Microbial Colonization Coordinates the Pathogenesis of a Klebsiella pneumoniae Infant Isolate.
ABSTRACT: Enterobacteriaceae are among the first colonizers of neonate intestine. Members of this family, such as Escherichia and Klebsiella, are considered pathobionts and as such are capable of inducing local and systemic disease under specific colonization circumstances. Interplay between developing microbiota and pathogenic function of pathobionts are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the functional interaction between various colonization patterns on an early colonizer, K. pneumoniae. K. pneumoniae 51-5 was isolated from stool of a healthy, premature infant, and found to contain the genotoxin island pks associated with development of colorectal cancer. Using intestinal epithelial cells, macrophages, and primary splenocytes, we demonstrate K. pneumoniae 51-5 upregulates expression of proinflammatory genes in vitro. Gnotobiotic experiments in Il10-/- mice demonstrate the neonate isolate induces intestinal inflammation in vivo, with increased expression of proinflammatory genes. Regulation of microbiota assembly revealed K. pneumoniae 51-5 accelerates onset of inflammation in Il10-/- mice, most significantly when microbiota is naturally acquired. Furthermore, K. pneumoniae 51-5 induces DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, K. pneumoniae 51-5 induced tumors in ApcMin/+; Il10-/- mice was not significantly affected by absence of colibactin activating enzyme, ClbP. These findings demonstrate pathogenicity of infant K. pneumoniae isolate is sensitive to microbial colonization status.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen and leading cause of hospital-associated infections. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are particularly at risk. Klebsiella pneumoniae is part of the healthy human microbiome, providing a potential reservoir for infection. However, the frequency of gut colonization and its contribution to infections are not well characterized.We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study in which 498 ICU patients were screened for rectal and throat carriage of K. pneumoniae shortly after admission. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from screening swabs and clinical diagnostic samples were characterized using whole genome sequencing and combined with epidemiological data to identify likely transmission events.Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage frequencies were estimated at 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-8%) among ICU patients admitted direct from the community, and 19% (95% CI, 14%-51%) among those with recent healthcare contact. Gut colonization on admission was significantly associated with subsequent infection (infection risk 16% vs 3%, odds ratio [OR] = 6.9, P < .001), and genome data indicated matching carriage and infection isolates in 80% of isolate pairs. Five likely transmission chains were identified, responsible for 12% of K. pneumoniae infections in ICU. In sum, 49% of K. pneumoniae infections were caused by the patients' own unique strain, and 48% of screened patients with infections were positive for prior colonization.These data confirm K. pneumoniae colonization is a significant risk factor for infection in ICU, and indicate ~50% of K. pneumoniae infections result from patients' own microbiota. Screening for colonization on admission could limit risk of infection in the colonized patient and others.
Project description:Background:Human milk microbiota plays a role in the bacterial colonization of the neonatal gut, which has important consequences in the health and development of the newborn. However, there are few studies about the vertical transfer of bacteria from mother to infant in Latin American populations. Methods:We performed a cross-sectional study characterizing the bacterial diversity of 67 human milk-neonatal stool pairs by high-throughput sequencing of V3-16S rDNA libraries, to assess the effect of the human milk microbiota on the bacterial composition of the neonate's gut at early days. Results:Human milk showed higher microbial diversity as compared to the neonatal stool. Members of the Staphylococcaceae and Sphingomonadaceae families were more prevalent in human milk, whereas the Pseudomonadaceae family, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium genera were in the neonatal stool. The delivery mode showed association with the neonatal gut microbiota diversity, but not with the human milk microbiota diversity; for instance, neonates born by C-section showed greater richness and diversity in stool microbiota than those born vaginally. We found 25 bacterial taxa shared by both ecosystems and 67.7% of bacteria found in neonate stool were predicted to originate from human milk. This study contributes to the knowledge of human milk and neonatal stool microbiota in healthy Mexican population and supports the idea of vertical mother-neonate transmission through exclusive breastfeeding.
