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The classical NLRP3 inflammasome controls FADD unconventional secretion through microvesicle shedding.


ABSTRACT: Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is a key adaptor molecule involved in numerous physiological processes including cell death, proliferation, innate immunity and inflammation. Therefore, changes in FADD expression have dramatic cellular consequences. In mice and humans, FADD regulation can occur through protein secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms accounting for human FADD secretion were still unknown. Here we report that canonical, non-canonical, but not alternative, NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human monocytes/macrophages induced FADD secretion. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the bacterial toxin nigericin led to the proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release and to the induction of cell death by pyroptosis. However, we showed that FADD secretion could occur in absence of increased IL-1β release and pyroptosis and, reciprocally, that IL-1β release and pyroptosis could occur in absence of FADD secretion. Especially, FADD, but not IL-1β, secretion following NLRP3 inflammasome activation required extracellular glucose. Thus, FADD secretion was an active process distinct from unspecific release of proteins during pyroptosis. This FADD secretion process required K+ efflux, NLRP3 sensor, ASC adaptor and CASPASE-1 molecule. Moreover, we identified FADD as a leaderless protein unconventionally secreted through microvesicle shedding, but not exosome release. Finally, we established human soluble FADD as a new marker of joint inflammation in gout and rheumatoid arthritis, two rheumatic diseases involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Whether soluble FADD could be an actor in these diseases remains to be determined. Nevertheless, our results advance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the regulation of the FADD protein expression in human cells.

SUBMITTER: Mouasni S 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6389912 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): O00560

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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