A calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) expression is regulated by MIG-6 during endometrial tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: The ovarian steroid hormones, estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4), are essential regulators of uterine biology. The imbalance of these ovarian steroid hormones leads to uterine diseases such as endometrial cancer, endometriosis, and infertility. Mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG-6) is an adaptor protein. MIG-6 mediates P4 signaling and acts as a tumor suppressor during endometrial tumorigenesis in both humans and mice. In previous studies, we developed the conditional knockout of Mig-6 in all uterine compartments (Pgrcre/+Mig-6f/f; Mig-6KO) and endometrial epithelial cell-specific Mig-6 knockout (Sprr2fcre/+Mig-6f/f; Mig-6Ep-KO) mice. Both mouse models developed endometrial hyperplasia and E2-dependent endometrial cancer. P4 treatment significantly decreases aberrant epithelial proliferation and AKT signaling in Mig-6Ep-KO mice but not in Mig-6KO mice. In the present study, we identified a calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPla2) as one of the genes down-regulated by Mig-6 in the uterus. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis to investigate the regulation of cPLA2 by MIG-6 as well as determine the expression patterns of cPLA2 in the uterus. While the expression of cPLA2 was stronger at the uterine epithelial cells of Mig-6KO and Mig-6Ep-KO mice compared to control mice, P4 suppressed the expression of cPLA2 in Mig-6Ep-KO mice but not in Mig-6KO mice. To determine the ovarian steroid hormone regulation of cPLA2, we examined the expression of cPLA2 in ovariectomized control, Mig-6KO, Mig-6Ep-KO, and PRKO mice treated with P4 or E2. After P4 treatment, cPLA2 expression was remarkably reduced in Mig-6Ep-KO mice but not in Mig-6KO mice. However, the expression of cPLA2 was not changed in PRKO mice. Our results identified cPLA2 as a novel target of MIG-6 in the murine uterus and identified its important role during endometrial tumorigenesis.
Project description:Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) is an important mediator of progesterone (P4) signaling to inhibit estrogen (E2) signaling in the uterus. Ablation of Mig-6 in the murine uterus leads to the development of endometrial hyperplasia and E2-induced endometrial cancer. To identify the molecular pathways regulated by Mig-6, we performed microarray analysis on the uterus of ovariectomized Mig-6(f/f) and PGR(cre/+)Mig-6(f/f) (Mig-6(d/d)) mice treated with vehicle or P4 for 6 h. The results revealed that 772 transcripts were significantly regulated in the Mig-6(d/d) uterus treated with vehicle as compared with Mig-6(f/f) mice. The pathway analysis showed that Mig-6 suppressed the expression of gene-related cell cycle regulation in the absence of ovarian steroid hormone. The epithelium of Mig-6(d/d) mice showed a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells compared to Mig-6(f/f) mice. This microarray analysis also revealed that 324 genes are regulated by P4 as well as Mig-6. Cited2, the developmentally important transcription factor, was identified as being regulated by the P4-Mig-6 axis. To determine the role of Cited2 in the uterus, we used the mice with Cited2 that were conditionally ablated in progesterone receptor-positive cells (PGR(cre/+)Cited2(f/f); Cited2(d/d)). Ablation of Cited2 in the uterus resulted in a significant reduction in the ability of the uterus to undergo a hormonally induced decidual reaction. Identification and analysis of these responsive genes will help define the role of P4 as well as Mig-6 in regulating uterine biology.