Project description:An important yet poorly understood facet of the life cycle of a successful pathogen is host-to-host transmission. Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) resulting from the transmission of drug-resistant pathogens affect hundreds of millions of patients worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is notorious for causing HAI, with many of these infections difficult to treat, as K. pneumoniae has become multidrug resistant. Epidemiological studies suggest that K. pneumoniae host-to-host transmission requires close contact and generally occurs through the fecal-oral route. Here, we describe a murine model that can be utilized to study mucosal (oropharynx and gastrointestinal [GI]) colonization, shedding within feces, and transmission of K. pneumoniae through the fecal-oral route. Using an oral route of inoculation, and fecal shedding as a marker for GI colonization, we showed that K. pneumoniae can asymptomatically colonize the GI tract in immunocompetent mice and modifies the host GI microbiota. Colonization density within the GI tract and levels of shedding in the feces differed among the clinical isolates tested. A hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolate was able to translocate from the GI tract and cause hepatic infection that mimicked the route of human infection. Expression of the capsule was required for colonization and, in turn, robust shedding. Furthermore, K. pneumoniae carrier mice were able to transmit to uninfected cohabitating mice. Lastly, treatment with antibiotics led to changes in the host microbiota and development of a transient supershedder phenotype, which enhanced transmission efficiency. Thus, this model can be used to determine the contribution of host and bacterial factors toward K. pneumoniae dissemination.
Project description:Summary Dietary emulsifiers carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate-80 (P80) disturb gut microbiota, promoting chronic inflammation. Mice with minimal microbiota are protected against emulsifiers’ effects, leading us to hypothesize that these compounds might provoke select pathobionts to promote inflammation. Gnotobiotic wild-type (WT) and interleukin-10 (IL-10)?/? mice were colonized with Crohn’s-disease-associated adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) and subsequently administered CMC or P80. AIEC colonization of GF and altered Schaedler flora (ASF) mice results in chronic intestinal inflammation and metabolism dysregulations when consuming the emulsifier. In IL-10?/? mice, AIEC mono-colonization results in severe intestinal inflammation in response to emulsifiers. Exposure of AIEC to emulsifiers in vitro increases its motility and ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that emulsifiers directly induce expression of clusters of genes that mediate AIEC virulence and promotion of inflammation. To conclude, emulsifiers promote virulence and encroachment of pathobionts, providing a means by which these compounds may drive inflammation in hosts carrying such bacteria. Graphical Abstract Highlights • Dietary emulsifiers alter the intestinal microbiota, promoting chronic inflammation• Select pathobionts are required to mediate the detrimental effects of emulsifiers• Emulsifiers directly induce the expression of bacterial virulence genes• Microbiota-based dietary intervention appears warranted Through gnotobiotic and molecular approaches, Viennois et al. demonstrate that in mice, the ability of a dietary emulsifier to promote chronic intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated cancer is mediated by the ability of these compounds to directly induce the expression of clusters of genes that mediate virulence of a select pathobiont.
Project description:Infections are a common cause of infant mortality worldwide, especially due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Colonization is the prerequisite to invasive pneumococcal disease, and is particularly frequent and prolonged in children, though the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility are unknown. We find that infant mice exhibit prolonged pneumococcal carriage, and are delayed in recruiting macrophages, the effector cells of clearance, into the nasopharyngeal lumen. This lack of macrophage recruitment is paralleled by a failure to upregulate chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 or Mcp-1), a macrophage chemoattractant that is required in adult mice to promote clearance. Baseline expression of Ccl2 and the related chemokine Ccl7 is higher in the infant compared to the adult upper respiratory tract, and this effect requires the infant microbiota. These results demonstrate that signals governing macrophage recruitment are altered at baseline in infant mice, which prevents the development of appropriate innate cell infiltration in response to pneumococcal colonization, delaying clearance of pneumococcal carriage.
Project description:Background:Identification of gut microbiota features associated with antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonization may reveal new infection prevention targets. Methods:We conducted a matched, case-control study of long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) patients to identify gut microbiota and clinical features associated with colonization by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), an urgent antibiotic resistance threat. Fecal or rectal swab specimens were collected and tested for KPC-Kp; 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing was performed. Comparisons were made between cases and controls in calibration and validation subsamples using microbiota similarity indices, logistic regression, and unit-weighted predictive models. Results:Case (n = 32) and control (n = 99) patients had distinct fecal microbiota communities, but neither microbiota diversity nor inherent clustering into community types distinguished case and control specimens. Comparison of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed 1 OTU associated with case status in both calibration (n = 51) and validation (n = 80) subsamples that matched the canonical KPC-Kp strain ST258. Permutation analysis using the presence or absence of OTUs and hierarchical logistic regression identified 2 OTUs (belonging to genus Desulfovibrio and family Ruminococcaceae) associated with KPC-Kp colonization. Among clinical variables, the presence of a decubitus ulcer alone was independently and consistently associated with case status. Combining the presence of the OTUs Desulfovibrio and Ruminococcaceae with decubitus ulcer increased the likelihood of KPC-Kp colonization to >38% in a unit-weighted predictive model. Conclusions:We identified microbiota and clinical features that distinguished KPC-Kp gut colonization in LTACH patients, a population particularly susceptible to KPC-Kp infection. These features may warrant further investigation as markers of risk for KPC-Kp colonization.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important human pathogen causing hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections. Systemic K. pneumoniae infections may be preceded by gastrointestinal colonization, but the basis of this bacterium's interaction with the intestinal epithelium remains unclear. Here, we report that the K. pneumoniae Sap (sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides) transporter contributes to bacterial-host cell interactions and in vivo virulence. Gene deletion showed that sapA is required for the adherence of a K. pneumoniae blood isolate to intestinal epithelial, lung epithelial, urinary bladder epithelial, and liver cells. The ?sapA mutant was deficient for translocation across intestinal epithelial monolayers, macrophage interactions, and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. In a mouse gastrointestinal infection model, ?sapA yielded significantly decreased bacterial loads in liver, spleen and intestine, reduced liver abscess generation, and decreased mortality. These findings offer new insights into the pathogenic interaction of K. pneumoniae with the host gastrointestinal tract to cause systemic infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A more detailed understanding of interactions between S. pneumoniae and the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children could inform strategies to prevent pneumococcal infections. METHODS:We collected nasopharyngeal swabs from children 1 to 23 months of age in Botswana between August 2012 and June 2016. We tested samples for S. pneumoniae and common respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction. We sequenced the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and used random forest models to identify clinical variables and bacterial genera that were associated with pneumococcal colonization. RESULTS:Mean age of the 170 children included in this study was 8.3 months. Ninety-six (56%) children were colonized with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococcal colonization was associated with older age (P = 0.0001), a lack of electricity in the home (P = 0.02) and household use of wood as a cooking fuel (P = 0.002). Upper respiratory symptoms were more frequent in children with S. pneumoniae colonization (60% vs. 32%; P = 0.001). Adjusting for age, nasopharyngeal microbiota composition differed in colonized and noncolonized children (P = 0.001). S. pneumoniae colonization was associated with a higher relative abundance of Moraxella (P = 0.001) and lower relative abundances of Corynebacterium (P = 0.001) and Staphylococcus (P = 0.03). A decision tree model containing the relative abundances of bacterial genera had 81% sensitivity and 85% specificity for the determination of S. pneumoniae colonization status. CONCLUSIONS:S. pneumoniae colonization is associated with characteristic alterations of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children. Prospective studies should determine if nasopharyngeal microbial composition alters the risk of pneumococcal colonization and thus could be modified as a novel pneumonia prevention strategy.
Project description:Preterm infants exhibit different microbiome colonization patterns relative to full-term infants, and it is speculated that the hospital room environment may contribute to infant microbiome development. Here, we present a genome-resolved metagenomic study of microbial genotypes from the gastrointestinal tracts of infants and from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) room environment. Some strains detected in hospitalized infants also occur in sinks and on surfaces, and belong to species such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are frequently implicated in nosocomial infection and preterm infant gut colonization. Of the 15 K. pneumoniae strains detected in the study, four were detected in both infant gut and room samples. Time series experiments showed that nearly all strains associated with infant gut colonization can be detected in the room after, and often before, detection in the gut. Thus, we conclude that a component of premature infant gut colonization is the cycle of microbial exchange between the room and the occupant.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and ?-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or ?-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs.