The ATP-dependent RNA helicase, DDX42 interacts with paxillin and regulates apoptosis and polarization of Ba/F3 cells.
ABSTRACT: Paxillin is a focal adhesion adaptor protein, heavily phosphorylated at multiple tyrosine residues, as well as at serine 273 (S273), and is known to be critical for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell migration. We previously found that paxillin plays a regulatory role in IL-3-dependent survival of Ba/F3 cells, a mouse pro-B cell line. In this study, by using overexpressed His6 tagged-paxillin as a bait, we found that DDX42, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, interacted with paxillin, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted polarization of Ba/F3 cells. His6 tagged-paxillin was stably overexpressed in Ba/F3 cells, pulled-down from cell lysates with Ni+-NTA beads, and analyzed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE followed by LC-MS. We found that DDX42 co-precipitated with paxillin, as demonstrated by western blotting analysis of His6 tagged-paxillin precipitates with anti-DDX42 antibodies and His6 tagged-DDX42 precipitates with anti-paxillin antibodies. In addition, we observed a preferential interaction of DDX42 with the paxillin mutant, S273A, compared to the S273D mutant. Furthermore, DDX42 overexpression in Ba/F3 cells delayed the apoptosis induced by IL-3 deprivation and promoted restoration of the elongated shape in Ba/F3 cells induced by IL-3 re-supply after a 6 h-deprivation. These results suggested that DDX42 interacts with paxillin and participates in IL-3-dependent cell survival, as well as in the cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying polarization of Ba/F3 cells.
Project description:We report a patient with T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and a t(7;8)(q22;p11). CUX1 was identified as the fusion partner of FGFR1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and 5' RACE-PCR. We further investigated this novel FGFR1 fusion using the interleukin-3 (IL-3) dependent Ba/F3 cell line and demonstrated IL-3 independent cell growth of CUX1-FGFR1 expressing cells. TKI258 and PKC412 potently inhibited proliferation of CUX1-FGFR1 transformed Ba/F3 cells. This growth inhibition was shown to be mediated by inhibition of CUX1-FGFR1 kinase activity for TKI258 but not PKC412. In summary, we identified a novel CUX1-FGFR1 fusion oncogene in a patient with the 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome and demonstrated its transforming potential in the Ba/F3 cell line. Our in vitro data support the further investigation of TKI258 for the treatment of constitutively active FGFR1 fusion proteins.
Project description:The identification and functional validation of potentially oncogenic mutations in leukemia is an essential step toward a future of personalized targeted therapy. To assess the oncogenic capacity of individual mutations, reliable and scalable in vitro experimental approaches are required. Since 1988, researchers have used the IL-3 dependent Ba/F3 transformation assay to validate the oncogenic potential of mutations to drive factor-independent growth. Here we report a previously unrecognized phenomenon whereby Ba/F3 cells, engineered to express weakly transforming mutations, present with additional acquired mutations in the expressed transgene following factor withdrawal. Using four mutations with known transformative capacity in three cytokine receptors (CSF2RB, CSF3R and IL7R), we demonstrate that the mutated receptors are highly susceptible to acquiring additional mutations. These acquired mutations of unknown functional significance are selected by factor withdrawal but appear to exist prior to the removal of growth factor. This anomaly has the potential to confound efforts to both validate and characterize oncogenic mutations in leukemia, particularly when it is not standard practice to sequence validate cDNAs from transformed Ba/F3 lines. We present specific recommendations to detect and mitigate this phenomenon in future research using Ba/F3 transformation assays, along with methods to make the Ba/F3 assay more quantitative.
