Sex-specific lipid molecular signatures in obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions revealed by lipidomic characterization in ob/ob mouse.
ABSTRACT: The response to overfeeding is sex dependent, and metabolic syndrome is more likely associated to obesity in men or postmenopausal women than in young fertile women. We hypothesized that obesity-induced metabolic syndrome is sex dependent due to a sex-specific regulation of the fatty acid (FA) synthesis pathways in liver and white adipose depots. We aimed to identify distinctive molecular signatures between sexes using a lipidomics approach to characterize lipid species in liver, perigonadal adipose tissue, and inguinal adipose tissue and correlate them to the physiopathological responses observed. Males had less total fat but lower subcutaneous on visceral fat ratio together with higher liver weight and higher liver and serum triglyceride (TG) levels. Males were insulin resistant compared to females. Fatty acid (FA) and TG profiles differed between sexes in both fat pads, with longer chain FAs and TGs in males compared to that in females. Remarkably, hepatic phospholipid composition was sex dependent with more abundant lipotoxic FAs in males than in females. This may contribute to the sexual dimorphism in response to obesity towards more metaflammation in males. Our work presents an exhaustive novel description of a sex-specific lipid signature in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity in ob/ob mice. These data could settle the basis for future pharmacological treatment in obesity.
Project description:To investigate the role of liver X receptor (LXR) in adipose tissue metabolism during obesity, ob/ob mice were treated for 5 weeks with the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965. MRI analysis revealed that pharmacological activation of LXR modified fat distribution by decreasing visceral (VS) fat and inversely increasing subcutaneous (SC) fat storage without affecting whole body fat content. This was concordant with opposite regulation by GW3965 of the lipolytic markers hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in the two fat depots; moreover, the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis was significantly induced in SC fat. Lipidomic analysis suggested that changes in lipid composition in response to GW3965 also varied between VS and SC fat. In both depots, the observed alteration in lipid composition indicated an overall change toward less lipotoxic lipids. Flow cytometry analysis showed decreased immune cell infiltration in adipose tissue of ob/ob mice in response to GW3965 treatment, which in VS fat mainly affected the macrophage population and in SC fat the lymphocyte population. In line with this, the expression and secretion of proinflammatory markers was decreased in both fat deposits with GW3965 treatment.
Project description:Intermittent fasting (IF) is an effective dietary intervention to counteract obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. Previously, we and others have highlighted white adipose tissue (WAT) browning as the main underlying mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefits. However, whether IF retains its efficacy in different models, such as genetically obese/diabetic animals, is unknown. Here, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were subjected to 16 weeks of isocaloric IF, and comprehensive metabolic phenotyping was conducted to assess the metabolic effects of IF. Unlike our previous study, isocaloric IF-subjected ob/ob animals failed to exhibit reduced body weight gain, lower fat mass, or decreased liver lipid accumulation. Moreover, isocaloric IF did not result in increased thermogenesis nor induce WAT browning in ob/ob mice. These findings indicate that isocaloric IF may not be an effective approach for regulating body weight in ob/ob animals, posing the possible limitations of IF to treat obesity. However, despite the lack of improvement in insulin sensitivity, isocaloric IF-subjected ob/ob animals displayed improved glucose tolerance as well as higher postprandial insulin level, with elevated incretin expression, suggesting that isocaloric IF is effective in improving nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Together, this study uncovers the insulinotropic effect of isocaloric IF, independent of adipose thermogenesis, which is potentially complementary for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Glycerol is an important metabolite for the control of lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous administration of leptin improves features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice via the regulation of AQP3 and AQP7 (glycerol channels mediating glycerol efflux in adipocytes) and AQP9 (aquaglyceroporin facilitating glycerol influx in hepatocytes). Twelve-week-old male wild type and ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and pair-fed. Leptin deficiency was associated with obesity and NAFLD exhibiting an AQP3 and AQP7 increase in WAT, without changes in hepatic AQP9. Adipose Aqp3 and hepatic Aqp9 transcripts positively correlated with markers of adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Chronic leptin administration (4-weeks) was associated with improved body weight, whole-body adiposity, and hepatosteatosis of ob/ob mice and to a down-regulation of AQP3, AQP7 in WAT and an up-regulation of hepatic AQP9. Acute leptin stimulation in vitro (4-h) induced the mobilization of aquaglyceroporins towards lipid droplets (AQP3) and the plasma membrane (AQP7) in murine adipocytes. Our results show that leptin restores the coordinated regulation of fat-specific AQP7 and liver-specific AQP9, a step which might prevent lipid overaccumulation in WAT and liver in obesity.
Project description:Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is known to play important regulatory roles in bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Aged (>12 months old) Fxr(-/-) mice also develop spontaneous liver carcinomas. In this report, we used three mouse models to investigate the role of FXR deficiency in obesity. As compared with low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, the Ldlr(-/-)Fxr(-/-) double-knockout mice were highly resistant to diet-induced obesity, which was associated with increased expression of genes involved in energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Such a striking effect of FXR deficiency on obesity on an Ldlr(-/-) background led us to investigate whether FXR deficiency alone is sufficient to affect obesity. As compared with wild-type mice, Fxr(-/-) mice showed resistance to diet-induced weight gain. Interestingly, only female Fxr(-/-) mice showed significant resistance to diet-induced obesity, which was accompanied by increased energy expenditure in these mice. Finally, we determined the effect of FXR deficiency on obesity in a genetically obese and diabetic mouse model. We generated ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice that were deficient in both Leptin and Fxr. On a chow diet, ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice gained less body weight and had reduced body fat mass as compared with ob/ob mice. In addition, we observed liver carcinomas in 43% of young (<11 months old) Ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice. Together these data indicate that loss of FXR prevents diet-induced or genetic obesity and accelerates liver carcinogenesis under diabetic conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is an important cardioprotective mechanism. This study aimed to investigate RCT changes in a murine model of obesity. METHODS:Ob/ob and control mice were injected with [3H]-cholesterol-labelled macrophages and cholesterol accumulation quantified after 48 h. Ex vivo, cholesterol efflux and uptake were determined in hepatic and adipose tissues. RESULTS:Ob/ob mice had more labelled cholesterol in their plasma (86%, p<0.001), suggesting impaired RCT. SR-BI-mediated cholesterol efflux was elevated from ob/ob mice (serum, 33%; apoB-depleted plasma, 14%, p<0.01) and HDL-c were also higher (60%, p<0.01). Ex vivo it was found that cholesterol uptake was significantly lower into the livers and adipose tissue of ob/ob mice, compared to non-obese wildtype controls. Furthermore, ex vivo cholesterol efflux was reduced in ob/ob liver and adipose tissue towards apoA-I and HDL. Consistent with this, protein levels of SR-BI and ABCG1 were significantly lower in ob/ob hepatic and adipose tissue than in wildtype mice. Finally, labelled cholesterol concentrations were lower in ob/ob bile (67%, p<0.01) and faeces (76%, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:Obesity causes impairment in RCT due to reduced plasma cholesterol uptake and efflux by hepatocytes and adipocytes. A reduction in the capacity for plasma cholesterol clearance may partly account for increased CVD risk with obesity.
Project description:Most adult tissues harbour a stem cell subpopulation (Mesenchymal Precursors or MPs) that represent a small proportion of the total cell number and have the potential to differentiate into several cell types within the mesenchymal lineage. In adipose tissue, adipocytes account for two-thirds of the total cell number. The remaining cells include blood and endothelial cells, along with adipocyte precursors (adipose MPs). Obesity is defined as an excess of body fat that frequently results in a significant impairment of health. The ob/ob mice bear a mutation in the ob gene that causes a deficiency in the hormone leptin and hence obesity. Here, we present evidence that ob/ob mice have a dramatic decrease in the resident MP pool of several tissues, including squeletal muscle, heart, lung and adipose tissue. Moreover, we show that that there is a migration of MP cells from distant organs, as well as homing of these cells to the adipose tissue mass of the ob/ob mice. We call this process adipotaxis. Once in the adipose tissue, migrant MPs undergoe adipose differentiation, giving rise to new differentiated adipocytes within the adipose mass. Finally, we provide evidence that adipotaxis is largely explained by the production of high levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) within the ob/ob adipose tissue. The therapeutic implications for human obesity as well as for regenerative medicine are further discussed in this paper.
