Phase II trial of VEGFR2 inhibitor apatinib for metastatic sarcoma: focus on efficacy and safety.
ABSTRACT: Apatinib (YN968D1) is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). We conducted a single-arm, nonrandomized phase II study (NCT03121846) to assess the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with stage IV sarcoma. We recruited 64 patients with stage IV sarcoma who had failed chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival rate (PFR), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) at week 12. Treatment-related adverse effects (AEs) were evaluated. Fifty-nine patients were assessed for efficacy and 64 patients for AEs. The median PFS was 7.93 months. At 12 weeks, the PFR was 74%, the ORR was 16.95% (10/59), and the DCR was 86.44% (51/59). The final ORR was 15.25% (9/59) and the DCR was 57.63% (34/59). Notably, 22 patients (34.38%) who developed hypertension, hand-foot-skin reaction, or proteinuria had significantly longer OS than those without these AEs (18.20 vs. 10.73 months; P?=?0.002). We conclude that apatinib is effective and well tolerated in patients with advanced sarcoma. The development of hypertension, hand-foot-skin reaction, or proteinuria may indicate a favorable prognosis, representing a novel finding in sarcoma patients.
Project description:Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the treatment of stage IV osteogenic sarcoma after chemotherapy failure through a single-arm, prospective, and open clinical phase II study. Methods: Information on 34 patients with stage IV osteogenic sarcoma treated with apatinib after failure of chemotherapy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between September 2015 and December 2019 was collected and analyzed. The participants included 23 males and 11 females, with an average age of 35.24 years (11-73 years). The objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), PFS rate (PFR), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. The treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and safety of apatinib were also evaluated. Results: Of the 34 patients, 33 were able to be evaluated for efficacy. One patient received apatinib treatment for less than one cycle; therefore, only safety analysis was performed. The 12-week clinical evaluation showed that 2 patients had a partial response (PR), 24 patients had stable disease (SD), and 7 patients had progressive disease (PD). The ORR, DCR, and PFR at 12 weeks were 6.06% (2/33), 78.79% (26/33), and 82%, respectively. By the end of the follow-up, 6 patients had SD (18.18%, 6/33), 27 patients had PD (81.82%, 27/33), and 15 patients died because of disease progression (45.45%, 15/33). The ORR was 0 (0/33), the DCR was 18.18% (6/33), and the median PFS (mPFS) was 7.89 months (95% CI: 4.56-11.21). The median OS (mOS) was 17.61 months (95% CI: 10.85-24.37). The most common treatment-related AEs were hand-foot syndrome (35.29%, 12/34), proteinuria (32.35%, 11/34), and hypertension (32.35%, 11/34). Conclusions: Apatinib is effective and well tolerated in stage IV osteogenic sarcoma patients after chemotherapy failure.
Project description:Background and purpose:Apatinib is a novel, oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR-2. Recent clinical trials have revealed its broad-spectrum anticancer effect. However, most recent studies of apatinib have involved single-arm studies with insufficient cases, different doses of drugs, and different incidences of adverse events (AEs), which has resulted in a lack of accurate measurement of the efficacy and safety of apatinib. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib. Methods:In total, 21 studies from five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], and Cochrane Library) were included in this meta-analysis. All statistical analyses in this meta-analysis were performed using Stata 14.0 software. We used objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) to evaluate the efficacy of apatinib for five major types of solid tumors. Additionally, we used the total incidence of AEs and the incidence of the three most common grade 3-4 AEs to evaluate the safety of apatinib. Results:The pooled results for the efficacy of apatinib in the treatment of different types of solid tumors revealed that patients treated with apatinib exhibited good disease control. In addition, it was likely that an increased dose of apatinib resulted in an increased ORR in lung and breast cancer and an increased DCR in liver and gastric cancer. Although AEs appeared in 84% of patients included in this meta-analysis, most of these AEs were of grades 1-2 and were well tolerated and controlled. The most common grade 3-4 AEs included hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, and proteinuria. Importantly, there were no significant differences in these grade 3-4 AEs with higher doses of apatinib. Conclusion:Apatinib is a novel VEGFR-2 inhibitor with proven efficacy and safety for solid tumors. The meta-analysis reveals the broad-spectrum anticancer effect of apatinib.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apatinib is an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Some clinical trials have demonstrated that apatinib is efficacious against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to probe efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. DESIGN:Multicenter, prospective, single arm study. SETTING:Three teaching hospitals centers in the Sichuan. PARTICIPANTS:Fourteen patients with stage IVA/B nonsquamous NSCLC had previously received at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. INTERVENTION:Patients who were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 were given docetaxel (75?mg/m, i.v., d1) plus oral apatinib (250?mg/d), 4 weeks as one cycle, until disease progression or intolerance to adverse events (AE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints comprised objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and AE incidence rate. RESULTS:All patients carried adenocarcinoma by pathological type. The median follow-up duration was 9.76 months. Out of 14 cases, 12 were evaluable, showing ORR of 33.33%, DCR of 66.67%, DCR of 50% in cases with brain metastasis, median PFS of 2.92 months (95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and 6-month OS of 80%. Primary AEs encompassed: leukopenia in 7 cases (58.33%), hand-foot skin reaction in 5 cases (41.67%), and diarrhea in 4 cases (33.33%). Among them, grade 3 AEs were: leukopenia in 4 cases (33.33%), and hand-foot skin reaction in 1 case (8.33%). No grade 4/5 AEs were reported. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted respectively for PFS and OS. These factors encompassed: gender, age, gene mutations, clinical stage, ECOG scores, quantity of metastatic foci, brain metastasis, and hand-foot skin reaction. Results demonstrated zero risk factors for PFS or OS. CONCLUSION:Apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, is effective and safe against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, with good tolerance profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03416231.
Project description:Background: Camrelizumab (SHR1210) is a high-affinity, humanized immunoglobulin programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody. It was developed by Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. Ltd. and has been approved for relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients and hepatocellular carcinoma patients in China. Apatinib is an orally administered vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has been approved for advanced gastric adenocarcinoma or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma in China. Camrelizumab alone and its combination with apatinib have been used in the treatment of various solid cancers. Methods: We searched Embase, PubMed, and other databases with the keyword “camrelizumab” or “SHR1210,” and evaluated the safety and efficacy data of the involved studies. Adverse events (AEs) mentioned in at least two studies were summarized, including any grade and grade ?3 treatment-related AEs. Meanwhile, efficacy data were collected, such as overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), duration of response, 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate, median PFS time, 12-month overall survival rate, and median overall survival time. Results: The major AEs of camrelizumab alone were reactive cutaneous capillary endothelial proliferation, fatigue, aspartate aminotransferase increase, proteinuria, pruritus, and alanine transaminase increase. The ORR and DCR were 20.2% (95% CI: 15.1–26.6%, p = 0.000, I2 = 70.360) and 45.8% (95% CI: 39.0–52.7%, p = 0.256, I2 = 58.661), respectively. In the three studies of combination therapy, two studies were combined with apatinib and one combined with chemotherapy. For these studies, common AEs were hypertension, platelet count decrease, nausea, proteinuria, aspartate aminotransferase increase, and white blood cell count decrease. The pooled ORR, DCR, and 6-month PFS rate were 41.8% (95% CI: 29.7–54.9%, p = 0.220, I2 = 86.265), 82.4% (95% CI: 75.9–87.4%, p = 0.000, I2 = 55.207), and 56.2% (95% CI: 35.8–74.6%, p = 0.559, I2 = 79.739), respectively. Conclusion: Camrelizumab and its combination are tolerable and appear to be efficient in treating numerous solid cancers. The combination therapy appears to have better efficacy with durable toxicity. However, these remain to be shown in future studies. Besides, baseline lactate dehydrogenase, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, tumor mutation burden, and the incidence of reactive cutaneous capillary endothelial proliferation may be efficacy predictors and need to be clarified in further studies.
