Association between polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism genes and breast cancer development in Chinese women: A prospective case-control study.
ABSTRACT: We comprehensively identified polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing genes that may be associated with breast cancer initiation in Chinese women, via an ongoing prospective case-control study.An ongoing prospective case-control study of 427 female case patients diagnosed with breast cancer from August 2013 to March 2015 and 536 women (case controls) with no prior history of cancer or benign breast tumors was performed. Buccal cell specimens were obtained using the cotton swabbing method. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells using the phenol/chloroform method. Genotype was carried out for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4646903, rs1056836, rs1695, rs4970737, and rs4680) using direct sequencing.The polymorphic genotypes of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) (P = .044) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (P?=?.008) showed significantly different distributions, while that of cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) (P?=?.051) showed a slight difference in distribution between healthy women and patients with breast cancer. Individuals with homozygous variant genotypes for GSTP1 or COMT exhibited a higher risk of developing breast cancer than those with wild-type genotypes; however, for CYP1B1, the homozygous variant genotype was associated with a lower risk, and the heterozygous genotype for these 3 genes was not associated with breast cancer development.An individual's risk of breast cancer is only influenced by the specific combination of risk-associated alleles of COMT and GSTP1, despite the protective effects of the homozygous CYP1B1 genotype revealed by univariate analysis.
Project description:This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes within the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway altered the risk of breast cancer alone or in combination, as well as whether menopausal hormone therapy modified the effect of these SNPs on breast cancer risk.In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer, 891 cases and 878 controls were genotyped for six functional SNPs in the COMT, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genes.Women homozygous with the T allele in CYP1B1*2 (Ser(119); rs1056827) were at 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.46) times the risk of women homozygous with the G allele; women homozygous with the G allele in GSTP1 (Val(105); rs1695) were at 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.99) times the risk of breast cancer compared with women homozygous with the A allele. No other SNPs tested were associated with breast cancer to any appreciable degree. Potential gene-gene and gene-hormone therapy interactions were investigated.With the exception of GSTP1 and possibly CYP1B1*2, our findings do not provide support for the role of genetic variation in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Estrogen plays a key role in breast cancer development and functionally relevant genetic variants within the estrogen metabolic pathway are prime candidates for a possible association with breast cancer risk. We investigated the independent and the combined effects of commonly occurring polymorphisms in four genes encoding key proteins of estrogen metabolic pathway on their potential contribution to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We studied 530 breast cancer cases and 270 controls of the same age and ethnicity participating in a case-control study of postmenopausal women. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695), and MnSOD (rs4880) polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: None of the 4 genetic variants examined contributed to breast cancer risk individually. When the combined effects of the risk genotypes were investigated, significant associations were observed among women with two high-risk genotypes in CYP1B1 and COMT (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5) and two high-risk genotypes in COMT and MnSOD (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8), compared to those with low-risk genotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that individual susceptibility to breast cancer incidence may be increased by combined effects of the high-risk genotypes in CYP1B1, COMT, and MnSOD estrogen metabolic genes.
Project description:To explore the potential role for estrogen in lung cancer susceptibility, candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in tobacco and estrogen metabolism genes were evaluated. Population-based cases (n = 504) included women aged 18-74, diagnosed with NSCLC in metropolitan Detroit between November 2001 and October 2005. Population-based controls (n = 527) were identified through random digit dialing and matched on race and age. Eleven SNPs in 10 different genes were examined in relation to risk: CYP1A1 Msp1, CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP17, CYP19A1, XRCC1 Gln399Arg, COMT Val158Met, NQO1 Pro187Ser, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 Ile105Val. Lung cancer risk associated with individual SNPs was seen for GSTP1 [A allele; odds ratio (OR) = 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-3.27] and XRCC1 (A/A genotype; OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01-2.79) in white women and CYP1B1 (G allele; OR = 11.1; 95% CI, 1.18-104) in black women smokers. White women smokers carrying two risk genotypes at the following loci were at increased risk of lung cancer compared with individuals not carrying risk alleles at these loci: CYP17 and GSTM1, COMT and GSTM1, CYP17 and GSTT1, XRCC1 and GSTP1, CYP1B1 and XRCC1 and COMT and XRCC1. The most parsimonious model of lung cancer risk in white smoking women included age, family history of lung cancer, history of chronic lung disease, pack-years, body mass index, XRCC1 A/A genotype, GSTM1 null and COMT A/G or G/G genotype. These findings support the need for continued study of estrogen in relation to lung cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the tobacco metabolism, estrogen metabolism and DNA repair pathways will be useful in developing more predictive models of individual risk.
Project description:Racial differences in breast cancer risk, including the risks of hormone receptor subtypes of breast cancer, have been previously reported. We evaluated whether variation in genes related to estrogen metabolism (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, ESR1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HSD17B1, SULT1A1, and UGT1A1) contributes to breast cancer risk and/or racial differences in risk within the CARE study, a multi-centered, population-based case-control study of breast cancer. Genetic variation was assessed as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes, and SNP-hormone therapy (HT) interactions within a subset of 1,644 cases and 1,451 controls, including 949 Black women (493 cases and 456 controls), sampled from the CARE study population. No appreciable associations with breast cancer risk were detected for single SNPs or haplotypes in women overall. We detected SNP-HT interactions in women overall within CYP1B1 (rs1800440; p (het) = 0.003) and within CYP17A1 (rs743572; p (het) = 0.009) in which never users of HT were at a decreased risk of breast cancer, while ever users were at a non-significant increased risk. When investigated among racial groups, we detected evidence of an SNP-HT interaction with CYP1B1 in White women (p value = 0.02) and with CYP17A1 in Black women (p value = 0.04). This analysis suggests that HT use may modify the effect of variation in estrogen-related genes on breast cancer risk, which may affect Black and White women to a different extent.
Project description:Enzymes encoded by the glutathione S-tranferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and pi 1 (GSTP1) genes, which are expressed in breast tissue, catalyze the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles. Reduced enzyme activity, due to carriage of the GSTM1 deletion or the GSTP1 Ile105Val Val allele, may therefore affect susceptibility to breast cancer and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined whether these polymorphisms were associated with risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions. Women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=615) or fibrocystic breast conditions (n=467) were compared to women without clinical breast disease (n=878). We also examined whether these associations differed by menopausal status or by presence of proliferation in the extra-tumoral epithelium among women with breast cancer and in lesions among women with fibrocystic conditions. No overall association of either GST polymorphism with risk of breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions was observed. There was some evidence of slightly elevated cancer risk associated with carriage of the GSTM1 null genotype and at least one GSTP1 105-Val allele (OR=1.33, 95% CI, 0.99-1.80), compared to carriage of the GSTM1 non-null and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes. This relationship was stronger in women who had breast cancer with extra-tumoral tissue proliferation (OR=1.77, 95% CI, 1.03-3.04). Our results suggest that GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes do not individually influence susceptibility to breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions. The observed increased risk of breast cancer associated with joint carriage of the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 105-Val allele needs confirmation in other studies.
Project description:Oxidative stress may be involved in breast carcinogenesis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an endogenous oxidant enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G-463A in the promoter region has been associated with a decrease in risk of breast cancer. We assessed the association between this polymorphism and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (1,269 incident breast cancer cases and 1,761 matched controls). We further investigated potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. There were no significant associations between MPO or COMT genotypes and risk of breast cancer. However, the combination of a priori hypothesized low-risk genotypes in MPO and COMT genes was associated with a marginally significant decrease in breast cancer risk (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-1.00). Dietary intake and plasma antioxidant levels may modify the association between the MPO polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Although the test for departure from multiplicative interaction was not significant, inverse associations with MPO genotype were more pronounced among women who consumed higher amounts of total fruits and vegetables (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.30-1.12); this association was not found among the low-consumption group (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.63-1.96). The relative risk associated with the MPO homozygous variant genotype was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.18-1.09) for women who had the highest level of plasma carotenoids. Results from this study suggest that exogenous and endogenous modulators of oxidative stress may modify the association between the MPO polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Further research is needed to confirm these possible associations.
Project description:Polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes may enhance the occurrence of mutations at critical tumor suppressor genes, such as p53, and increase breast cancer risk by either increasing the activation or detoxification of carcinogens and/or endogenous estrogens. We analyzed polymorphisms in CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 and p53 mutations in 323 breast tumor samples. Approximately 11% of patients exhibited mutations in p53. Women with mutations had a significantly younger age of diagnosis (P = 0.01) and a greater incidence of tumors classified as stage II or higher (P = 0.002). More women with mutations had a history of smoking (55%) compared to women without mutations (39%). Although none of the genotypes alone were associated with p53 mutations, positive smoking history was associated with p53 mutations in women with the GSTM1 null allele [OR = 3.54; 95% CI = 0.97-12.90 P = 0.06] compared to women with the wild-type genotype and smoking history [OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.19-2.07], although this association did not reach statistical significance. To test for gene-gene interactions, our exploratory analysis in the Caucasian cases suggested that individuals with the combined GSTP1 105 VV, CYP1B1 432 LV/VV, and GSTM1 positive genotype were more likely to harbor mutations in p53 [OR = 4.94; 95% CI = 1.11-22.06]. Our results suggest that gene-smoking and gene-gene interactions may impact the prevalence of p53 mutations in breast tumors. Elucidating the etiology of breast cancer as a consequence of common genetic polymorphisms and the genotoxic effects of smoking will enable us to improve the design of prevention strategies, such as lifestyle modifications, in genetically susceptible subpopulations.
Project description:A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the allelic and genotype frequencies in the genes encoding for catechol-O-methyltransferase and CYP2D6*10 among healthy volunteers and patients clinically diagnosed with cancer pain. PCR-RFLP was used to identify COMT and CYP2D6*10 genotypes. Allelic frequencies among healthy volunteer Filipinos were 0.83 and 0.17 for the COMT Val and COMT Met alleles, respectively. Calculated frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were 73% for COMT Val/Val, 26% for COMT Val/Met, and 1% for COMT Met/Met genotype. For CYP2D6*10, allelic frequencies in HWE among volunteers were 0.46 for the C allele and 0.54 for the T allele. Twenty percent were identified as homozygous for the wild-type C/C genotype, 56% were identified as heterozygous for the C/T genotype, and 24% were identified as homozygous for the T/T variant genotype. No significant differences in COMT and CYP2D6*10 allele frequencies between cancer patients and healthy volunteers were noted. Our data demonstrated that the allele frequencies of COMT and CYP2D6*10 in the Filipino healthy volunteers were similar with other Asians but markedly different from Caucasian populations.
Project description:Available in vitro and animal studies have shown cancer protective effects of tea polyphenols. Recent study suggests a greater protective effect of green tea intake on breast cancer risk among women possessing the low-activity associated genotype of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which may modulate the metabolism and excretion of tea polyphenols through urine. To determine the effect of COMT genotype on urinary excretion of tea polyphenol metabolites of daily green tea drinkers, a cross-sectional analysis was performed within the Shanghai Cohort Study, a population-based, prospective investigation of diet and cancer in 18,244men. In addition to an in-person interview, each participant provided a blood and urine sample at baseline. In the present study, COMT genotype (rs4680) and five urinary metabolites of tea polyphenols were determined in 660 cohort subjects who self-identified as daily drinkers of green tea. All urinary tea polyphenol measurements were expressed in units of urinary creatinine. Men possessing the homozygous low-activity associated COMT genotype (LL) exhibited statistically significantly lower urinary levels of individual as well as all of the five tea polyphenol metabolites under study relative to individuals possessing the wild type high-activity associated COMT genotype (HH)or the heterozygous variant genotype (HL). Levels of urinary tea polyphenol metabolites were comparable between men possessing the HH and HL genotypes. The present study demonstrated that men carrying low-activity associated COMT genotype excreted less tea polyphenols from urine, which suggests that they may retain more tea polyphenols in their bodies and derive greater health benefits from green tea intake.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The second leading cause of cancer-related death in women is breast cancer. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes (XMEs) contribute to the detoxification of numerous cancer therapy-induced products. In the metabolism of xenobiotic, cytochrome P450s or monooxygenases perform an important function by catalysing the hydroxylation reaction. In this study, the susceptibility and genetic polymorphisms of CYP450 isoenzymes was investigated that may have an etiological role in breast cancer. AIM:The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of CYP1A1 (rs4646421), CYP1B1 (rs1056836), CYP2C8 (rs1058930), and CYP19A1 (rs749292) polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer in Mazandaran province. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This cross-sectional case-control study were recruited 72 patients and 51 healthy individuals and was performed between March 2018 to May 2018 in the Oncology Department at Imam Hospital in Sari city, Iran. Peripheral blood samples were collected in EDTA tube, and DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method and WizPrep extraction kits. Breast cancer patients with known clinicopathological characters and healthy women as control group were genotyped for genes polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP technique, using restriction enzymes. Chi-square, Fisher exact test and Logistic regression model, were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS:The results of the experiments showed that there was a significant relationship between two groups and the age of the patients is significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.044). According to the chi-square and Fisher exact test, education, pregnancy, menopause status and oppose were significant between the two groups. Based on using a logistic regression model in two normalized and age-adjusted models to finding relationship between the genotypes of each gene and breast cancer risk, it was determined that in the CYP2C8 genotype, those who have the CG allele have a 7.74 degree increased risk of breast cancer (CI = 95% 0.95-62.5) and in the CYP19A1 gene, individuals with GA genotype, increased risk of breast cancer (CI = %95 1.52-27.21), about the CYP1B1 gene, people with two genotypes of CG + GG had higher risk of breast cancer (CI = %95 1.19-5.71) and allele G has decreased risk of breast cancer in this gene (P = 0.0271), also allele G in CYP2C8 gene had the protective effect (P = 0.02). In the age-adjusted model, for the CYP2C8 gene, GG genotype increased risk of breast cancer (CI = %95 1.11-75.84) as well as, the CG + GG genotype in CYP1B1 gene (CI = %95 1.31-6.57). CONCLUSION:Our results confirm the association between CYP2C8 (rs1058930), CYP19A1 (rs749292) and CYP1B1 (rs1056836) gene polymorphisms and increased risk of breast cancer in women in Mazandaran province.