Alteration of specific cytokine expression patterns in patients with breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammation has been associated with aggressive tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of 26 kinds of inflammatory cytokine expression patterns among 185 patients with breast cancer and 54 healthy volunteers followed by chemometric analysis. We identified the specific cytokine expression patterns of breast cancer patients compared to healthy volunteers with (1) VEGF, IL-9, GM-CSF, IL-13, IL-4, and IFNγ, (2) IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-5, IL-7, IL-1α, GCSF, IL-1β, and TNFα and (3) IL-2, Eotaxin, MIP1β, MIP1α, IL-17, and bFGF. Among the patients with breast cancer, we identified the specific cytokine signature of metastatic patients compared to non-metastatic patients. We also established a mathematical model for distinguishing patients with breast cancer from healthy volunteers and metastatic patients from non-metastatic patients. This cytokine network analysis could provide new insights into early intervention and effective therapeutic strategy for patients with breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anticancer drugs can interact with the tumour microenvironment and their effects could be exploited to favour anticancer immune response. Eribulin contributes to tumour vasculature remodelling and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) modulation in experimental models and in humans. We performed a prospective, translational, exploratory analysis of the levels of circulating cytokines at different time points in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with eribulin. METHODS:TGF-?, tumour necrosis factor ?, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-21 and C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 levels were assessed in peripheral blood samples obtained from seven healthy volunteers and 41 patients at baseline (T0), after four cycles of eribulin (T1) and at disease progression (TPD). Baseline values and longitudinal changes in cytokine levels were then related to clinical outcome. RESULTS:In the 41 patients, high IL-6 and IL-8 (above the median) at T0 significantly correlated with worse survival. At T1, IL-21 significantly decreased in patients with TPD within the fourth course of treatment, compared with patients without progression. TGF-? and IL-8 above the median and IL-21 below the median at T1 significantly correlates with worse progression free survival (PFS). Patients exhibiting an increase of TGF-? or a decline of IL-21 between T0 and T1 showed a significantly worse PFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that only plasma TGF-? changes at T1 correlated with survival. At TPD, TGF-? significantly increased in all patients. CONCLUSIONS:We observed a significant correlation between TGF-? decline during eribulin treatment and outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Altogether, our data suggest that eribulin treatment might interfere with the tumour microenvironment.
Project description:Serum from one hundred and ten breast cancer patients and thirty healthy female volunteers, were prospectively collected and evaluated for serum levels of Shh and IL-6 using human Shh and IL-6 specific enzyme-linked immunoassays. All patients were regularly monitored for event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Overall outcome analysis was based on serum Shh and IL-6 levels. In patients with progressive metastatic BC, both serum Shh and IL-6 concentrations were elevated in 44% (29 of 65) and 63% (41 of 65) of patients, respectively, at a statistically significant level [Shh (p?=?0.0001) and IL-6 (p?=?0.0001)] compared to the low levels in healthy volunteers. Serum levels tended to increase with metastatic progression and lymph node positivity. High serum Shh and IL-6 levels were associated with poor EFS and OS opposite to the negative or lower levels in serum Shh and IL-6. The elevated levels of both serum Shh and IL-6 were mainly observed in BC patients who had a significantly higher risk of early recurrence and bone metastasis, and associated with a worse survival for patients with progressive metastatic BC. Further studies are warranted for validating these biomarkers as prognostic tools in a larger patient cohort and in a longer follow-up study.
Project description:Few studies have been conducted examining cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients compared to healthy volunteers. The goals of this study were: 1) to report original data detailing cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) diagnosis and 10 healthy controls and 2) to conduct a meta-analysis of the available data on cytokine levels in the CSF of patients with SSD compared to healthy controls, including our new data. Cytokine concentrations were measured using the Q-plex Human Cytokine Screen array in CSF of 10 patients with SSD and 10 healthy volunteers. For the meta-analysis, an electronic PubMed and Google Scholar search without restrictions was conducted for articles that reported on cytokine levels in CSF in patients with an SSD compared to healthy controls. Our original data revealed statistically significant increases in levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) in the CSF of patients with an SSD compared to healthy volunteers. Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in patients compared to healthy volunteers. Effect sizes between treated and untreated patients for IL-6 were of similar magnitude. However, IL-6 levels were higher in early stage schizophrenia patients compared to chronic schizophrenia patients. Studies with larger sample sizes, comprehensive assessments and ideally in the context of a randomized controlled intervention to minimize the impact of confounding factors are needed to fully understand the role of cytokines and inflammatory markers in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia.
Project description:This study compares the sensitivities and specificities of three techniques for the detection of circulating epithelial cells in the blood of patients with breast cancer. The number of circulating epithelial cells present in the blood of 40 patients with metastatic breast cancer and 20 healthy volunteers was determined by: immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and laser scanning cytometry (LSC), cell filtration and LSC and a multimarker real-time RT-PCR assay. Numbers of cytokeratin-positive cells identified and expression of three PCR markers were significantly higher in the blood of patients with breast cancer than in healthy volunteers. Using the upper 95% confidence interval of cells detected in controls to determine positive patient samples: 30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer were positive following cell filtration, 48% following IMS, and 60, 45 and 35% using real-time RT-PCR for cytokeratin 19, mammaglobin and prolactin-inducible peptide. Samples were significantly more likely to be positive for at least one PCR marker than by cell filtration (83 vs 30%, P<0.001) or IMS (83 vs 48%, P<0.001). The use of a multimarker real-time RT-PCR assay was therefore found to be the most sensitive technique for the detection of circulating epithelial cells in the blood of patients with breast cancer.
Project description:While the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is known to activate natural killer (NK) cells, its precise role in cancer is controversial. In this study, we investigated the role of tumor-derived IL-18 on peripheral blood NK cells in breast cancer patients.In breast cancer cell lines, IL-18 was expressed and secreted in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HCC-70 but not in MCF-7 cells. The immature and non-cytotoxic CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cell fraction was increased following co-culture with MDA-MB-231 cells, and this increase was not observed with tumor cells transfected with siRNA for IL-18 or in MCF-7 cells. In addition, tumor-derived IL-18 increased PD-1 expression on CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells, although no effect on PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was observed. Among EBC patients, serum IL-18 levels were significantly increased in those with a TNBC subtype compared to levels from patients with other subtypes, and the IL-18 levels were strongly associated with poor survival. Similarly, serum IL-18 and CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells were also increased in patients with metastatic TNBC who had progressive disease following cytotoxic chemotherapy.We performed in vitro experiments in breast cancer cell lines, measured cytokine levels by RT-qPCR, western blot, and ELISA, and analyzed NK cell subsets by flow cytometry. For clinical validation, we collected and analyzed blood sample from patients with early breast cancer (EBC, N = 545) and metastatic breast cancer (MBC, N = 42).Our data revealed that tumor-derived IL-18 is associated with bad prognosis in patients with TNBC. Tumor-derived IL-18 increased the immunosuppressive CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cell fraction and induced PD-1 expression on these NK cells.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression. As such, they regulate a large number of cellular pathways, and deregulation or altered expression of miRNAs is associated with tumorigenesis. In the current study, we evaluated the feasibility and clinical utility of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for the detection and staging of breast cancer. METHODS: miRNAs were extracted from a set of 84 tissue samples from patients with breast cancer and eight normal tissue samples obtained after breast-reductive surgery. After reverse transcription and preamplification, 768 miRNAs were profiled by using the TaqMan low-density arrays. After data normalization, unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (UHCA) was used to investigate global differences in miRNA expression between cancerous and normal samples. With fold-change analysis, the most discriminating miRNAs between both tissue types were selected, and their expression was analyzed on serum samples from 20 healthy volunteers and 75 patients with breast cancer, including 16 patients with untreated metastatic breast cancer. miRNAs were extracted from 200 ?l of serum, reverse transcribed, and analyzed in duplicate by using polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: UHCA showed major differences in miRNA expression between tissue samples from patients with breast cancer and tissue samples from breast-reductive surgery (P < 0.0001). Generally, miRNA expression in cancerous samples tends to be repressed when compared with miRNA expression in healthy controls (P = 0.0685). The four most discriminating miRNAs by fold-change (miR-215, miR-299-5p, miR-411, and miR-452) were selected for further analysis on serum samples. All miRNAs at least tended to be differentially expressed between serum samples from patients with cancer and serum samples from healthy controls (miR-215, P = 0.094; miR-299-5P, P = 0.019; miR-411, P = 0.002; and miR-452, P = 0.092). For all these miRNAs, except for miR-452, the greatest difference in expression was observed between serum samples from healthy volunteers and serum samples from untreated patients with metastatic breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a basis for the establishment of miRNAs as biomarkers for the detection and eventually staging of breast cancer through blood-borne testing. We identified and tested a set of putative biomarkers of breast cancer and demonstrated that altered levels of these miRNAs in serum from patients with breast cancer are particularly associated with the presence of metastatic disease.
Project description:A crystal structure of the signaling complex between human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and a ligand binding region of GCSF receptor (GCSF-R), has been determined to 2.8 A resolution. The GCSF:GCSF-R complex formed a 2:2 stoichiometry by means of a cross-over interaction between the Ig-like domains of GCSF-R and GCSF. The conformation of the complex is quite different from that between human GCSF and the cytokine receptor homologous domain of mouse GCSF-R, but similar to that of the IL-6/gp130 signaling complex. The Ig-like domain cross-over structure necessary for GCSF-R activation is consistent with previously reported thermodynamic and mutational analyses.
Project description:A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307), patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692) and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189) were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (?35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort). In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14%) in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71) in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.
Project description:The presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) of breast cancer patients is prognostic for early relapse. In the present study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles from BM cells of breast cancer patients to identify molecular signatures associated with DTCs and their relevance to metastatic outcome. We analyzed BM from 30 patients with stage II/III breast cancer by gene expression profiling and correlated expression with metastatic disease development. A candidate gene, PITX2, was analyzed for expression and phenotype in breast cancer cell lines. PITX2 was knocked down in the MDAMB231 cell lines for gene expression analysis and cell invasiveness. Expression of various signaling pathway molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR. We found that the expression of Paired-like Homeobox Transcription factor-2 (PITX2) is absent in the BM of normal healthy volunteers and, when detected in the BM of breast cancer patients, is significantly correlated with early metastatic disease development (p = 0.0062). Suppression of PITX2 expression significantly reduced invasiveness in MDAMB231 cells. Three genes-NKD1, LEF1, and DKK4-were significantly downregulated in response to PITX2 suppression. Expression of PITX2 in BM of early-stage breast cancer patients is associated with risk for early disease recurrence. Furthermore, PITX2 likely plays a role in the metastatic process through its effect on the expression of genes associated with the Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:Analysis of tumor-educated changes in peripheral blood monocytes at the gene expression level. We analyzed if gene expression in monocytes of patients with colorectal cancer is differential from those of healthy volunteers and found a diagnostic signature that allowed to accurately discriminate patients with colorectal cancer from healthy individuals. Peripheral blood monocytes from 93 distinct individuals are profiled on 8 beadchips. The individuals belong to one of three groups: healthy volunteers (38), patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (27) or patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (28).