Project description:Angiogenesis inhibitors are of considerable interest for treating metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of apatinib in chemotherapy-refractory mCRC. Apatinib 500?mg was administered daily to patients who had progressed after two or more lines of standard fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Overall, 48 patients were enrolled. ORR and DCR were 8.3% (4/48) and 68.8% (33/48), respectively. Median PFS and OS were 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.653-5.887) and 9.1 months (95% CI, 5.155-13.045), respectively, and did not differ between subgroups stratified by previous anti-angiogenic therapies. The most prevalent grade 3-4 adverse events were hypertension (12.5%), hand-foot syndrome (HFS, 10.4%), thrombocytopenia (10.4%), and proteinuria (8.3%). Low baseline neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, hazard ratios [HR], 0.619; P?=?0.027), early carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) decrease (HR, 1.654; P?=?0.016), and HFS (HR, 2.087; P?=?0.007) were associated with improved PFS. In conclusion, apatinib monotherapy demonstrated encouraging efficacy with manageable toxicities in chemotherapy-refractory mCRC. Previous anti-angiogenic therapies did not influence outcomes. Baseline NLR, early CA19-9 decrease, and HFS could predict the efficacy of apatinib.
Project description:Background:The prognosis for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains clinically unsatisfying. Apatinib has proven to be a very effective treatment for advanced HCC in our previous retrospective study. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of apatinib in patients with advanced HCC. Methods:This single-arm, open-label phase II clinical trial enrolled patients with advanced HCC. These patients received apatinib, 500 mg once daily, until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, consent withdrawal, or death. One treatment cycle consisted of 4 weeks of apatinib treatment. The response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) was used to assess tumor response every 1-2 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were the overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), and toxicity. Results:Between December 2016 and June 2018, 23 patients were enrolled in the study, 22 of whom were available for response evaluation. The cutoff date was August 10, 2018. The overall ORR and DCR were 30.4% and 65.2%, respectively. The median OS and PFS were 13.8 (95% CI: 5.3-22.3) and 8.7 (95% CI: 5.9-11.1) months, respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse events were proteinuria (39.1%), hypertension (34.8%), and hand-foot-skin reaction (34.8%). Conclusions:Apatinib showed robust clinical activity in patients with advanced HCC. Moreover, apatinib was safe to use, well tolerated, and had acceptable toxicity. (NCT03046979).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>We performed this clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib and oral etoposide in patients with HER2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with HER2-negative MBC previously treated with anthracycline and taxanes and failed ?1 prior chemotherapy regimens were recruited. The starting dose of apatinib was 500 and 425 mg in patients with ECOG scores of 0-1 and 2, respectively. The etoposide capsules were given at 50 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on days 1 to 10 for 21 days. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and safety.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-one eligible patients were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 11 months. The median PFS for all patients was 6.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.0-7.9], and 6.9 months (95% CI 5.3-8.6) and 6.6 months (95% CI 1.4-11.7) for patients with apatinib 425 and 500mg once daily, respectively. The ORR was 35.5% (11/31). The DCR was 87.1% (27/31). The median OS was 20.4 months (95% CI 11.4-29.3). The median PFS of patients who had hypertension and proteinuria was longer than that for those without hypertension and proteinuria. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were hypertension (12/31, 38.7%), fatigue (3/31, 9.7%), thrombocytopenia (3/31, 9.7%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Apatinib combined with etoposide capsules is effective and tolerable in heavily pretreated, metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer patients. A lower apatinib dose provide equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity.<h4>Clinical trial registration</h4>https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT03535961.
Project description:Currently, patients with radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAIR-DTC) have limited treatment options. In this study, we aimed to assess the short-term efficacy and safety of apatinib in RAIR-DTC. Ten adult patients were prospectively enrolled to receive oral apatinib (750 mg q.d). The primary endpoints were change in serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, disease control rate (DCR) and objective response rate (ORR) based on RECIST 1.1 criteria. The secondary endpoints included change in glucose metabolism, evaluated by maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax), and safety. As early as 2 weeks after apatinib treatment, the serum Tg concentration decreased by 21.0% in 8 patients available for detection without interference, and a further sharp decline by 81.4% compared with the baseline level occurred at 8 weeks post-treatment. The DCR and ORR were 100% (10/10) and 90% (9/10), respectively. The sum of tumor diameter shrank to 22.8±8.1 mm from 38.8±15.7 mm (P=0.001). Moreover, a significant decrease in SUVmax was observed from 6.53±5.14 to 2.56±1.67 and 2.45±1.48 at 4-week and 8-week time-points after treatment (P=0.032 and 0.020), respectively. The common grade 3 adverse events (AEs) included hand-foot-skin reaction (50%), hypertension (30%), and hypocalcemia (20%). No severe AE related to apatinib was observed during treatment. Hence, apatinib seems to be a promising therapeutic option for RAIR-DTC patients. Apart from RECIST 1.1 criteria, the biochemical marker (Tg) and glucose metabolism index (SUVmax) could be adopted in assessing the early response to TKI in RAIR-DTC.
Project description:Apatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR-2). This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with non-triple-negative metastatic breast cancer who had received prior chemotherapy for their metastatic disease.This multicenter, open-label, single arm study enrolled patients with non-triple-negative breast cancer, pretreated with anthracycline, taxanes and capecitabine, and who failed in the metastatic setting at least 1 and at most 4 prior chemotherapy regimens and at least one endocrine drug for hormone receptor-positive patients as well as at least one anti-Her2 drug for Her2-positive patients. The primary end point of this study was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Apatinib was administered as 500 mg daily on days 1 through 28 of each 4-week cycle.38 patients were enrolled with a median age of 49 years (range, 35 to 62 years) and received apatinib for a median of 4 cycles (range from 0 to 10 cycles). 18 (47.4%) patients experienced dose reduction during treatment. The median relative dose intensity (relative to assigned dose for each cycle) was 82% (range, 45.0% to 100.0%). Median follow-up time was 10.1 months. Median PFS of all 38 patients was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 m - 5.2 m). 36 patients were eligible for efficacy analysis. ORR was 16.7% (6/36). DCR was 66.7% (24/36). Median OS was 10.3 months (95% CI, 9.1 m - 11.6 m). The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were hypertension (20.5%), hand-foot syndrome (10.3%), and proteinuria (5.1%). Of three possibly drug-related SAEs recorded in the study, 2 (3.4%) deaths occurred within 28 days of last treatment and were both considered to be the result of disease progression. The other one was grade 2 diarrhea needing hospitalization.Apatinib exhibited objective efficacy in heavily pretreated, metastatic non-triple-negative breast cancer with manageable toxicity, and it might be better to be tested in breast cancer with high angiogenesis dependency.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01653561.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) poses a therapeutic challenge worldwide because of its poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiangiogenic drug apatinib in advanced AFPGC in a real-world setting.<h4>Methods</h4>From September 2015 to December 2017, twenty-one patients identified with AFPGC from the clinical trial AHEAD-G202, an open-label, prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study of apatinib for advanced metastatic gastric cancer, were enrolled to perform this analysis. Patients received oral apatinib as monotherapy or combination therapy. A treatment cycle was defined as 28 days. The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcomes included safety, objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR).<h4>Results</h4>Twenty patients were evaluated for the apatinib efficacy analysis. The ORR of apatinib was 10%, whereas the DCR was 70%. The median PFS was 3.5 months [95%confidence interval (CI): 2.34-4.66]. The median OS was 4.5 months (95%CI: 3.49-5.51). Median OS of AFPGC patients without carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevation achieved 30.8 months. CEA elevation was considered to be a potential independent predictive factor for OS (P?=?0.030) and PFS (P?=?0.047) by the analysis of multivariate analysis. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events (AEs) were hypertension (4.8%), hand-foot syndrome (4.8%), anorexia (4.8%), and vomiting and nausea (4.8%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Apatinib showed promising efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced AFPGC. Antiangiogenic therapy may be a good strategy for the treatment of AFPGC as a rare sub-type of gastric cancer.<h4>Trial registration</h4>AHEAD-G202 (NCT02668380).