Screening and receiving information for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings: a cross-sectional study of Arab and Jewish women of childbearing age in Israel.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:We studied the proportion of women who have ever been screened (ES) for intimate partner violence (IPV) in a healthcare setting, received information (RI) about relevant services, or both, and explored disparities in screening and information provision by ethnicity and other characteristics. DESIGN:In 2014-2015, we undertook a cross-sectional study, conducting interviews using a structured questionnaire among a stratified sample of 1401 Arab and Jewish women in Israel. SETTING:A sample of 63 maternal and child health clinics (MCH) clinics in four geographical districts. PARTICIPANTS:Women aged 16-48 years, pregnant or up to 6 months after childbirth. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:We used multivariable generalised estimating equation analysis to determine characteristics of women who were ES (Has anyone at the healthcare services (HCS) ever asked you whether you have experienced IPV?); RI (Have you ever received information about what to do if you experience IPV?); and both (ES&RI). RESULTS:Less than half of participants (48.8%) reported ES; 50.5% RI; and 30% were both ES&RI. Having experienced any IPV was not associated with ES or ES&RI, but was associated with RI in an unexpected direction. Women at higher risk for IPV (Arab minority women, lower education, unmarried) were less likely to report being ES, RI or both. The OR and 95% CI for not ER&RI were: 1.58 (1.00 to 2.49) among Arab compared with Jewish women; 1.95 (1.42 to 2.66) among low education versus academic education women; 1.34 (1.03 to 1.73) among not working versus working. ES, RI and both differ across districts. CONCLUSIONS:While Israel mandates screening and providing information regarding IPV for women visiting the HCS, we found inequalities, suggesting inconsistencies in policy implementation and missed opportunities to detect IPV. To increase IPV screening and information provision, the ministry of health should circulate clarification and provide support to healthcare providers to conduct these activities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) face significant health consequences, their patterns of healthcare services (HCS) utilization are unclear, as are the effects of IPV screening and receiving information on these patterns. OBJECTIVES:1. Compare utilization patterns of five HCS (visits to family physician, gynecologist, specialist and emergency room, and hospitalization) in a cohort of perinatal women who reported experiencing versus not experiencing any IPV and IPV types (physical and/or sexual; emotional and/or verbal; social and economic); 2. Examine whether IPV screening, receiving information on support services, or both, affect patterns; and 3. Compare these associations between ethnic groups (Arab and Jewish women). METHODS:We conducted a prospective study using registry data on HCS utilization obtained from Israel's largest Health Fund (Clalit) in the year following a 2014-2015 survey of a cohort of 868 perinatal women in Israel (327 Arab minority, 542 Jewish) on their reports of experiencing IPV, IPV screening, and receiving information. Using multivariate analysis, we calculated adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the five HCS utilizations in association with reports of any IPV and IPV types. We adjusted for IPV screening, receiving information about services, and both, in the total sample, and separately among ethnic groups. RESULTS:Any IPV and IPV types had significant associations with some HCS utilization variables, with different directions and patterns for the ethnic groups. Experiencing IPV was associated with higher HCS utilization among Arab women, lower utilization in Jewish women. Arab women experiencing IPV were twice as likely to visit a gynecologist than women not experiencing IPV (AOR (95% CI) was 2.00, 1.14-3.51 for any IPV; 2.17, 1.23-3.81 for emotional and/or verbal IPV, and 1.83, 1.04-3.22, for social and economic IPV). Among Jewish women, experiencing any IPV was associated with lower likelihood of emergency-room visits (0.62, 0.41-0.93); and experiencing physical and/or sexual IPV was associated with lower likelihood of family physician visits (OR = 0.20, 0.05-0.82). Both IPV screening and receiving information were associated with lower HCS utilization among Arab women only. CONCLUSIONS:Different HCS utilization patterns among women who reported experiencing versus not experiencing IPV in different ethnic groups suggest complex relationships that hinge on how HCS address women's needs, starting with IPV screening and providing information. This might inform tailored programs to tackle IPV at the HCS, particularly for minority women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Social support is generally perceived to facilitate health in postpartum women; however, previous research shows that this is not always true. Social interactions intended to provide support can be perceived as negative and in turn, may have negative impacts on maternal health. The purpose of the present study was to asses if social support and negative interactions at one month after childbirth can predict maternal health four months after childbirth, and if this relationship is influenced by culture. METHODS:This prospective longitudinal cohort study included randomly selected Arab (n?=?203) and Jewish (n?=?202) women who attended Mother and Child Health Clinics in Northern Israel one month after giving birth. The women were interviewed at one and four months after childbirth using a questionnaire including measures of health (self-reported health (SRH) and health problems), socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric characteristics, social support, negative social interactions and perceptions of customs and traditions intended to help the mother cope after childbirth. Multivariable regressions were run to identify the variables predicting health four months after childbirth. RESULTS:The response rate for both interviews was 90%. Negative social interactions one month after childbirth significantly predicted health problems in Arab and Jewish women (Beta 0.20 and 0.37 respectively) and SRH among Arab women only (odds ratio (OR) 0.32, confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.54) four months after childbirth. Social support at one month after childbirth significantly predicted better SRH in both Jewish and Arab women four months after childbirth (OR 2.33, CI 1.38-3.93 and 1.59, CI 1.01-2.46 respectively) and fewer health problems only among Jewish women (Beta -?0.37). CONCLUSIONS:Social support and negative social interactions appear to be predictive of health in postpartum women. Associations varied between Arabs and Jews, indicating that social support may be more important for predicting health among Jewish women and negative interactions may be more important among Arab women. Healthcare practitioners should be aware of the cultural context and social circumstances of postpartum women to ensure they receive the social support and care they need.
Project description:Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P < 0.05), while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS) were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An estimated 30% of women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) during their lifetime. Exposure to IPV is associated with poor health outcomes and the prevalence of violence may be higher amongst women seeking healthcare. Existing evidence from the Arab region is limited. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and health outcomes of domestic violence (IPV or violence from a family member) in clinical populations in Arab countries. METHODS:Using terms related to domestic violence, Arab countries, and date limit > year 2000, we searched seven databases: Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science: core collection, IBSS, Westlaw, IMEMR. We included observational studies reporting estimates of prevalence or health outcomes of domestic violence amongst women aged > 15 years, recruited while accessing healthcare in Arab countries. Studies that collected data on/after 1st January 2000 and were published in English, Arabic or French were included. Title/abstract screening, full text screening, quality assessment and data extraction were carried out. Extracted data were summarised and meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. RESULTS:6341 papers were screened and 41 papers (29 studies) met inclusion criteria. Total 19,101 participants from 10 countries were represented in the data. Meta-analysis produced pooled prevalence estimates of lifetime exposure to any type of IPV of 73·3% (95% CI 64·1-81·6), physical IPV 35·6% (95% CI 24·4-47·5), sexual IPV 22% (95% CI 13·3-32) and emotional/psychological IPV 49·8% (95% CI 37·3-62·3). Domestic violence (IPV or family violence) exposure was associated with increased odds of adverse health outcomes: depression OR 3·3 (95% CI 1·7-6·4), sleep problems OR 3·2 (95% CI 1·5-6·8), abortion OR 3·5 (95% CI 1·2-10·2), pain OR 2·6 (95% CI 1·6-4·1) and hypertension OR 1·6 (95% CI 1·2-2·0). CONCLUSIONS:Domestic violence is common amongst women seeking healthcare in Arab countries. Exposure to domestic violence is associated with several poor health outcomes. Further research into domestic violence in the Arab world is required. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Systematic review protocol was registered on PROSPERO: CRD42017071415 .
Project description:Pathology of urothelial carcinoma may vary in different populations at diagnosis. Our aim was to evaluate the histopathologic differences between Jewish and Arab patients in Israel at first diagnosis of urothelial cancer.We retrospectively collected data of all patients with confirmed urothelial cancer, treated at our department between January 2010 and January 2015. We examined the distribution of the histopathologic data among the studied populations. To compare the categorical variables we used the Chi-Square Pearson test. Comparison of independent variables was made by Student's t-test. P value below 0.05 was considered significant.The study group included 413 patients, 345 Jews and 68 Arabs. The major differences were that Arab patients were younger (62.61 versus 68.55 years, P = 0.001), had more aggressive tumors that were detected at a more advanced stage, and had also a higher rate of metastatic disease (7.4% versus 3.2%, P = 0.05). Nonurothelial cell tumors were 2.3 times more prevalent in Arab population. Unlike Jewish population, Arab women had higher rate of invasive/metastatic disease compared with Arab men (40% versus 22.4%).At time of diagnosis the tumors were more aggressive in Arab patients, especially in Arab women. The reasons for those differences constitute a target for a separate research. These results should have an impact on prevention medicine and education of physicians treating mixed populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disparities in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) may affect health care utilization. We compared the correlates of hospitalizations in internal medicine divisions, of adults with NCDs, between the main population groups in Israel. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among Jews (N = 17,952) and Arabs (N = 10,441) aged ?40 years with diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular diseases, utilizing the computerized database of the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. Information was retrieved on sociodemographics, background diseases, hospitalizations and utilizations of other health services. Multivariable log binomial regression models were performed. RESULTS:Overall, 3516 (12.4%) patients were hospitalized at least once during a one-year period (2008). Hospitalization in internal medicine divisions was more common among Arab than Jewish patients; prevalence ratio 1.24 (95% CI 1.14-1.35), and increased with age (P<0.001). An inverse association was found between residential socioeconomic status and hospitalization among Jewish patients, but not among Arab, who lived mostly in low socioeconomic status communities. In both population groups, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, heart surgery, cardiac catheterization, kidney disease, asthma, neurodegenerative diseases, mental illnesses, smoking (in men) and disability were positively related to hospitalization in internal medicine divisions, which was more common also in patients who consulted any specialist and a specialist in cardiology. Emergency room visits, consulting with an ophthalmologist and performing cancer screening tests were inversely related to hospitalizations among Jewish patients only (P = 0.009 and P = 0.067 for interaction, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In a country with universal health insurance, the correlates of hospitalizations included sociodemographics, multi-morbidity, health behaviors and health services use patterns. Socioeconomic disparities might account for ethnic differences in hospitalizations. Individuals with several NCDs, rather than one specific disease, disability and smoking should be targeted to reduce healthcare costs related to hospitalizations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethnic disparities have been shown in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. However, it is unclear whether such differences are related to access to care. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of Arab and Jewish children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis in Israel, a country with universal health insurance. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records of all children (n = 309) aged less than 24 months who were hospitalized with RSV between 2008 and 2011 in one medical center in Israel. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were collected. The RSV antigen was identified using immunochromatography. RESULTS:The annual incidence of RSV hospitalization was 5.4/1000 and 6.8/1000 among Arab and Jewish children, respectively. Arab patients were significantly younger and had significantly younger parents; most lived in low socioeconomic status towns (93.7% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and had more siblings (median 2 vs. 1; p = 0.01) compared to Jewish patients. Disease severity did not differ between the two ethnic groups (p = 0.3). The main predictors of severe illness were having pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.86; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.87-7.97) and history of respiratory diseases (adjusted OR 3.89; 95% CI 1.22-12.38). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of hospitalizations for RSV bronchiolitis tended to be higher among Jewish than Arab children, possibly due to differences in health care utilization patterns. Differences between the Jewish and Arab patients in demographic factors likely mirror differences between the groups in the general population. Pneumonia, and not ethnicity, affected the severity of RSV bronchiolitis.
Project description:Background and Aims: Scientific evidence regarding protective factors that contribute to healthy weight in childhood is limited and is particularly scarce in lower socio-economic populations in different ethnic groups. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of biological, behavioral and psychosocial factors for child overweight/obesity in Jewish and Arab population groups in Israel, and to compare their associations with child overweight/obesity in the two groups. Methods: Children aged 5-6 years were randomly selected from 20 Mother and Child Health clinics in towns and villages of lowest socio-economic ranking in Northern Israel. Children and mothers were invited for a special "One Stop Shop-Preparation for School" visit which included growth measurements. Questionnaires were distributed to mothers for self-report on biological, SES, psychological and lifestyle factors. Perinatal and early nutritional data were retrieved from clinic records. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression models predicting child overweight/obesity were conducted separately for Jewish (N = 371) and Arab (N = 575) children. Results: Overweight/obesity (BMI ?85th centile) rates were higher in Jewish (25%) than Arab (19%) children. In both Jewish and Arab groups, respectively, maternal BMI (OR = 1.10 [95%CI = 1.04, 1.17]; OR = 1.08 [95%CI = 1.04, 1.13]), and child birthweight (OR = 1.33 [95%CI = 1.04, 1.71]; OR = 1.39 [95%CI = 1.11, 1.73]) were significant risk factors for overweight/obesity, and maternal self-efficacy regarding child's lifestyle was significantly protective (OR = 0.49 [95%CI = 0.28, 0.85]; OR = 0.54 [95%CI = 0.34, 0.85]). Additionally, four other maternal psychological and child behaviors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity in the Jewish group and two child lifestyle behavior factors in the Arab group. Moreover, significant interactions indicating moderation effects were found only in the Jewish group: maternal education and maternal age moderated the effect of maternal BMI on child overweight/obesity. No other moderation of risk factors was found. Discussion: In this study of children from low SES families, protective factors contributed to healthy child weight alongside risk factors for overweight/obesity. They differed between the population groups, and fewer variables explained overweight/obesity in Arab children. Although further expansion of these findings is required they point at the relevance of protective factors, maternal self-efficacy in particular, for understanding childhood obesity in specific ethnic contexts and for planning culturally adapted prevention programs in disadvantaged populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Violence against women has particular importance for women's health and wellbeing in the Arab world, where women face persistent barriers to social, political and economic equality. This review aims to summarize what is known about the prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in the 22 countries of the Arab League, including geographic coverage, quality and comparability of the evidence. METHODS:A systematic review of IPV prevalence in Arab countries was carried out among peer-reviewed journal articles and national, population-based survey reports published by international research programmes and/or governments. Following PRISMA guidelines, Medline and the Social Sciences Citation Index were searched with Medical Subject Headings terms and key words related to IPV and the names of Arab countries. Eligible sources were published between January 2000 and January 2016, in any language. United Nations databases and similar sources were searched for national surveys. Study characteristics, operational definitions and prevalence data were extracted into a database using Open Data Kit Software. Risk of bias was assessed with a structured checklist. RESULTS:The search identified 74 records with population or facility-based IPV prevalence data from eleven Arab countries, based on 56 individual datasets. These included 46 separate survey datasets from peer-reviewed journals and 11 national surveys published by international research programmes and/or governments. Seven countries had national, population-based IPV estimates. Reported IPV prevalence (ever) ranged from 6% to more than half (59%) (physical); from 3 to 40% (sexual); and from 5 to 91% (emotional/ psychological). Methods and operational definitions of violence varied widely, especially for emotional/psychological IPV, limiting comparability. CONCLUSIONS:IPV against women in Arab countries represents a public health and human rights problem, with substantial levels of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological IPV documented in many settings. The evidence base is fragmented, however, suggesting a need for more comparable, high quality research on IPV in the region and greater adherence to international scientific and ethical guidelines. There is a particular need for national, population-based data to inform prevention and responses to violence against women, and to help Arab countries monitor progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals.
Project description:Israel represents a complex and pluralistic society comprising two major ethno-national groups, Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, which differ in terms of religious and cultural values as well as social constructs. According to the so-called "diversification hypothesis", within the framework of e-health and in the era of new information and communication technologies, seeking online health information could be a channel to increase health literacy, especially among disadvantaged groups. However, little is known concerning digital seeking behavior and, in particular, digital mental health literacy. This study was conducted in order to fill in this gap. Concerning raw figures, unadjusted for confounding variables (time, population size, Internet penetration index, disease rate), "depression" searched in Hebrew was characterized by 1.5 times higher search volumes, slightly declining throughout time, whereas relative search volumes (RSVs) related to "depression" searched in Arabic tended to increase over the years. Similar patterns could be detected for "phobia" (in Hebrew 1.4-fold higher than in Arabic) and for "anxiety" (with the searches performed in Hebrew 2.3 times higher than in Arabic). "Suicide" in Hebrew was searched 2.0-fold more than in Arabic (interestingly for both languages search volumes exhibited seasonal cyclic patterns). Eating disorders were searched more in Hebrew: 8.0-times more for "bulimia", whilst "anorexia" was searched in Hebrew only. When adjusting for confounding variables, association between digital seeking behavior and ethnicity remained statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) for all psychiatric disorders considered in the current investigation, except for "bulimia" (p = 0.989). More in details, Israeli Arabs searched for mental health disorders less than Jews, apart from "depression". Arab and Jewish Israelis, besides differing in terms of language, religion, social and cultural values, have different patterns of usage of healthcare services and provisions, as well as e-healthcare services concerning mental health. Policy- and decision-makers should be aware of this and make their best efforts to promote digital health literacy among the Arab population in Israel.