosis, or mitochondrial RNA, induces caspase-1 activation and IL-1? release through the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Experiments with macrophages deficient in Tlr3, Myd88, or Trif, indicate that poly(I:C) induces Nlrp3 activation independently of TLR signaling. Further analyses revealed that the cytosolic sensors Rig-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 act redundantly via the common adaptor mitochondrial antiviral signaling (Mavs) to induce Nlrp3 activation in response to poly(I:C), but not ATP or nigericin. Mechanistically, Mavs triggered membrane permeabilization and K(+) efflux independently of the inflammasome which were required for poly(I:C)-induced Nlrp3 activation. We conclude that poly (I:C) activates the inflammasome through an Mavs-dependent surveillance pathway that converges into a common K(+) lowering step in the cytosol that is essential for the induction of Nlrp3 activation.