Effect of Macrolide Prophylactic Therapy on AIDS-Defining Conditions and HIV-Associated Mortality.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART. METHODS:Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation. RESULTS:Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS:Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Many HIV-positive individuals in Africa have advanced disease when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) so have high risks of opportunistic infections and death. The REALITY trial found that an enhanced-prophylaxis package including fluconazole reduced mortality by 27% in individuals starting ART with CD4 <100 cells/mm3 . We investigated the cost-effectiveness of this enhanced-prophylaxis package versus other strategies, including using cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing, in individuals with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 or <100 cells/mm3 at ART initiation and all individuals regardless of CD4 count. METHODS:The REALITY trial enrolled from June 2013 to April 2015. A decision-analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of six management strategies in individuals initiating ART in the REALITY trial countries. Strategies included standard-prophylaxis, enhanced-prophylaxis, standard-prophylaxis with fluconazole; and three CrAg testing strategies, the first stratifying individuals to enhanced-prophylaxis (CrAg-positive) or standard-prophylaxis (CrAg-negative), the second to enhanced-prophylaxis (CrAg-positive) or enhanced-prophylaxis without fluconazole (CrAg-negative) and the third to standard-prophylaxis with fluconazole (CrAg-positive) or without fluconazole (CrAg-negative). The model estimated costs, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) over 48 weeks using three competing mortality risks: cryptococcal meningitis; tuberculosis, serious bacterial infection or other known cause; and unknown cause. RESULTS:Enhanced-prophylaxis was cost-effective at cost-effectiveness thresholds of US$300 and US$500 per QALY with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$157 per QALY in the CD4 <200 cells/mm3 population providing enhanced-prophylaxis components are sourced at lowest available prices. The ICER reduced in more severely immunosuppressed individuals (US$113 per QALY in the CD4 <100 cells/mm3 population) and increased in all individuals regardless of CD4 count (US$722 per QALY). Results were sensitive to prices of the enhanced-prophylaxis components. Enhanced-prophylaxis was more effective and less costly than all CrAg testing strategies as enhanced-prophylaxis still conveyed health gains in CrAg-negative patients and savings from targeting prophylaxis based on CrAg status did not compensate for costs of CrAg testing. CrAg testing strategies did not become cost-effective unless the price of CrAg testing fell below US$2.30. CONCLUSIONS:The REALITY enhanced-prophylaxis package in individuals with advanced HIV starting ART reduces morbidity and mortality, is practical to administer and is cost-effective. Efforts should continue to ensure that components are accessed at lowest available prices.
Project description:Severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have high mortality shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated predictors of early mortality and "late presenter" phenotypes.The Reduction of EArly MortaLITY (REALITY) trial enrolled ART-naive adults and children ?5 years of age with CD4 counts <100 cells/µL initiating ART in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. Baseline predictors of mortality through 48 weeks were identified using Cox regression with backwards elimination (exit P > .1).Among 1711 included participants, 203 (12%) died. Mortality was independently higher with older age; lower CD4 count, albumin, hemoglobin, and grip strength; presence of World Health Organization stage 3/4 weight loss, fever, or vomiting; and problems with mobility or self-care at baseline (all P < .04). Receiving enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis independently reduced mortality (P = .02). Of five late-presenter phenotypes, Group 1 (n = 355) had highest mortality (25%; median CD4 count, 28 cells/µL), with high symptom burden, weight loss, poor mobility, and low albumin and hemoglobin. Group 2 (n = 394; 11% mortality; 43 cells/µL) also had weight loss, with high white cell, platelet, and neutrophil counts suggesting underlying inflammation/infection. Group 3 (n = 218; 10% mortality) had low CD4 counts (27 cells/µL), but low symptom burden and maintained fat mass. The remaining groups had 4%-6% mortality.Clinical and laboratory features identified groups with highest mortality following ART initiation. A screening tool could identify patients with low CD4 counts for prioritizing same-day ART initiation, enhanced prophylaxis, and intensive follow-up.ISRCTN43622374.
