Effects of long-term cysteamine treatment in patients with cystinosis.
ABSTRACT: Cystinosis is a rare autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is caused by mutations in the CTNS gene that encodes the cystine transporter, cystinosin, which leads to lysosomal cystine accumulation. Patients with infantile nephropathic cystinosis, the most common and most severe clinical form of cystinosis, commonly present with renal Fanconi syndrome by 6-12 months of age, and without specific treatment, almost all will develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by 10-12 years of age. Early corneal cystine crystal deposition is a hallmark of the disease. Cystinosis also presents with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., vomiting, decreased appetite, and feeding difficulties) and severe growth retardation and may affect several other organs over time, including the eye, thyroid gland, gonads, pancreas, muscles, bone marrow, liver, nervous system, lungs, and bones. Cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine orally is the only specific targeted therapy available for managing cystinosis and needs to be combined with cysteamine eye drops for corneal disease involvement. In patients with early treatment initiation and good compliance to therapy, long-term cysteamine treatment delays progression to ESRD, significantly improves growth, decreases the frequency and severity of extrarenal complications, and is associated with extended life expectancy. Therefore, early diagnosis of cystinosis and adequate life-long treatment with cysteamine are essential for preventing end-organ damage and improving the overall prognosis in these patients.
Project description:Therapeutic use of transmembrane proteins is limited because of irreversible denaturation when away from their native lipid membrane. Mutations in lysosomal membrane transport proteins cause many lethal disorders including cystinosis which results from mutations in CTNS, which codes for the lysosomal cystine transport protein, cystinosin. Cystinosin-deficient fibroblasts, including keratocytes (corneal fibroblasts) accumulate lysosomal cystine. Cystinosis patients develop highly painful corneal cystine crystals, resulting in severe visually debilitating photophobia. The only available therapy is daily treatment with cysteamine eye drops. We have previously shown that microvesicles containing functional cystinosin are spontaneously produced by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) with baculovirus containing human wt CTNS. Infecting Sf9 cells for 3 days at a MOI of 1 yields 1011microvesicles /ml with a modal diameter of 90 nm. Addition of these vesicles to cultures of cystinotic fibroblasts produces cystine depletion over the course of 96 h, which persists for 2 weeks. In this paper we show that addition of such microvesicles containing cystinosinGFP to ex vivo rabbit ocular globes yields punctate perinuclear green fluorescence in the corneal keratocytes. These results support potential therapeutic use of these cystinosin containing microvesicles in treating cystinotic corneal keratopathy with the advantage of administering twice/month instead of daily topical administration.
Project description:Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease with an unclear enzymatic defect causing lysosomal cystine accumulation with no corresponding elevation of plasma cystine levels leading to multisystemic dysfunction. The systemic manifestations include a proximal renal tubular defect (Fanconi-like), endocrinal disturbances, eye involvements, with corneal, conjunctival and retinal depositions, and neurological manifestations in the form of brain and muscle dysfunction. Most of the long-term ill effects of cystinosis are observed particularly in patients with long survival as a result of a renal transplant. Its responsible CTNS gene that encodes the lysosomal cystine carrier protein (cystinosin) has been mapped on the short arm of chromosome 17 (Ch17 p13). There are three clinical forms based on the onset of main symptoms: nephropathic infantile form, nephropathic juvenile form and non-nephropathic adult form with predominant ocular manifestations. Avoidance of eye damage from sun exposure, use of cystine chelators (cysteamine) and finally renal transplantation are the main treatment lines. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for carrier parents is pivotal in the prevention of recurrence.
Project description:Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive storage disorder characterized by defective lysosomal efflux of cystine due to mutations in the CTNS gene encoding the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin. Lysosomal cystine accumulation leads to crystal formation and functional impairment of multiple organs. Moreover, cystinosis is the most common inherited cause of renal Fanconi syndrome in children. Oral cysteamine therapy delays disease progression by reducing intracellular cystine levels. However, because cysteamine does not correct all complications of cystinosis, including Fanconi syndrome, we hypothesized that cystinosin could have novel roles in addition to transporting cystine out of the lysosome. By coimmunoprecipitation experiments and mass spectrometry, we found cystinosin interacts with almost all components of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and the Ragulator complex and with the small GTPases Ras-related GTP-binding protein A (RagA) and RagC. Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway was downregulated in proximal tubular cell lines derived from Ctns(-/-) mice. Decrease of lysosomal cystine levels by cysteamine did not rescue mTORC1 activation in these cells, suggesting that the downregulation of mTORC1 is due to the absence of cystinosin rather than to the accumulation of cystine. Our results show a dual role for cystinosin as a cystine transporter and as a component of the mTORC1 pathway, and provide an explanation for the appearance of Fanconi syndrome in cystinosis. Furthermore, this study highlights the need to develop new treatments not dependent on lysosomal cystine depletion alone for this devastating disease.
Project description:Nephropathic cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding cystine transporter cystinosin that results in accumulation of amino acid cystine in the lysosomes throughout the body and especially affects kidneys. Early manifestations of the disease include renal Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. Current therapy of cystinosis is based on cystine-lowering drug cysteamine that postpones the disease progression but offers no cure for the Fanconi syndrome. We studied the mechanisms of impaired reabsorption in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) deficient for cystinosin and investigated the endo-lysosomal compartments of cystinosin-deficient PTEC by means of light and electron microscopy. We demonstrate that cystinosin-deficient cells had abnormal shape and distribution of the endo-lysosomal compartments and impaired endocytosis, with decreased surface expression of multiligand receptors and delayed lysosomal cargo processing. Treatment with cysteamine improved surface expression and lysosomal cargo processing but did not lead to a complete restoration and had no effect on the abnormal morphology of endo-lysosomal compartments. The obtained results improve our understanding of the mechanism of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and indicate that impaired protein reabsorption can, at least partially, be explained by abnormal trafficking of endosomal vesicles.
2015-01-01 | S-EPMC4374958 | BioStudies
Project description:Nephropathic cystinosis is a severe monogenic kidney disorder caused by mutations in CTNS, encoding the lysosomal transporter cystinosin, resulting in lysosomal cystine accumulation. The sole treatment, cysteamine, slows down the disease progression, but does not correct the established renal proximal tubulopathy. Here, we developed a new therapeutic strategy by applying omics to expand our knowledge on the complexity of the disease and prioritize drug targets in cystinosis. We identified alpha-ketoglutarate as a potential metabolite to bridge cystinosin loss to autophagy, apoptosis, and kidney proximal tubule impairment in cystinosis. This insight combined with a drug screen revealed a bicalutamide-cysteamine combination treatment as a novel dual target pharmacological approach for the phenotypical correction of cystinotic kidney proximal tubule cells, patient-derived kidney tubuloids and cystinotic zebrafish.
Project description:Cystinosis is the most common hereditary cause of renal Fanconi syndrome in children. It is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding for the carrier protein cystinosin, transporting cystine out of the lysosomal compartment. Defective cystinosin function leads to intra-lysosomal cystine accumulation in all body cells and organs. The kidneys are initially affected during the first year of life through proximal tubular damage followed by progressive glomerular damage and end stage renal failure during mid-childhood if not treated. Other affected organs include eyes, thyroid, pancreas, gonads, muscles and CNS. Leucocyte cystine assay is the cornerstone for both diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the disease. Several lines of treatment are available for cystinosis including the cystine depleting agent cysteamine, renal replacement therapy, hormonal therapy and others; however, no curative treatment is yet available. In the current review we will discuss the most important clinical features of the disease, advantages and disadvantages of the current diagnostic and therapeutic options and the main topics of future research in cystinosis.
Project description:Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders. It is caused by a defect in the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin, which results in an accumulation of cystine in all organs. Despite the ubiquitous expression of cystinosin, a renal Fanconi syndrome is often the first manifestation of cystinosis, usually presenting within the first year of life and characterized by the early and severe dysfunction of proximal tubule cells, highlighting the unique vulnerability of this cell type. The current therapy for cystinosis, cysteamine, facilitates lysosomal cystine clearance and greatly delays progression to kidney failure but is unable to correct the Fanconi syndrome. This Review summarizes decades of studies that have fostered a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the renal Fanconi syndrome associated with cystinosis. These studies have unraveled some of the early molecular changes that occur before the onset of tubular atrophy and identified a role for cystinosin beyond cystine transport, in endolysosomal trafficking and proteolysis, lysosomal clearance, autophagy and the regulation of energy balance. These studies have also led to the identification of new potential therapeutic targets and here, we outline the potential role of stem cell therapy for cystinosis and provide insights into the mechanism of haematopoietic stem cell-mediated kidney protection.
Project description:Nephropathic cystinosis is a severe monogenetic kidney disorder caused by mutations in CTNS, encoding the lysosomal transporter cystinosin, resulting in lysosomal cystine accumulation. The sole treatment, cysteamine, slows down the disease progression, but does not correct the established proximal tubulopathy. Here, we developed a new therapeutic strategy by applying an omics-based strategy to expand our knowledge on the complexity of the disease and prioritize drug targets in cystinosis. We identified alpha-ketoglutarate as a key metabolite linking cystinosin loss, lysosomal autophagy defect and proximal tubular impairment in cystinosis. This insight offered a bicalutamide-cysteamine combination treatment as a novel dual target pharmacological approach for the phenotypical correction of cystinotic proximal tubule cells, patient-derived kidney tubuloids and cystinotic zebrafish.
Project description:Cystinosin, the lysosomal cystine exporter defective in cystinosis, is the founding member of a family of heptahelical membrane proteins related to bacteriorhodopsin and characterized by a duplicated motif termed the PQ loop. PQ-loop proteins are more frequent in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes; except for cystinosin, their molecular function remains elusive. In this study, we report that three yeast PQ-loop proteins of unknown function, Ypq1, Ypq2, and Ypq3, localize to the vacuolar membrane and are involved in homeostasis of cationic amino acids (CAAs). We also show that PQLC2, a mammalian PQ-loop protein closely related to yeast Ypq proteins, localizes to lysosomes and catalyzes a robust, electrogenic transport that is selective for CAAs and strongly activated at low extracytosolic pH. Heterologous expression of PQLC2 at the yeast vacuole rescues the resistance phenotype of an ypq2 mutant to canavanine, a toxic analog of arginine efficiently transported by PQLC2. Finally, PQLC2 transports a lysine-like mixed disulfide that serves as a chemical intermediate in cysteamine therapy of cystinosis, and PQLC2 gene silencing trapped this intermediate in cystinotic cells. We conclude that PQLC2 and Ypq1-3 proteins are lysosomal/vacuolar exporters of CAAs and suggest that small-molecule transport is a conserved feature of the PQ-loop protein family, in agreement with its distant similarity to SWEET sugar transporters and to the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier. The elucidation of PQLC2 function may help improve cysteamine therapy. It may also clarify the origin of CAA abnormalities in Batten disease.
Project description:Metabolite accumulation in lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) results in impaired cell function and multi-systemic disease. Although substrate reduction and lysosomal overload-decreasing therapies can ameliorate disease progression, the significance of lysosomal overload-independent mechanisms in the development of cellular dysfunction is unknown for most LSDs. Here, we identify a mechanism of impaired chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in cystinosis, a LSD caused by defects in the cystine transporter cystinosin (CTNS) and characterized by cystine lysosomal accumulation. We show that, different from other LSDs, autophagosome number is increased, but macroautophagic flux is not impaired in cystinosis while mTOR activity is not affected. Conversely, the expression and localization of the CMA receptor LAMP2A are abnormal in CTNS-deficient cells and degradation of the CMA substrate GAPDH is defective in Ctns(-/-) mice. Importantly, cysteamine treatment, despite decreasing lysosomal overload, did not correct defective CMA in Ctns(-/-) mice or LAMP2A mislocalization in cystinotic cells, which was rescued by CTNS expression instead, suggesting that cystinosin is important for CMA activity. In conclusion, CMA impairment contributes to cell malfunction in cystinosis, highlighting the need for treatments complementary to current therapies that are based on decreasing lysosomal overload.