Project description:Normal endometrial function requires a balance of progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) effects. An imbalance caused by increased E2 action and/or decreased P4 action can result in abnormal endometrial proliferation and, ultimately, endometrial adenocarcinoma, the fourth most common cancer in women. We have identified mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) as a downstream target of progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC-1) action in the uterus. Here, we demonstrate that absence of Mig-6 in mice results in the inability of P4 to inhibit E2-induced uterine weight gain and E2-responsive target genes expression. At 5 months of age, the absence of Mig-6 results in endometrial hyperplasia. Ovariectomized Mig-6(d/d) mice exhibit this hyperplastic phenotype in the presence of E2 and P4 but not without ovarian hormone. Ovariectomized Mig-6(d/d) mice treated with E2 developed invasive endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma. Importantly, the observation that endometrial carcinomas from women have a significant reduction in MIG-6 expression provides compelling support for an important growth regulatory role for Mig-6 in the uterus of both humans and mice. This demonstrates the Mig-6 is a critical regulator of the response of the endometrium to E2 in regulating tissue homeostasis. Since Mig-6 is regulated by both PR and SRC-1, this identifies a PR, SRC-1, Mig-6 regulatory pathway that is critical in the suppression of endometrial cancer.
Project description:Aberrant hyperactivation of epithelial proliferation, AKT signaling, and association with unopposed estrogen (E2) exposure is the most common endometrial cancer dysfunction. In the normal uterus, progesterone (P4) inhibits proliferation by coordinating stromal-epithelial cross-talk, which we previously showed is mediated by the function of Mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6). Despite their attractive characteristics, non-surgical conservative therapies based on progesterone alone have not been universally successful. One barrier to this success has been the lack of understanding of the P4 effect on endometrial cells.To further understand the role of Mig-6 and P4 in controlling uterine proliferation, we developed a Sprr2f-cre driven mouse model where Mig-6 is specifically ablated only in the epithelial cells of the uterus (Sprr2f cre+ Mig-6 f/f ). We examined P4 effect and regulation of AKT signaling in the endometrium of mutant mice.Sprr2f cre+ Mig-6 f/f mice developed endometrial hyperplasia. P4 treatment abated the development of endometrial hyperplasia and restored morphological and histological characteristics of the uterus. P4 treatment reduced cell proliferation which was accompanied by decreased AKT signaling and the restoration of stromal PGR and ESR1 expression. Furthermore, our in vitro studies revealed an inhibitory effect of MIG-6 on AKT phosphorylation as well as MIG-6 and AKT protein interactions.These data suggest that endometrial epithelial cell proliferation is regulated by P4 mediated Mig-6 inhibition of AKT phosphorylation, uncovering new mechanisms of P4 action. This information may help guide more effective non-surgical interventions in the future.
Project description:Although GPR64 has an important role for male fertility, its physiological roles in the female reproductive system are still unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis reveals a spatiotemporal expression of GPR64 in the uterus during early pregnancy. Observation of remarkable induction of GPR64 expression in uterine decidual cells points to its potential physiological significance on decidualization. The decidualization of uterine stromal cells is a key event in implantation. Progesterone (P4) signaling is crucial for the decidualization of the endometrial stromal cells for successful pregnancy. Therefore, we examined ovarian steroid hormone regulation of GPR64 expression in the murine uterus. P4 induced GPR64 expression in the epithelial and stromal cells of the uterus in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but not in PRKO mice. ChIP analysis confirmed that PGR proteins were recruited on progesterone response element of Gpr64 gene in the uteri of wild-type mice treated with P4. Furthermore, the expression of GPR64 was increased in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) during in vitro decidualization. Interestingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GPR64 in hESCs remarkably reduced decidualization. These results suggest that Gpr64 has a crucial role in the decidualization of endometrial stromal cells.