Project description:Background:HIV treatment and care services were scaled up in 2007 in India with objective to increase HIV-care coverage. CD4 count based criteria was mainly used for treatment initiation with increasing threshold in later years. Therefore, this paper aimed to evaluate the survival by varying CD4 criteria for antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation among of HIV-positive patients, and independent factors associated with the mortality. Methods:This retrospective cohort study included 127?949 HIV-positive patients aged ?15 years, who initiated ART between 2007 and 2013 in Andhra Pradesh state, India. The patient's demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient's health records from electronic Computerized Management Information System Software (CMIS). Incidence of mortality/100 person-years was calculated for CD4 and treatment initiation categories. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox-regression analyses were used to explore the association. Results:Median CD4 count was 172 (inter-quartile range (IQR)?=?102-240) at the time of treatment initiation, and 19.3% of them had ??100 CD4 count. Incidence of mortality for the period 2007-08 (CD4???200 cells/mm3) was 8.5/100 person-years compared to 6.4/100 person-years at risk for the period 2012 onwards (CD4???350 cells/mm3). Earlier thresholds for treatment initiation showed higher risk of mortality (2007-08 (CD4???200 cells/mm3), adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-2.07; 2009-11 (CD4???250 cells/mm3), HR?=?1.67, 95% CI?=?1.51-1.85) compared to 2012 onwards (CD4???350 cells/mm3) criteria for treatment initiation. Conclusions:Increasing CD4 threshold for treatment initiation over time was independently associated with lower risk of mortality. More efforts are required to detect and treat early, monitoring of follow-ups, promote health education to improve ART adherence, and provide supportive environment that encourages HIV-infected patients to disclose their HIV status in confidence.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal infection is a frequent cause of mortality in Cambodian HIV-infected patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells/µl. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for cryptococcosis prevention in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A MARKOV DECISION TREE WAS USED TO COMPARE THE FOLLOWING STRATEGIES AT THE TIME OF HIV DIAGNOSIS: no intervention, one time systematic serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening and treatment of positive patients, and systematic primary prophylaxis with fluconazole. The trajectory of a hypothetical cohort of HIV-infected patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells/µl initiating care was simulated over a 1-year period (cotrimoxazole initiation at enrollment; antiretroviral therapy within 3 months). Natural history and cost data (US$ 2009) were from Cambodia. Efficacy data were from international literature. RESULTS: In a population in which 81% of patients had a CD4+ count ?50 cells/ µl and 19% a CD4+ count between 51-100 cells/µl, the proportion alive 1 year after enrollment was 61% (cost $ 472) with no intervention, 70% (cost $ 483) with screening, and 72% (cost $ 492) with prophylaxis. After one year of follow-up, the cost-effectiveness of screening vs. no intervention was US$ 180/life year gained (LYG). The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis vs. screening was $ 511/LYG. The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis vs. screening was estimated at $1538/LYG if the proportion of patients with CD4+ count ?50 cells/µl decreased by 75%. CONCLUSION: In a high endemic area of cryptococcosis and HIV infection, serum CRAG screening and prophylaxis are two cost effective strategies to prevent AIDS associated cryptococcosis in patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells/µl, at a short-term horizon, screening being more cost-effective but less effective than prophylaxis. Systematic primary prophylaxis may be preferred in patients with CD4+ below 50 cells/µl while systematic serum CRAG screening for early targeted treatment may be preferred in patients with CD4+ between 51-100 cells/µl.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS:In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter. They underwent simultaneous randomization to receive enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis or standard prophylaxis, adjunctive raltegravir or no raltegravir, and supplementary food or no supplementary food. Here, we report on the effects of enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis, which consisted of continuous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus at least 12 weeks of isoniazid-pyridoxine (coformulated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a single fixed-dose combination tablet), 12 weeks of fluconazole, 5 days of azithromycin, and a single dose of albendazole, as compared with standard prophylaxis (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone). The primary end point was 24-week mortality. RESULTS:A total of 1805 patients (1733 adults and 72 children or adolescents) underwent randomization to receive either enhanced prophylaxis (906 patients) or standard prophylaxis (899 patients) and were followed for 48 weeks (loss to follow-up, 3.1%). The median baseline CD4+ count was 37 cells per cubic millimeter, but 854 patients (47.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis at 24 weeks, the rate of death with enhanced prophylaxis was lower than that with standard prophylaxis (80 patients [8.9% vs. 108 [12.2%]; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.98; P=0.03); 98 patients (11.0%) and 127 (14.4%), respectively, had died by 48 weeks (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.99; P=0.04). Patients in the enhanced-prophylaxis group had significantly lower rates of tuberculosis (P=0.02), cryptococcal infection (P=0.01), oral or esophageal candidiasis (P=0.02), death of unknown cause (P=0.03), and new hospitalization (P=0.03). However, there was no significant between-group difference in the rate of severe bacterial infection (P=0.32). There were nonsignificantly lower rates of serious adverse events and grade 4 adverse events in the enhanced-prophylaxis group (P=0.08 and P=0.09, respectively). Rates of HIV viral suppression and adherence to ART were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:Among HIV-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression, enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis combined with ART resulted in reduced rates of death at both 24 weeks and 48 weeks without compromising viral suppression or increasing toxic effects. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others; REALITY Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN43622374 .).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an important cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical trials have reported early (within 2 weeks of TB therapy) antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality among HIV-TB co-infected research participants with low CD4 cell counts, but this has not been consistently observed. We aimed to evaluate the current WHO recommendations for ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients on mortality in routine clinical settings. METHODS:We compared two cohorts before (2008-2010) and after (2012-2013) policy change on ART timing after TB and examined the effectiveness of early versus delayed ART on mortality in HIV-TB co-infected participants with CD4 cell count 100?cells/?l or less. We used inverse probability censoring-weighted Cox models on baseline characteristics to balance the study arms and generated hazard ratios for mortality. RESULTS:Of 356 participants with CD4 cell counts 100?cells/?l or less, 180 were in the delayed ART cohorts whereas 176 were in the early ART cohorts. Their median age (32.5 versus 32 years) and baseline CD4 cell counts (26.5 versus 26?cells/?l) respectively were similar. There was no difference in mortality rates of both cohorts. The risk of death increased in participants with a positive Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) test in both the early ART cohort (aHR?=?2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.8; P?=?0.045) and the delayed ART cohort (aHR?=?4.2, 95% CI 1.9-9.0; P?<?0.001 CONCLUSION:: Early ART in patients with HIV-TB co-infection was not associated with reduced risk of mortality in routine care. Asymptomatic Cryptococcal antigenaemia increased the risk of mortality in both cohorts.
Project description:Little information is available on the mortality and risk factors associated with death in disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (dNTM) in HIV-infected patients in the ART-era.In a single-center study, HIV-infected dNTM with positive NTM culture from sterile sites between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. The clinical characteristics at commencement of anti-mycobacterial treatment (baseline) were compared between those who survived and died.Twenty-four patients were analyzed. [The median CD4 27/?L (range 2-185)]. Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare accounted for 20 (83%) and 3 (13%) of isolated NTM. NTM bacteremia was diagnosed in 15 (63%) patients. Seven (29%) patients died, and NTM bacteremia was significantly associated with mortality (p = 0.022). The baseline CD4 count was significantly lower in the non-survivors than the survivors (median 7/?L versus 49, p = 0.034). Concomitant AIDS-defining diseases or malignancies were not associated with mortality. Immune-reconstitution syndrome (IRS) occurred to 19 (79%) patients (8 paradoxical and 11 unmasking), and prognosis tended to be better in unmasking-IRS than the other patients (n = 13) (p = 0.078). Patients with paradoxical-IRS had marginally lower CD4 count and higher frequency of bacteremia than those with unmasking-IRS (p = 0.051, and 0.059). Treatment with systemic corticosteroids was applied in 63% and 55% of patients with paradoxical and unmasking-IRS, respectively.dNTM in HIV-infected patients resulted in high mortality even in the ART-era. NTM bacteremia and low CD4 count were risk factors for death, whereas patients presented with unmasking-IRS had marginally better prognosis. IRS occurred in 79% of the patients, suggesting difficulty in the management of dNTM.
Project description:Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis can reduce mortality from untreated HIV infection in Africa; whether benefits occur alongside combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. We estimated the effect of prophylaxis after ART initiation in adults.Participants in our observational analysis were from the DART randomised trial of management strategies in HIV-infected, symptomatic, previously untreated African adults starting triple-drug ART with CD4 counts lower than 200 cells per muL. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was not routinely used or randomly allocated, but was variably prescribed by clinicians. We estimated effects on clinical outcomes, CD4 cell count, and body-mass index (BMI) using marginal structural models to adjust for time-dependent confounding by indication. DART was registered, number ISRCTN13968779.3179 participants contributed 14 214 years of follow-up (8128 [57%] person-years on co-trimoxazole). Time-dependent predictors of co-trimoxazole use were current CD4 cell count, haemoglobin concentration, BMI, and previous WHO stage 3 or 4 events on ART. Present prophylaxis significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85; p=0.001). Mortality risk reduction on ART was substantial to 12 weeks (0.41, 0.27-0.65), sustained from 12-72 weeks (0.56, 0.37-0.86), but not evident subsequently (0.96, 0.63-1.45; heterogeneity p=0.02). Variation in mortality reduction was not accounted for by time on co-trimoxazole or current CD4 cell count. Prophylaxis reduced frequency of malaria (0.74, 0.63-0.88; p=0.0005), an effect that was maintained with time, but we observed no effect on new WHO stage 4 events (0.86, 0.69-1.07; p=0.17), CD4 cell count (difference vs non-users, -3 cells per muL [-12 to 6]; p=0.50), or BMI (difference vs non-users, -0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.20 to 0.13); p=0.68].Our results reinforce WHO guidelines and provide strong motivation for provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for at least 72 weeks for all adults starting combination ART in Africa.UK Medical Research Council, the UK Department for International Development, the Rockefeller Foundation, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead Sciences, Boehringer-Ingelheim, and Abbott Laboratories.
Project description:Current WHO guidelines recommend initiating ART regardless of CD4+ cell count. In response, we conducted an observational cohort study to assess the effects of pre-ART CD4+ cell count levels on death, attrition, and death or attrition in HIV treated patients. This large HIV treatment cohort study (n?=?49,155) from 2010 to 2015 was conducted in Guangxi, China. We used a Cox regression model to analyze associations between pre-ART CD4+ cell counts and death, attrition, and death or attrition. The average mortality and ART attrition rates among all treated patients were 2.63 deaths and 5.32 attritions per 100 person-years, respectively. Compared to HIV patients with <350 CD4+ cells/mm3 at ART initiation, HIV patients with >500 CD4+ cells/mm3 at ART initiation had a significantly lower mortality rate (Adjusted hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.79), but significantly higher ART attrition rate (AHR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Results from this study suggest that HIV patients with high CD4+ cell counts at the time of ART initiation may be at greater risk of treatment attrition. To further reduce ART attrition, it is imperative that patient education and healthcare provider training on ART adherence be enhanced and account for CD4 levels at ART initiation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Evaluating outcomes of paediatric patients with HIV provides crucial data for clinicians and policymakers. We analysed mortality and clinical events rates among children, adolescents, and youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) aged 0 to 24 years stratified by time-varying age and CD4, before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART), in the paediatric IeDEA multiregional collaboration (East, West, Central and Southern Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Central/South America and the Caribbean). METHODS:ART-naïve children with HIV enrolled before age 10 (proxy for perinatal infection) at IeDEA sites between 2004 and 2016, with ?1 CD4 measurement during follow-up were included. We estimated incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of mortality and first occurrence of WHO-4 and WHO-3 events, excluding tuberculosis, during person-years (PY) spent within different age (<2, 2 to 4, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, 15 to 19, 20 to 24) and CD4 (percent when <5 years [<15%, 15% to 24%, ?25%]; count when ?5 years [<200, 200 to 499, ?500 cells/µL]) strata. We used linear mixed models to predict CD4 evolution, with trends modelled by region. RESULTS:In the pre-ART period, 49 137 participants contributed 51 966 PY of follow-up (median enrolment age: 3.9 years). The overall pre-ART IRs were 2.8/100 PY (95% CI: 2.7 to 2.9) for mortality, 3.3/100 PY (95% CI: 3.0 to 3.5) for first occurrence of a WHO-4 event, and 7.0/100 PY (95% CI: 6.7 to 7.4) for first occurrence of a WHO-3 event. Lower CD4 and younger age strata were associated with increased rates of both mortality and first occurrence of a clinical event. In the post-ART period, 52 147 PHIVY contributed 207 945 PY (ART initiation median age: 4.5 years). Overall mortality IR was 1.4/100 PY (95% CI: 1.4 to 1.5) and higher in low CD4 strata; patients at each end of the age spectrum (<2 and >19) had increased mortality post-ART. IRs for first occurrence of WHO-4 and WHO-3 events were 1.3/100 PY (95% CI: 1.2 to 1.4) and 2.1/100 PY (95% CI: 2.0 to 2.2) respectively. These were also associated with lower CD4 and younger age strata. CONCLUSIONS:Mortality and incidence of clinical events were highest in both younger (<2 years) and older (>19 years) youth with PHIV. Scaling-up services for <2 years (early access to HIV diagnosis and care) and >19 years (adolescent- and youth-focused health services) is critical to improve outcomes among PHIVY.