Quality protein maize based muffins: influence of non-gluten proteins on batter and muffin characteristics.
ABSTRACT: Quality protein maize (QPM) is nutritionally improved maize which has twice the amount of lysine and tryptophan than normal maize. The present study evaluated the effect of different proteins namely egg white proteins (EWP), casein, whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate (SPI) on characteristics of gluten free QPM based muffins. QPM muffins without any added protein served as control and muffins prepared using wheat and EWP served as reference. Effect of addition of different proteins on pasting properties revealed that the thermal stability of QPM flour increased as indicated by decrease in breakdown viscosity. The effect of added proteins on QPM muffin-making properties was evaluated for rheology of batter and physicochemical, texture, color and sensory characteristics of muffins. Dynamic rheology showed that storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G?) of batter with SPI was the highest while batter with EWP showed lowest value. QPM-EWP muffins were softer, chewy and springier and had more specific volume than control muffins and were comparable to reference muffins. Inclusion of all proteins increased L* values (lightness) and decreased a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellow/blueness) values of QPM based muffins. Sensory analysis revealed that gluten free QPM muffin prepared from EWP were acceptable with a sensory score of 7.97 which was comparable to reference muffins (8.03).
Project description:Physicochemical, antioxidant, phenolic profile and muffin-making properties of white, yellow and purple corn accessions were evaluated. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in different corn accessions. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid present in all accessions. Total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH and ABTS inhibition ranged from 903 to 1843 µg GAE/g, 0.73-0.89 and 3.81-4.92 µM trolox/mg, respectively. Purple accessions had higher TPC than yellow and white accessions. Pasting profiles of different accessions revealed high thermal stability indicated by low breakdown viscosity. Muffin-making properties were determined as batter rheology and muffin specific volume, texture and sensory analysis. Storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of batters for white colored exhibited the highest while yellow colored had the lowest value. Firmness and TPC of muffins ranged from 3.1 to 5.9 N and 811-1406 µg GAE/g, respectively. Muffin cohesiveness and chewiness were correlated positively, whereas firmness was negatively related to paste viscosities. Antioxidant activity was correlated to phenolic content of the muffins. Sensory analysis revealed that muffins prepared from yellow corn accession (IC447648) were highly acceptable, while those made from purple corn (IC447644) were not liked much.
Project description:Physical, textural, and sensory characteristics of the gluten-free muffins made of mungbean and cowpea flours enriched with waxy rice flour were investigated. Amylose content and pasting viscosity of legume-waxy rice flour blend (1:1) were lower than that of wheat flour. The number and area of gas cells of muffin containing legume flour was lower than that of control muffin with wheat flour. Legume-based muffins had low lightness value due to the presence of color components. Weight of the muffins containing legume was higher than that of control muffin, but their height and volume were lower than control. Legume-based muffins had greater crude ash and protein contents than control. Compared with control, muffin containing legume flour had significantly higher hardness and gumminess. In sensory evaluation, overall acceptance of muffin containing Okdang cultivar of cowpea was the highest among legume-based muffins, which was comparable to control muffin.
Project description:The increasing demand for cocoa and search for ingredients rich in bioactive compounds encouraged us to investigate the possibility of replacing it by carob powder in the muffins containing soy beans, sesame oil and flaxseeds. There was 5% addition of carob or cocoa powder to the individual doughs. The muffins with the addition of carob were characterized by improved antiradical activity (by 36% - 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method, by 83% - 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method), higher content of genistein (18%) and total phytosterols (17%) in the dry mass. The color differences in the carob muffins crusts were not perceptible by consumers (?E?=?0.70 for crust, ?E?=?5.6 for crumb) and their taste was found to be less bitter and sweeter than the taste of cocoa muffins. Moreover, the addition of carob powder as well as cocoa powder resulted in good sensory quality. The high content of phytosterols, genistein and improved antiradical properties proved carob to be a source of bioactive compounds. The results show that carob powder may be used as valuable alternative muffin ingredient to cocoa.
Project description:Tomato processing industry generates huge waste like tomato skin, seed, and pulp which creates environmental issues. Since tomato pomace contains bioactive compounds and pigments, present study was conducted to investigate the effect of tomato pomace addition on physicochemical characteristics and shelf-life stability of the developed bread and muffin. Refined flour was partially substituted with 35 and 40% tomato pomace in bread and muffin, respectively. Tomato pomace addition in bread and muffin was observed to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the dietary fiber, vitamin C, antioxidant activity and minerals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe). The color parameters for bread and muffins were quantified in terms of L* (lightness), a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness). There was an increase in a* and b*, while L* values decreased. Tomato based bread and muffin were found to possess softer texture as compared to control products. Microbial study has depicted the enhanced shelf-life of tomato based bread and muffin. Shelf life of preservative added tomato based bread was 8 days and muffins were 12 days. Tomato pomace could be a very useful commodity for incorporation into bread and muffin to have a complete nutritive food product.
Project description:Response surface methodology was used to analyze effects of the amounts of pregelatinized potato flour (PGPF), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), egg white protein (EWP), and water on the dough fermentation and physical properties of gluten-free (GF) steamed bread based on potato flour. The results showed that PGPF, HPMC, EWP, and water at the appropriate amounts improved the maximum dough height (H m), specific volume (SV) and hardness, as well as H m correlated with SV (R 2?=?0.6993) and hardness (R 2?=?0.7273). Moreover, the optimal formulation contained 4.84 g/100 g PGPF, 1.68 g/100 g HPMC, 5.87 g/100 g EWP, and 69.69 g/100 g water, potato flour basis. Furthermore, the dietary fiber, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and estimated glycemic index of the steamed GF bread were, respectively, 3.17-, 1.56-, 1.44-, and 0.75-fold of those of steamed wheat bread. The optimized steamed GF bread was found to be acceptable according to the results of sensory analysis. Information collected within this study may provide further insight for optimizing the formulation of steamed GF bread based on potato flour.
Project description:Fat intake, especially monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), has been liberalized in diabetic diets to preserve HDL cholesterol and improve glycemic control, yet the exact sources have not been clearly defined. Therefore, we assessed the effect of mixed nut consumption as a source of vegetable fat on serum lipids and HbA(1c) in type 2 diabetes.A total of 117 type 2 diabetic subjects were randomized to one of three treatments for 3 months. Supplements were provided at 475 kcal per 2,000-kcal diet as mixed nuts (75 g/day), muffins, or half portions of both. The primary outcome was change in HbA(1c).The relative increase in MUFAs was 8.7% energy on the full-nut dose compared with muffins. Using an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 117), full-nut dose (mean intake 73 g/day) reduced HbA(1c) (-0.21% absolute HbA(1c) units, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.11, P < 0.001) with no change after half-nut dose or muffin. Full-nut dose was significantly different from half-nut dose (P = 0.004) and muffin (P = 0.001), but no difference was seen between half-nut dose and muffins. LDL cholesterol also decreased significantly after full-nut dose compared with muffin. The LDL cholesterol reduction after half-nut dose was intermediate and not significantly different from the other treatments. Apolipoprotein (apo) B and the apoB:apoA1 ratio behaved similarly. Nut intake related negatively to changes in HbA(1c) (r = -0.20, P = 0.033) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, P = 0.011).Two ounces of nuts daily as a replacement for carbohydrate foods improved both glycemic control and serum lipids in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The increasing number of persons following a gluten-free (GF) diet and the need for healthy and natural products are forcing researchers and industries to provide gluten-free products with high nutritional value. Here, a biotechnological approach combining the use of teff flour and type-I sourdough has been proposed to produce GF muffins with nutritional benefits. Teff-sourdough was prepared and propagated following the traditional daily refreshment procedure until the biochemical stability was achieved. The sourdough, dominated by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Limosilactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, was used to produce muffins at three different levels (up to 15%, wt/wt) of fortification, achieving several positive effects on the nutritional properties of the products. The use of teff flour led to high content of fiber (>3 g/100 g) and proteins (>6 g/100 g) in muffins achieving the nutritional requirements for the healthy claims "source of fiber" and "rich in protein". Thanks to their metabolic traits, sourdough lactic acid bacteria caused the increase of the total free amino acids (TFAA, up to 1000 mg/kg, final concentration) and phytic acid decrease (50% lower than control), which positively affect the nutritional properties of the products. Besides, high in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD, 79%) and low starch hydrolysis rate (HI, 52%) characterized the fortified muffins. Muffins also presented high in vitro antioxidant (56%) and mold-inhibitory activities, potentially contributing to an extended shelf-life of the products.
Project description:Quality protein maize (QPM) varieties are biofortified, or nutritionally improved, to have higher lysine and tryptophan levels to increase quality protein intakes particularly among young children. This study assesses adequacy of children's protein intakes in Ethiopia, where QPM is being promoted, accounting for protein quality and seasonal dietary changes, and estimates potential increases in intakes if QPM replaced conventional maize in diets. Diets of randomly sampled children aged 12?36 months in rural southern Ethiopia (n = 218) were assessed after harvest during relative food security and 3?4 months later during relative food insecurity using 24-h weighed food records. Diets were analyzed for protein adequacy, accounting for protein quality using the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method, and potential improvements from QPM substitution were estimated. Stunting was prevalent (38%) at the first assessment. Across seasons, 95?96% of children consumed maize, which provided 59?61% of energy and 51?55% of total protein in 24 h. Dietary intakes decreased in the food insecure season, though children were older. Among children no longer breastfeeding, QPM was estimated to reduce inadequacy of utilizable protein intakes from 17% to 13% in the food secure season and from 34% to 19% in the food insecure season. However, breastfed children had only 4?6% inadequate intakes of utilizable protein, limiting QPM's potential impact. Due to small farm sizes, maize stores from home production lasted a median of three months. Young Ethiopian children are at risk of inadequate quality protein intakes, particularly after breastfeeding has ceased and during food insecurity. QPM could reduce this risk; however, reliance on access through home production may result in only short-term benefits given the limited quantities of maize produced and stored.
Project description:Quality protein maize (QPM; Zea mays L.) has effectively enhanced levels of the amino acids, lysine, and tryptophan, over normal maize and provided balanced dietary protein for the health and development of monogastric animals and humans. However, as in normal maize, QPM varieties are low in provitamin A (ProVA), a precursor of vitamin A, which can lead to vitamin A deficiency in humans when maize is a significant part of their diet. In this study, maize inbred Hp321-1 carrying the favorable alleles crtRB1-5'TE-2 and crtRB1-3'TE-1 that can enhance levels of ProVA, was used as donor for improving ProVA in QPM inbred lines CML161 and CML171. Functional markers for identifying the favorable alleles crtRB1-5'TE-2 and crtRB1-3'TE-1 were used in foreground selection, and simple sequence repeat markers were used in background selection for the BC1F1, BC2F1, and BC2F2 generations. The background recovery rates were 77.4 and 84.5 % for CML161 and CML171 populations, respectively, in the BC1F1 generation, and 89.9 and 92.1 % in the BC2F2 generation. With foreground and background selection, the mean ProVA concentration has been improved from 1.60 µg g(-1) in the parent of CML161 to 5.25 µg g(-1) in its BC2F3 offspring, from 1.80 µg g(-1) in the parent of CML171 to 8.14 µg g(-1) in its BC2F3 offspring while maintaining similar QPM characteristics of the recurrent parents. The success from this study offers maize breeders a procedure for increasing ProVA in QPM lines, which will greatly mitigate vitamin A deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries.
Project description:An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0) of chickpea ?our (CF)-based muf?n batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat ?our (WF) substitute in muf?ns, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ?C to 90 ?C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol-1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muf?n batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muf?ns.