Project description:Obesity, a major health concern, results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are paradigmatic of obesity, resulting from excess energy intake and storage. Mice lacking acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), the first enzyme of the peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation system, are characterized by increased energy expenditure and a lean body phenotype caused by sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) by endogenous ligands in liver that remain unmetabolized in the absence of Acox1. We generated ob/ob mice deficient in Acox1 (Acox1(-/-)) to determine how the activation of PPAR? by endogenous ligands might affect the obesity of ob/ob mice. In contrast to Acox1(-/-) (14.3±1.2 g at 6 mo) and the Acox1-deficient (ob/ob) double-mutant mice (23.8±4.6 g at 6 mo), the ob/ob mice are severely obese (54.3±3.2 g at 6 mo) and had significantly more (P<0.01) epididymal fat content. The resistance of Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice to obesity is due to increased PPAR?-mediated up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver. Activation of PPAR? in Acox1-deficient ob/ob mice also reduces serum glucose and insulin (P<0.05) and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Further, PPAR? activation reduces hepatic steatosis and increases hepatocellular regenerative response in Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice at a more accelerated pace than in mice lacking only Acox1. However, Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice manifest hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and also develop hepatocellular carcinomas (8 of 8 mice) similar to those observed in Acox1(-/-) mice (10 of 10 mice), but unlike in ob/ob (0 of 14 mice) and OB/OB (0 of 6 mice) mice, suggesting that superimposed ER stress and PPAR? activation contribute to carcinogenesis in a fatty liver. Finally, absence of Acox1 in ob/ob mice can impart resistance to high-fat diet (60% fat)-induced obesity, and their liver had significantly (P<0.01) more cell proliferation. These studies with Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice indicate that sustained activation of lipid-sensing nuclear receptor PPAR? attenuates obesity and restores glucose homeostasis by ameliorating insulin resistance but increases the risk for liver cancer development, in part related to excess energy combustion.
Project description:Isolated mitochondria from liver or brown adipose tissue of obese ob/ob mice demonstrated increased rates of Ca2+ uptake and release compared with those of lean mice. This enhanced transport activity was not found in mitochondria from kidney or skeletal muscle. Respiration-induced membrane potential was the same in mitochondria from lean and ob/ob mice. It is therefore concluded that the increased Ca2+ uptake rates reflect an activation of the Ca2+ uniporter rather than a change in the electrophoretic driving force. As mitochondria from pre-obese ob/ob mice did not show elevated rates of Ca2+ transport, the activated transport in the obese animals was thus a consequence of the state of obesity rather than being a direct effect of the ob/ob genotype. It is suggested that the enhanced activity of the Ca2+-transport pathways in liver and brown adipose tissue may alter metabolic functions in these tissues by modifying cytoplasmic or intramitochondrial Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:Obesity poses an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and closely associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including liver cancer. Satiety hormone leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, considered paradigmatic of nutritional obesity, develop hepatic steatosis but are less prone to developing liver tumors. Sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in ob/ob mouse liver increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which contributes to attenuation of obesity but enhances liver cancer risk. To further evaluate the role of PPAR?-regulated hepatic FAO and energy burning in the progression of fatty liver disease, we generated PPAR?-deficient ob/ob (PPAR?(?)ob/ob) mice. These mice become strikingly more obese compared to ob/ob littermates, with increased white and brown adipose tissue content and severe hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis becomes more severe in fasted PPAR?(?)ob/ob mice as they fail to up-regulate FAO systems. PPAR?(?)ob/ob mice also do not respond to peroxisome proliferative and mitogenic effects of PPAR? agonist Wy-14,643. Although PPAR?(?)ob/ob mice are severely obese, there was no significant increase in liver tumor incidence, even when maintained on a diet containing Wy-14,643. We conclude that sustained PPAR? activation-related increase in FAO in fatty livers of obese ob/ob mice increases liver cancer risk, whereas deletion of PPAR? in ob/ob mice aggravates obesity and hepatic steatosis. However, it does not lead to liver tumor development because of reduction in FAO and energy burning.
Project description:Low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue and liver has been implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Yet, the contribution of inflammatory cells to the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. In a large cohort of obese human individuals, blood monocyte Fas (CD95) expression correlated with systemic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. To test a causal role for myeloid cell Fas expression in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, we generated myeloid/haematopoietic cell-specific Fas-depleted mice. Myeloid/haematopoietic Fas deficiency prevented the development of glucose intolerance in high fat-fed mice, in ob/ob mice, and in mice acutely challenged by LPS. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated preservation of muscle insulin responsiveness with no effect on adipose tissue or liver. Studies using neutralizing antibodies demonstrated a role for TNF? as mediator between myeloid Fas and skeletal muscle insulin resistance, supported by significant correlations between monocyte Fas expression and circulating TNF? in humans. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an unanticipated crosstalk between myeloid cells and skeletal muscle in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance.