Prediction of Transporter-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions for Baricitinib.
ABSTRACT: Baricitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor, undergoes active renal tubular secretion. Baricitinib was not predicted to inhibit hepatic and renal uptake and efflux drug transporters, based on the ratio of the unbound maximum eliminating-organ inlet concentration and the in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ). In vitro, baricitinib was a substrate for organic anion transporter (OAT)3, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE)2-K, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Probenecid, a strong OAT3 inhibitor, increased the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC[0-∞] ) of baricitinib by twofold and decreased renal clearance to 69% of control in healthy subjects. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling reproduced the renal clearance of baricitinib and the inhibitory effect of probenecid using the in vitro IC50 value of 4.4 μM. Using ibuprofen and diclofenac in vitro IC50 values of 4.4 and 3.8 μM toward OAT3, 1.2 and 1.0 AUC(0-∞) ratios of baricitinib were predicted. These predictions suggest clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with ibuprofen and diclofenac are unlikely.
Project description:Drug-induced nephrotoxicity still hampers drug development, because current translation from in vitro or animal studies to human lacks high predictivity. Often, renal adverse effects are recognized only during clinical stages of drug development. The current study aimed to establish a robust and a more complete human cell model suitable for screening of drug-related interactions and nephrotoxicity. In addition to endogenously expressed renal organic cation transporters and efflux transporters, conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) were completed by transduction of cells with the organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 or OAT3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting upon exposure to the OAT substrate fluorescein successfully enriched transduced cells. A panel of organic anions was screened for drug-interactions in ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3. The cytotoxic response to the drug-interactions with antivirals was further examined by cell viability assays. Upon subcloning, concentration-dependent fluorescein uptake was found with a higher affinity for ciPTEC-OAT1 (Km?=?0.8?±?0.1 ?M) than ciPTEC-OAT3 (Km?=?3.7?±?0.5 ?M). Co-exposure to known OAT1 and/or OAT3 substrates (viz. para-aminohippurate, estrone sulfate, probenecid, furosemide, diclofenac, and cimetidine) in cultures spanning 29 passage numbers revealed relevant inhibitory potencies, confirming the robustness of our model for drug-drug interactions studies. Functional OAT1 was directly responsible for cytotoxicity of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir, while a drug interaction with zidovudine was not associated with decreased cell viability. Our data demonstrate that human-derived ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3 are promising platforms for highly predictive drug screening during early phases of drug development.
Project description:para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is a second-line antituberculosis drug that has been used to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis for more than 60 years. Renal secretion and glomerular filtration are the major pathways for the elimination of PAS. We comprehensively studied PAS transport by using cell lines that overexpressed various transporters and found that PAS acts as a novel substrate of an organic anionic polypeptide (OATP1B1), organic cationic transporters (OCT1 and OCT2), and organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3) but is not a substrate of any ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Net PAS uptake was measured, and the transport affinities (Km values) for OATP1B1, OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, and OAT3 were found to be 50.0, 20.3, 28.7, 78.1, and 100.1 ?M, respectively. The net uptake rates suggested that renal OAT1 and OAT3 play relatively major roles in PAS elimination. The representative inhibitors rifampin for OATP1B1, probenecid for OAT1 and OAT3, and verapamil for OCT1 and OCT2 greatly inhibited PAS uptake, suggesting that PAS is dependent on multiple transporters for uptake. We also evaluated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and metformin for the inhibition of PAS uptake via these transporters. Half-maximal (50%) inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were kinetically determined and used to predict the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) affecting these transporters' activity toward PAS. We found that rifampin, probenecid, ibuprofen, naproxen, cimetidine, and quinidine each exhibited a significant potential for in vivo DDIs with PAS. In this study, PAS was found to be a novel substrate of several transporters, and drugs that inhibit these transporters can reduce PAS elimination.
Project description:Multiple doses of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) together with emtricitabine is effective for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). TDF is converted to tenofovir (TFV) in circulation, which is subsequently cleared via tubular secretion by organic ion transporters (OATs; OAT1 and OAT3). Using in vitro kinetic parameters for TFV and the OAT1 and OAT3 inhibitor probenecid, a bottom-up physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was successfully developed for the first time that accurately describes the probenecid-TFV interaction. This model predicted an increase in TFV plasma exposure by 60%, which was within 15% of the observed clinical pharmacokinetic data, and a threefold decrease in renal cells exposure following coadministration of a 600 mg TDF dose with 2 g probenecid. When compared with multiple-dose regimens, a single-dose probenecid-boosted TDF regimen may be effective for HIV PrEP and improve adherence and safety by minimizing TFV-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing TFV accumulation in renal cells.
Project description:The substrate potentials of antituberculosis drugs on solute carrier (SLC) transporters are not well characterized to date, despite a well-established understanding of their drug dispositions and pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated comprehensively the substrate potentials of the 22 currently available antituberculosis drugs for SLC family transporter-mediated uptake, using Xenopus laevis oocytes and stably transfected HEK-293 cells in vitro The result suggested that ethambutol, isoniazid, amoxicillin, and prothionamide act as novel substrates for the SLC transporters. In addition, in the presence of representative transporter inhibitors, the uptake of the antituberculosis drugs was markedly decreased compared with the uptake in the absence of inhibitor, suggesting involvement of the corresponding transporters. A cellular uptake study was performed, and the Km values of ethambutol were found to be 526.1 ± 15.6, 212.0 ± 20.1, 336.8 ± 20.1, and 455.0 ± 28 μM for organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, OCTN1, and OCTN2, respectively. Similarly, the Km of prothionamide was 805.8 ± 23.4 μM for OCT1, while the Km values of isoniazid and amoxicillin for organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) were 233.7 ± 14.1 and 161.4 ± 10.6 μM, respectively. The estimated in vivo drug-drug interaction indexes from in vitro transporter inhibition kinetics for verapamil, probenecid, and ibuprofen against ethambutol, prothionamide, isoniazid, and amoxicillin were found to show potential for clinical drug interactions. In conclusion, this is the first study that demonstrated 22 antituberculosis drug interactions with transporters. This study will be helpful for mechanistic understanding of the disposition, drug-drug interactions, and pharmacokinetics of these antituberculosis drugs.
Project description:The tripeptide GSH is important in maintenance of renal redox status and defense against reactive electrophiles and oxidants. Previous studies showed that GSH is transported across the basolateral plasma membrane (BLM) into the renal proximal tubule by both sodium-coupled and sodium-independent pathways. Substrate specificity and inhibitor studies suggested the function of several carriers, including organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3). To test the hypothesis that rat Oat3 can function in renal GSH transport, the cDNA for rat Oat3 was expressed as a His6-tagged protein in E. coli, purified from inclusion bodies and by Ni2+-affinity chromatography, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. cDNA-expressed and reconstituted Oat3 transported both GSH and p-aminohippurate (PAH) in exchange for 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and 2-OG and PAH in exchange for GSH, and PAH uptake was inhibited by both probenecid and furosemide, consistent with function of Oat3. mRNA expression of Oat3 and several other potential carriers was detected by RT-PCR in rat kidney cortex but was absent from NRK-52E cells, a rat proximal tubular cell line. Basolateral uptake of GSH in NRK-52E cells showed little PAH- or 2-OG-stimulated uptake. We conclude that Oat3 can function in GSH uptake and that NRK-52E cells possess a low background rate of GSH uptake, making these cells a good model for overexpression of specific, putative GSH carriers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The human organic cation transporter-1 (OCT-1) is the primary active protein for imatinib uptake into target BCR-ABL-positive cells. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients on imatinib to manage musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: Here we investigated the impact of NSAIDs on functional activity of the OCT-1 (OCT-1 activity; OA) in CML cells. RESULTS: Although ten of twelve NSAIDs tested had no significant impact on OA (P>0.05), we observed increased OA (27% increase in K562; 22% increase in KU812 cells, P<0.05) and reduced IC50(imatinib) when treated with diclofenac. Co-incubation with imatinib and diclofenac resulted in a significantly lower viable cell number compared with imatinib alone. In contrast, ibuprofen led to a significant decrease in OA, an increase in IC50(imatinib) and thus reduced the cytotoxicity of imatinib. In primary CML samples, diclofenac significantly increased OA, particularly in patients with low OA (<4 ng per 200 000 cells), and significantly decreased IC50(imatinib). Ibuprofen induced significant decreases in OA in CML samples and healthy donors. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the expected impact of these two drugs on OA, ibuprofen should be avoided in combination with imatinib. Further studies are warranted regarding the potential benefit of diclofenac to improve OA in a clinical setting.
Project description:1. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is being investigated as an antioxidant for several conditions including traumatic brain injury, but the mechanism by which it crosses membrane barriers is unknown. We have attempted to understand how the transporter inhibitor, probenecid, affects NAC pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the interaction of NAC with transporters. 2. Juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats were administered NAC alone or in combination with probenecid intraperitoneally. Plasma and brain samples were collected serially and NAC concentrations were measured. Transporter studies were conducted with human embryonic kidney-293 cells that overexpress organic anion transporter (OAT)1 or OAT3 and with human multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP)1 or MRP4 membrane vesicles. 3. NAC area under the curve was increased in plasma (1.65-fold) and brain (2.41-fold) by probenecid. The apparent plasma clearance was decreased by 65%. Time- and concentration-dependent NAC uptake that was inhibitable by probenecid was observed with OAT1 and OAT3. No uptake of NAC was observed with MRP1 or MRP4. 4. Our results indicate for the first time that NAC is substrate for OAT1 and OAT3 and that probenecid increases NAC plasma and brain exposure in vivo. These data provide insight regarding how NAC crosses biological barriers and suggest a promising therapeutic strategy to increase NAC exposure.
Project description:Enalaprilat is the active metabolite of enalapril, a widely used antihypertension drug. The human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), which is highly expressed in the kidney, plays a critical role in the renal clearance of many drugs. While urinary excretion is the primary elimination route of enalaprilat, direct involvement of OAT3 has not been reported so far. In the present study, OAT3-mediated uptake of enalaprilat was first characterized, and the inhibition of OAT3 transport activity was then examined for a number of flavonoid and drug molecules with diverse structures. A varying degree of inhibition potency was demonstrated for flavonoids, with IC50 values ranging from 0.03 to 22.6 µM against OAT3 transport activity. In addition, commonly used drugs such as urate transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitors also displayed potent inhibition on OAT3-mediated enalaprilat uptake. Pharmacophore and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analyses revealed the presence of a polar center and a hydrophobic region involved in OAT3-inhibitor binding. For the polar center, hydroxyl groups present in flavonoids could act as either hydrogen bond donors or acceptors and the number and position of hydroxyl groups were critical drivers for inhibition potency, while carboxyl groups present in some drugs could form ionic bridges with OAT3. The predicted inhibition potencies by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were correlated well with experimental IC50 values. Taken together, the present study identified OAT3-mediated uptake of enalaprilat as an important mechanism for its renal clearance, which may be liable for drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. The established computational models revealed unique structural features for OAT3 inhibitors and could be used for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of OAT3 inhibition. The clinical relevance of the inhibition of OAT3-mediated enalaprilat uptake warrants further investigation, particularly in populations where herbal remedies and drugs are used concomitantly.
Project description:Celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and nimesulide are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) very commonly used for the treatment of moderate to mild pain, together with paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very widely used analgesic with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect. In the study reported here, we tested the efficacy of celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen on preprotachykinin mRNA synthesis, substance P (SP) release, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) translocation in rat cultured sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). The efficacy of these NSAIDs was compared with the efficacy of paracetamol and nimesulide in in vitro models of hyperalgesia (investigated previously). While nimesulide and paracetamol, as in previous experiments, decreased the percentage of cultured DRG neurons showing translocation of PKCɛ caused by 100 nM thrombin or 1 μM bradykinin in a dose-dependent manner, the other NSAIDs tested did not have a significant effect. The amount of SP released by peptidergic neurons and the expression level of preprotachykinin mRNA were assessed in basal conditions and after 70 minutes or 36 hours of stimulation with an inflammatory soup (IS) containing potassium chloride, thrombin, bradykinin, and endothelin-1. The release of SP at 70 minutes was inhibited only by nimesulide, while celecoxib and diclofenac were effective at 36 hours. The mRNA basal level of the SP precursor preprotachykinin expressed in DRG neurons was reduced only by nimesulide, while the increased levels expressed during treatment with the IS were significantly reduced by all drugs tested, with the exception of ibuprofen. All drugs were able to decrease basal and IS-stimulated PGE(2) release. Our study demonstrates novel mechanisms of action of commonly used NSAIDS.
Project description:Herb-drug interactions (HDIs) resulting from concomitant use of herbal products with clinical drugs may cause adverse reactions. Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and 3 (OAT3) are highly expressed in the kidney and play a key role in the renal elimination of substrate drugs. So far, little is known about the herbal extracts that could modulate OAT1 and OAT3 activities.HEK293 cells stably expressing human OAT1 (HEK-OAT1) and OAT3 (HEK-OAT3) were established and characterized. One hundred seventy-two extracts from 37 medicinal and economic plants were prepared. An initial concentration of 5 µg/ml for each extract was used to evaluate their effects on 6-carboxylfluorescein (6-CF) uptake in HEK-OAT1 and HEK-OAT3 cells. Concentration-dependent inhibition studies were conducted for those extracts with more than 50% inhibition to OAT1 and OAT3. The extract of Juncus effusus, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, was assessed for its effect on the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of furosemide, a diuretic drug which is a known substrate of both OAT1 and OAT3.More than 30% of the plant extracts at the concentration of 5 µg/ml showed strong inhibitory effect on the 6-CF uptake mediated by OAT1 (61 extracts) and OAT3 (55 extracts). Among them, three extracts for OAT1 and fourteen extracts for OAT3 were identified as strong inhibitors with IC50 values being <5 µg/ml. Juncus effusus showed a strong inhibition to OAT3 in vitro, and markedly altered the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of furosemide in rats.The present study identified the potential interactions of medicinal and economic plants with human OAT1 and OAT3, which is helpful to predict and to avoid potential OAT1- and OAT3-mediated HDIs.