Project description:Internal tandem duplication (ITD) in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Quizartinib, gilteritinib, and midostaurin are inhibitors against FLT3-ITD that have good efficacy for FLT3-ITD-positive AML patients. Long-term administration leads to drug resistance through acquired tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations in FLT3-ITD, such as N676K, F691L, D835V, and Y842C. Here, our screen to detect inhibitors capable of overcoming resistance to FLT3 inhibitors identified heat shock protein (HSP) 90 inhibitors as potential candidates. Although Ba/F3 cells expressing FLT3-ITD with TKD mutations (Ba/F3-ITD+N676K, Ba/F3-ITD+F691L, Ba/F3-ITD+D835V, and Ba/F3-ITD+Y842C) showed various resistance patterns to FLT3 inhibitors compared with Ba/F3-ITD cells that express FLT3-ITD lacking TKD mutations, they were more sensitive to HSP90 inhibitors than Ba/F3 cells. Notably, the Ba/F3-ITD+D835V cells were the most sensitive to HSP90 inhibitors. Treatment with HSP90 inhibitors downregulated FLT3 and its downstream signaling and induced G1 arrest followed by apoptosis in Ba/F3-ITD+N676K, Ba/F3-ITD+F691L, Ba/F3-ITD+Y842C, and especially Ba/F3-ITD+D835V cells at lower concentrations compared with Ba/F3-ITD cells. The downregulation of FLT3-ITD+D835V was caused by rapid proteolysis in autophagy. Similar results were also observed in the quizartinib-resistant MV4-11 cells, QR1 and QR2, which were established by culturing cells in the presence of quizartinib and harbored FLT3-ITD+D835H and FLT3-ITD+D835V, respectively, in a single allele. Interestingly, the efficacies of HSP90 inhibitors in QR cells are reversely correlated with that of quizartib, but not to gilteritinib and midostaurin. Collectively, HSP90 inhibitors are good candidates to overcome drug resistance in AML with various FLT3-ITD TKD mutations.
Project description:Murine Ba/F3 cells were transduced with retroviral vectors (pMSCV-IRES-GFP) expressing hCALR or hCALR-del52 and treated with 1ng/ml interleukin-3 (IL-3). RNA-seq was performed in triplicates, with on average 109 M reads per group (36 M reads per replicate). Overall design: Three replicates of Ba/F3 cells constitutively expressing hCALR or hCALR-del52 were treated with IL-3 and subjected to RNA-seq, followed by differential expression analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inhibition of Akt signaling is considered one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for many cancers. However, rational target-orientated approaches to cell based drug screens for anti-cancer agents have historically been compromised by the notorious absence of suitable control cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to address this fundamental problem, we have developed BaFiso, a live-cell screening platform to identify specific inhibitors of this pathway. BaFiso relies on the co-culture of isogenic cell lines that have been engineered to sustain interleukin-3 independent survival of the parental Ba/F3 cells, and that are individually tagged with different fluorescent proteins. Whilst in the first of these two lines cell survival in the absence of IL-3 is dependent on the expression of activated Akt, the cells expressing constitutively-activated Stat5 signaling display IL-3 independent growth and survival in an Akt-independent manner. Small molecules can then be screened in these lines to identify inhibitors that rescue IL-3 dependence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BaFiso measures differential cell survival using multiparametric live cell imaging and permits selective inhibitors of Akt signaling to be identified. BaFiso is a platform technology suitable for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of IL-3 mediated survival signaling.
Project description:We have identified a cDNA from a human phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphoblast library encoding a protein that binds 125I-labeled human interleukin 12 (125I-huIL-12) with a Kd of about 5 nM when expressed in COS-7 cells. When coexpressed in COS-7 cells with the previously identified IL-12 beta receptor (IL-12R beta) protein, two classes of 125I-huIL-12 binding sites were measured with Kds of about 55 pM and 8 nM, corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites seen on phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphoblasts. This newly identified huIL-12R subunit is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, with closest resemblance to the beta-type cytokine receptor gp130 and the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Consequently, we have reclassified the previously identified IL-12R beta subunit as huIL-12R beta 1 and designated the newly identified subunit as huIL-12R beta 2. huIL-12R beta 2 is an 862-amino acid type I transmembrane protein with a 595-amino-acid-long extracellular domain and a cytoplasmic tail of 216 amino acids that contains three tyrosine residues. A cDNA encoding the mouse homolog of the huIL12R beta 2 protein has also been isolated. Human and mouse IL-12R beta 2 proteins show a 68% amino acid sequence identity. When expressed in COS-7 cells, huIL-12R beta 2 exists as a disulfide-linked oligomer with an apparent monomeric molecular weight of 130 kDa. Coexpression of the two identified IL-12R subunits in Ba/F3 cells conferred IL-12 responsiveness, and clones of these cotransfected Ba/F3 cells that grew continuously in the presence of IL-12 were isolated and designated LJM-1 cells. LJM-1 cells exhibited dose-dependent proliferation in response to huIL-12, with an ED50 of about 1 pM huIL-12. Interestingly, Ba/F3 cells transfected with IL-12R beta 2 alone proliferated in response to huIL-12 with an ED50 of about 50 pM, although a role for endogenous mouse IL-12R beta 1 in IL-12 signal transduction in these transfectants cannot be ruled out. These results demonstrate that the functional high-affinity IL-12R is composed of at least two beta-type cytokine receptor subunits, each independently exhibiting a low affinity for IL-12.
Project description:Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine on their surface as an "eat me" signal, and macrophages respond by engulfing them. Although several molecules that specifically bind phosphatidylserine have been identified, the molecular mechanism that triggers engulfment remains elusive. Here, using a mouse pro-B cell line, Ba/F3, that grows in suspension, we reconstituted the engulfment of apoptotic cells. The parental Ba/F3 cells did not engulf apoptotic cells. Ba/F3 transformants expressing T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 4 (Tim4), a type I membrane protein that specifically binds phosphatidylserine, efficiently bound apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner but did not engulf them. However, Ba/F3 transformants expressing both Tim4 and the integrin ?(v)?(3) complex bound to and engulfed apoptotic cells in the presence of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor factor VIII (MFG-E8), a secreted protein that can bind phosphatidylserine and integrin ?(v)?(3). These results indicate that the engulfment of apoptotic cells proceeds in two steps: Tim4 tethers apoptotic cells, and the integrin ?(v)?(3) complex mediates engulfment in coordination with MFG-E8. A similar two-step engulfment of apoptotic cells was observed with mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, the Tim4/integrin-mediated engulfment by the Ba/F3 cells was enhanced in cells expressing Rac1 and Rab5, suggesting that this system well reproduces the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA from Ba/F3 cells with U2AF35(S34F) expressing or parental Ba/F3 Overall design: Examination of alternative splicing between U2AF35(S34F) expressing and parental Ba/F3
Project description:STAT5 controls essential cellular functions and is encoded by two genes, Stat5a and Stat5b. To provide insight to the mechanisms linking hematologic malignancy to STAT5 activation/regulation of target genes, we identified STAT5 target genes and focused on Dpf3 gene, which encodes for an epigenetic factor. Dpf3 expression was induced upon IL-3 stimulation in Ba/F3 cells, while strong binding of both STAT5a and STAT5b was detected in its promoter. Reduced expression of Dpf3 was detected in Ba/F3 cells with Stat5a and Stat5b knock-down, suggesting that this gene is positively regulated by STAT5, upon IL-3 stimulation. Furthermore, this gene was significantly up-regulated in CLL patients, where DPF3 gene/protein up-regulation and strong STAT5 binding to the DPF3 promoter, correlated with increased STAT5 activation, mainly in non-malignant myeloid cells (granulocytes). Our findings provide insights in the STAT5 dependent transcriptional regulation of Dpf3, and demonstrate for the first time increased STAT5 activation in granulocytes of CLL patients. Novel routes of investigation are opened to facilitate the understanding of the role of STAT5 activation in the communication between non-malignant myeloid and malignant B-cells, and the functions of STAT5 target genes networks in CLL biology.
Project description:Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations.