Matrix-induced Linear Stark Effect of Single Dibenzoterrylene Molecules in 2,3-Dibromonaphthalene Crystal.
ABSTRACT: Absorption and fluorescence from single molecules can be tuned by applying an external electric field - a phenomenon known as the Stark effect. A linear Stark effect is associated to a lack of centrosymmetry of the guest in the host matrix. Centrosymmetric guests can display a linear Stark effect in disordered matrices, but the response of individual guest molecules is often relatively weak and non-uniform, with a broad distribution of the Stark coefficients. Here we introduce a novel single-molecule host-guest system, dibenzoterrylene (DBT) in 2,3-dibromonaphthalene (DBN) crystal. Fluorescent DBT molecules show excellent spectral stability with a large linear Stark effect, of the order of 1.5 GHz/kVcm-1 , corresponding to an electric dipole moment change of around 2 D. Remarkably, when the electric field is aligned with the a crystal axis, nearly all DBT molecules show either positive or negative Stark shifts with similar absolute values. These results are consistent with quantum chemistry calculations. Those indicate that DBT substitutes three DBN molecules along the a-axis, giving rise to eight equivalent embedding sites, related by the three glide planes of the orthorhombic crystal. The static dipole moment of DBT molecules is created by host-induced breaking of the inversion symmetry. This new host-guest system is promising for applications that require a high sensitivity of fluorescent emitters to electric fields, for example to probe weak electric fields.
Project description:Here, we present a new all-optical method of interrogation of the internal electric field vector inside proteins. The method is based on experimental evaluation of the permanent dipole moment change upon excitation and the pure electronic transition frequency of a fluorophore embedded in a protein matrix. The permanent dipole moment change can be obtained from two-photon absorption measurements. In addition, permanent dipole moment change, tensor of polarizability change, and transition frequency for the free chromophore should be calculated quantum-mechanically. This allows obtaining the components of the electric field by considering the second-order Stark shift. We use the fluorescent protein mCherry as an example to demonstrate the applicability of the method.
Project description:Three polarized aromatic guest molecules (pyrene-4,5-dione, 1) form a triple-layered stack in the box-shaped cavity of an organic pillared coordination cage in water. The cavity size strictly limits the number of stacked planar guests but does not restrict guest orientation, and thus enables the study of discrete stacks of polarized guests and their preferred conformations. Crystallographic study shows that the guest molecules in the cavity are rotated 120 degrees with respect to each other, cancelling the net dipole moment rather than the local dipole moment. The unique conformation of a discrete, triple stack of 1 sharply contrasts to the standard head-to-tail conformation in infinite stacks of 1.
Project description:The quadrupole interaction between the Rydberg electronic states of a Rydberg ion and the radio frequency electric field of the ion trap is analyzed. Such a coupling is negligible for the lowest energy levels of a trapped ion but it is important for a trapped Rydberg ion due to its large electric quadrupole moment. This coupling cannot be neglected by the standard rotating-wave approximation because it is comparable to the frequency of the trapping electric field. We investigate the effect of the quadrupole coupling by performing a suitable effective representation of the Hamiltonian. For a single ion we show that in this effective picture the quadrupole interaction is replaced by rescaled laser intensities and additional Stark shifts of the Rydberg levels. Hence this detrimental quadrupole coupling can be efficiently compensated by an appropriate increase of the Rabi frequencies. Moreover, we consider the strong dipole-dipole interaction between a pair of Rydberg ions in the presence of the quadrupole coupling. In the effective representation we observe reducing of the dipole-dipole coupling as well as additional spin-spin interaction.
Project description:When a homogenous electric field is applied to polyynes (C10 and C20) perpendicular to their long axis, they bend to form an arch. The height of the arch is proportional to the intensity of the electric field. The direction of the bend and its magnitude depend on the electronic nature (donor/acceptor) of the substituents at the termini of the polyyne. The driving force for the formation of the arch is the dipole moment produced in the system parallel to the electric field. This dipole moment stems from the substituents and from additional polarization by the field. The bend of the linear polyyne fits a parabolic distortion. According to mechanical engineering analysis, this results from a moment that operates at the two end zones of the polyynes, in accordance with the natural bond order (NBO) charge distribution. It is shown that solutions relevant to beam deflection due to a central load or a uniformly distributed load are not satisfactory. Various parameters, such as the dipole moment and the height of the arch, are better correlated with ? than with ?+ or ?-. Application of the electric field to more complex systems enables the sculpting of interesting nanoshapes.
Project description:Coherent, optically dressed media composed of two-level molecular systems without inversion symmetry are considered as all-optically tunable sources of coherent radiation in the microwave domain. A theoretical model and a numerical toolbox are developed to confirm the main finding: the generation of low-frequency radiation, and the buildup and propagation dynamics of such low-frequency signals in a medium of polar molecules in a gas phase. The physical mechanism of the signal generation relies on the permanent dipole moment characterizing systems without inversion symmetry. The molecules are polarized with a DC electric field yielding a permanent electric dipole moment in the laboratory frame; the direction and magnitude of the moment depend on the molecular state. As the system is resonantly driven, the dipole moment oscillates at the Rabi frequency and, hence, generates microwave radiation. We demonstrate the tuning capability of the output signal frequency with the drive amplitude and detuning. We find that even though decoherence mechanisms such as spontaneous emission may damp the output field, a scenario based on pulsed illumination yields a coherent, pulsed output of tunable temporal width. Finally, we discuss experimental scenarios exploiting rotational levels of gaseous ensembles of heteronuclear diatomic molecules.
Project description:This paper analyzes the structural, energetic and mechanical properties of carbon dioxide hydrate clathrates calculated using finite cluster and periodic ab initio density-functional theory methodologies. Intermolecular interactions are described by the exchange-hole dipole moment method. The stability, gas saturation energetics, guest-host interactions, cage deformations, vibrational frequencies, and equation of state parameters for the low-pressure sI cubic phase of the CO?@H?O clathrate hydrate are presented. Our results reveal that: (i) the gas saturation process energetically favors complete filling; (ii) carbon dioxide molecules prefer to occupy the larger of the two cages in the sI structure; (iii) blue shifts occur in both the symmetric and antisymmetric stretching frequencies of CO? upon encapsulation; and (iv) free rotation of guest molecules is restricted to a plane parallel to the hexagonal faces of the large cages. In addition, we calculate the librational frequency of the hindered rotation of the guest molecule in the plane perpendicular to the hexagonal faces. Our calculated spectroscopic data can be used as signatures for the detection of clathrate hydrates in planetary environments.
Project description:A series of three star-shaped compounds containing both donor (carbazole) and acceptor (2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine) moieties linked through various linking bridges was studied theoretically at the linear response TD-DFT level of theory to describe their absorption and fluorescence spectra. The concept of a localized charge-transfer excited state has been applied successfully to explain the observed strong solvatochromic effect in the emission spectra of the studied molecules, which can be utilized for the fabrication of color tunable solution-processable OLEDs. The concept is in particularly applicable to donor-acceptor species with a C 3 symmetry point group where the static dipole moment changes dramatically upon electronic excitation. An important peculiarity of the studied molecules is that they are characterized by non-zero values of the HOMO and LUMO orbitals in the same common part of molecular space that provides a large electric dipole transition moment for both light absorption and emission. Graphical abstract Star-shaped C 3 symmetry point group derivatives for color tunable OLEDs.
Project description:RHF and DFT (wB97XD and B3LYP) methods with the 6-31++G** basis set have been used to study structural, optoelectronic and thermodynamic properties of Theophylline and Theobromine. Dipole moment, average polarizability, anisotropy, first-order molecular hyperpolarizability, second-order molecular polarizability, HOMO and LOMO energy gap, molar refractivity, chemical hardness, chemical softness, electronic chemical potential, electronegativity, electrophilicity index, dielectric constant, electric susceptibility, refractive index and their thermodynamic properties have equally been calculated. To understand the vibrational analysis of our system, IR and RAMAN frequencies were calculated and described. Results reveal that molecules can have applications in linear and nonlinear optical devices, photonic devices and in molecular electronics. Equally, from dipole moment, average polarizability, anisotropy, first-order molecular hyperpolarizability, second-order molecular polarizability, HOMO and LOMO energy gap, molar refractivity, chemical hardness, chemical softness, electronic chemical potential, electronegativity, electrophilicity index and literature we suggest that Theophylline and Theobromine be consider as candidates for the treatment of COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases.
Project description:We report here the direct evidence of the existence of a permanent electric dipole moment in both crystal phases of a fullerene-based magnet--the ferromagnetic ?-phase and the antiferromagnetic ?'-phase of tetra-kis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene-C60 (TDAE-C60)--as determined by dielectric measurements. We propose that the permanent electric dipole originates from the pairing of a TDAE molecule with surrounding C60 molecules. The two polymorphs exhibit clear differences in their dielectric responses at room temperature and during the freezing process with dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments, although no difference in their room-temperature structures has been previously observed. This result implies that two polymorphs have different local environment around the molecules. In particular, the ferromagnetism of the ?-phase is founded on the homogeneous molecule displacement and orientational ordering. The formation of the different phases with respect to the different rotational states in the Jahn-Teller distorted C60s is also discussed.
Project description:The efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) can be improved by controlling the orientation of the transition dipole moment of the emitters. Currently, no effective methods exist for orienting the transition dipole moments in solution processed active layers for OLEDs. We investigate the orientation of the transition dipole moment of small molecular emitters in a host matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) by means of angle dependent luminescence intensity measurements. The polymer chains of the host orient predominantly in the plane of the film. Fluorescent p-phenylenevinylene oligomers with 6 and 7 repeat units (OPV6, OPV7) are found to also orient preferentially horizontally. The orientation of the emitters can be improved by thermal annealing with up to 90% of transition dipole moments oriented in the plane of the film. The phosphorescent emitter Ir(MDQ)2(acac) shows a degree of horizontal orientation in the polymeric host matrix lower than that which is observed for oligomers, but as high as is observed for the same emitter in evaporated layers. A carbazole derivative capable of thermally activated delayed fluorescence shows a small preference for vertical orientation within the polymer host. The strong orientation of OPV6 and OPV7 in the oriented polymer host is rationalized in terms of their high aspect ratios. The use of PFO as host material in host/guest systems allows achieving horizontal orientation of transition dipole moments in solution processed oligomers and small molecular emitters.