Project description:Uterine glands and their secretions are required for conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated placenta) survival and development. In most mammals, uterine gland morphogenesis or adenogenesis is a uniquely postnatal event; however, little is known about the mechanisms governing the developmental event. In sheep, progestin treatment of neonatal ewes permanently ablated differentiation of the endometrial glands. Similarly, progesterone (P4) inhibits adenogenesis in neonatal mouse uterus. Thus, P4 can be used as a tool to discover mechanisms regulating endometrial adenogenesis. Female pups were treated with sesame vehicle alone as a control or P4 from Postnatal Day 2 (PD 2) to PD 10, and reproductive tracts were examined on PD 5, 10, or 20. Endometrial glands were fully developed in control mice by PD 20 but not in P4-treated mice. All other uterine cell types appeared normal. Treatment with P4 stimulated proliferation of the stroma but suppressed proliferation of the luminal epithelium. Microarray analysis revealed that expression of genes were reduced (Car2, Fgf7, Fgfr2, Foxa2, Fzd10, Met, Mmp7, Msx1, Msx2, Wnt4, Wnt7a, Wnt16) and increased (Hgf, Ihh, Wnt11) by P4 in the neonatal uterus. These results support the idea that P4 inhibits endometrial adenogenesis in the developing neonatal uterus by altering expression of morphoregulatory genes and consequently disrupting normal patterns of cell proliferation and development.
Project description:Progesterone (P4) acting through its cognate receptor, the progesterone receptor (PR), plays an important role in uterine physiology. The PR knockout (PRKO) mouse has demonstrated the importance of the P4-PR axis in the regulation of uterine function. To define the molecular pathways regulated by P4-PR in the mouse uterus, Affymetrix MG U74Av2 oligonucleotide arrays were used to identify alterations in gene expression after acute and chronic P4 treatments. In the analysis, retinoic acid metabolic genes, cytochrome P 450 26a1 (Cyp26a1), alcohol dehydrogenase 5, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (Aldh1a1); kallikrein genes, Klk5 and Klk6; and specific transcription factors, GATA-2 and Cited2 [cAMP-corticosterone-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D)-rich tail], were validated as regulated by the P4-PR axis. Identification and analysis of these responsive genes will help define the role of PR in regulating uterine biology. Ovariectomized wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mice were injected with either vehicle or 1 mg/mouse progesterone. The injections were repeated every 12 h, and groups of mice were killed 4 h after the first injection (acute P4 treatment) or 4 h after the fourth injection (chronic P4 treatment).
Project description:Endometrial cancer is preceded by endometrial hyperplasia, unopposed estrogen exposure, and genetic alterations, but the precise causes of endometrial cancer remain uncertain. Mig-6, mainly known as a negative regulator of the EGF receptor, is an important mediator of progesterone signaling in the uterus, where it mediates tumor suppression by modulating endometrial stromal-epithelial communications. In this study, we investigated the function of Mig-6 in the uterine epithelium using a tissue-specific gene knockout strategy, in which floxed Mig-6 (Mig-6(f/f)) mice were crossed to Wnt7a-Cre mice (Wnt7a(cre+)Mig-6(f/f)). Wnt7a(cre+)Mig-6(f/f) mice developed endometrial hyperplasia and estrogen-dependent endometrial cancer, exhibiting increased proliferation in epithelial cells as well as apoptosis in subepithelial stromal cells. We documented increased expression of NOTCH1 and BIRC3 in epithelial cells of Wnt7a(cre+)Mig-6(f/f) mice and decreased expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) in stromal cells. Progesterone therapy controls endometrial growth and prevents endometrial cancer, but the effectiveness of progesterone as a treatment for women with endometrial cancer is less clear. We noted that the hyperplasic phenotype of Wnt7a(cre+)Mig-6(f/f) mice was prevented by progesterone treatment, whereas this treatment had no effect in PR(cre/+)Mig-6(f/f) mice where Mig-6 was deleted in both the epithelial and stromal compartments of the uterus. In contrast, activation of progesterone signaling in the stroma regulated proliferation and apoptosis in the epithelium via suppression of ER? signaling. In summary, our results establish that epithelial Mig-6 functions as a critical tumor suppressor that mediates the ability of progesterone to prevent the development of endometrial cancer.
Project description:Endometriosis is a major cause of infertility and pelvic pain, affecting more than 10% of reproductive-aged women. Progesterone resistance has been observed in the endometrium of women with this disease, as evidenced by alterations in progesterone-responsive gene and protein expression. cAMPResponse Element-Binding 3-like protein 1 (Creb3l1) has previously been identified as a progesterone receptor (PR) target gene in mouse uterus via high density DNA microarray analysis. However, CREB3L1 function has not been studied in the context of endometriosis and uterine biology. In this study, we validated progesterone (P4) regulation of Creb3l1 in the uteri of wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice. Furthermore, we observed that CREB3L1 expression was significantly higher in secretory phase human endometrium compared to proliferative phase and that CREB3L1 expression was significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Lastly, by transfecting CREB3L1 siRNA into cultured human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) prior to hormonal induction of in vitro decidualization, we showed that CREB3L1 is required for the decidualization process. Interestingly, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, critical factor for decidualization, was also significantly reduced in CREB3L1-silenced hESCs. It is known that hESCs from patients with endometriosis show impaired decidualization and that dysregulation of the P4-PR signaling axis is linked to a variety of endometrial diseases including infertility and endometriosis. Therefore, these results suggest that CREB3L1 is required for decidualization in mice and humans and may be linked to the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a P4-dependent manner.
Project description:Endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrial cells outside of the uterine cavity, is a major cause of infertility and pelvic pain, afflicting more than 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and lipopolysaccharide promotes the proliferation and invasion of endometriotic stromal cells. Cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) has high affinity for lipopolysaccharide and plays a critical role in defense against endotoxin shock. However, the function of CRISPLD2 has not been studied in endometriosis and uterine biology. Herein, we examined the expression of CRISPLD2 in endometrium from patients with and without endometriosis using immunohistochemistry. The expression of CRISPLD2 was higher in the secretory phase in human menstrual cycle compared to proliferative phase. The expression of CRISPLD2 was significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with endometriosis in the early secretory phase compared to women without endometriosis. The increase of CRISPLD2 expression at the early secretory and dysregulation of its expression in endometriosis suggest progesterone (P4) regulation of CRISPLD2. To investigate whether CRISPLD2 is regulated by P4, we examined the expression of the CRISPLD2 in the uteri of wild-type and progesterone receptor knock out (PRKO) mice. The expression of CRISPLD2 was significantly increased after P4 treatment in the wild-type mice. However, CRISPLD2 expression was significantly decreased in the (PRKO) mice treated with P4. During early pregnancy, the expression of CRISPLD2 was increased in decidua of implantation and post-implantation stages. CRISPLD2 levels were also increased in cultured human endometrial stromal cells during in vitro decidualization. These results suggest that the CRISPLD2 is a target of the progesterone receptor and may play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Project description:Progesterone (P4) signaling through its nuclear transcription factor, the progesterone receptor (PR), is essential for normal uterine function. Although deregulation of PR-mediated signaling is known to underscore uterine dysfunction and a number of endometrial pathologies, the early molecular mechanisms of this deregulation are unclear. To address this issue, we have defined the genome-wide PR cistrome in the murine uterus using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). In uteri of ovariectomized mice, we identified 6367 PR-binding sites in the absence of P4 ligand; however, this number increased at nearly 3-fold (18,432) after acute P4 exposure. Sequence analysis revealed that approximately 73% of these binding sites contain a progesterone response element or a half-site motif recognized by the PR. Many previously identified P4 target genes known to regulate uterine function were found to contain PR-binding sites, confirming the validity of our methodology. Interestingly, when the ChIP-seq data were coupled with our microarray expression data, we identified a novel regulatory role for uterine P4 in circadian rhythm gene expression, thereby uncovering a hitherto unexpected new circadian biology for P4 in this tissue. Further mining of the ChIP-seq data revealed Sox17 as a direct transcriptional PR target gene in the uterus. As a member of the Sox transcription factor family, Sox17 represents a potentially novel mediator of PR action in the murine uterus. Collectively, our first line of analysis of the uterine PR cistrome provides the first insights into the early molecular mechanisms that underpin normal uterine responsiveness to acute P4 exposure. Future analysis promises to reveal the PR interactome and, in turn, potential therapeutic targets for the diagnosis and/or treatment of endometrial dysfunction.