Impact of Mutations on the Binding Pocket of Soybean Lipoxygenase: Implications for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer.
ABSTRACT: Soybean lipoxygenase catalyzes a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction and serves as a prototype for hydrogen tunneling in enzymes due to the unusually high kinetic isotope effect and significant modulation of the rate constant and kinetic isotope effect by mutation. Herein these experimental observations are interpreted in the context of changes to the substrate binding pocket in microsecond molecular dynamics simulations of wild-type and mutant soybean lipoxygenase. The binding pocket exhibits an hourglass shape with residues L546 and L754 bracketing the bottleneck, positioning the linoleic acid substrate for PCET. Mutation of I553 to less bulky residues slightly increases the width of the bottleneck and the volume of the binding pocket. Mutating L546 or L754 to a smaller residue also enlarges this width and volume, and mutating both has an even more dramatic effect. This analysis illustrates how mutation of the substrate binding pocket can be used as a strategy to tune the kinetics.
Project description:The proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase has served as a prototype for understanding hydrogen tunneling in enzymes. Herein this PCET reaction is studied with mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy simulations. The free energy surfaces are computed as functions of the proton donor-acceptor (C-O) distance and the proton coordinate, and the potential of mean force is computed as a function of the C-O distance, inherently including anharmonicity. The simulation results are used to calculate the kinetic isotope effects for the wild-type enzyme (WT) and the L546A/L754A double mutant (DM), which have been measured experimentally to be ?80 and ?700, respectively. The PCET reaction is found to be exoergic for WT and slightly endoergic for the DM, and the equilibrium C-O distance for the reactant is found to be ?0.2 Å greater for the DM than for WT. The larger equilibrium distance for the DM, which is due mainly to less optimal substrate binding in the expanded binding cavity, is primarily responsible for its higher kinetic isotope effect. The calculated potentials of mean force are anharmonic and relatively soft at shorter C-O distances, allowing efficient thermal sampling of the shorter distances required for effective hydrogen tunneling. The primarily local electrostatic field at the transferring hydrogen is ?100 MV/cm in the direction to facilitate proton transfer and increases dramatically as the C-O distance decreases. These simulations suggest that the overall protein environment is important for conformational sampling of active substrate configurations aligned for proton transfer, but the PCET reaction is influenced primarily by local electrostatic effects that facilitate conformational sampling of shorter proton donor-acceptor distances required for effective hydrogen tunneling.
Project description:Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) plays a vital role in many biological and chemical processes. PCET rate constant expressions are available for various well-defined regimes, and determining which expression is appropriate for a given system is essential for reliable modeling. Quantitative diagnostics have been devised to characterize the vibronic nonadiabaticity between the electron-proton quantum subsystem and the classical nuclei, as well as the electron-proton nonadiabaticity between the electrons and proton(s) within the quantum subsystem. Herein these diagnostics are applied to a model of the active site of the enzyme soybean lipoxygenase, which catalyzes a PCET reaction that exhibits unusually high deuterium kinetic isotope effects at room temperature. Both semiclassical and electronic charge density diagnostics illustrate vibronic and electron-proton nonadiabaticity for this PCET reaction, supporting the use of the Golden rule nonadiabatic rate constant expression with a specific form of the vibronic coupling. This type of characterization will be useful for theoretical modeling of a broad range of PCET processes.
Project description:Lipoxygenases are widespread enzymes found in virtually all eukaryotes, including fungi, and, more recently, in prokaryotes. These enzymes act on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates (C18 to C20), raising questions regarding how the substrate threads its way from solvent to the active site. Herein, we report a comparison of the temperature dependence of isotope effects on first- and second-order rate constants among single-site variants of the prototypic plant enzyme soybean lipoxygenase-1 substituted at amino acid residues inferred to impact substrate binding. We created 10 protein variants including four amino acid positions, Val-750, Ile-552, Ile-839, and Trp-500, located within a previously proposed substrate portal. The conversion of these bulky hydrophobic side chains to smaller side chains is concluded to increase the mobility of flanking helices, giving rise to increased off rates for substrate dissociation from the enzyme. In this manner, we identified a specific "binding network" that can regulate movement of the substrate from the solvent to the active site. Taken together with our previous findings on C-H and O2 activation of soybean lipoxygenase-1, these results support the emergence of multiple complementary networks within a single protein scaffold that modulate different steps along the enzymatic reaction coordinate.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOs) comprise a class of substrate activating mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes which catalyze the hydroperoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. A commonly proposed mechanism for LO catalysis involves H-atom abstraction by an FeIII-OH- site, best described as a proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) process, followed by direct reaction of O2 with the resulting substrate radical to yield product. An alternative mechanism that has also been discussed involves the abstraction of a proton from the substrate by the FeIII-OH leading to a sigma-organoiron intermediate, where the subsequent sigma bond insertion of dioxygen into the C-Fe bond completes the reaction. H-atom abstraction is favored by a high E(o) of the FeII/FeIII couple and high pK(a) of water bound to the ferrous state, while an organoiron mechanism would be favored by a low E(o) (to keep the site oxidized) and a high pK(a) of water bound to the ferric state (to deprotonate the substrate). A first coordination sphere mutant of soybean LO (N694C) has been prepared and characterized by near-infrared circular dichroism (CD) and variable-temperature, variable-field (VTVH) magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopies (FeII site), as well as UV/vis absorption, UV/vis CD, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies (FeIII site). These studies suggest that N694C has a lowered E degrees of the FeII/FeIII couple and a raised pKa of water bound to the ferric site relative to wild type soybean lipoxygenase-1 (WT sLO-1) which would favor the organoiron mechanism. However, the observation in N694C of a significant deuterium isotope effect, anaerobic reduction of iron by substrate, and a substantial decrease in k(cat) (approximately 3000-fold) support H-atom abstraction as the relevant substrate-activation mechanism in sLO-1.
Project description:Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) underpins energy conversion in biology. PCET may occur with the unidirectional or bidirectional transfer of a proton and electron and may proceed synchronously or asynchronously. To illustrate the role of PCET in biology, this review presents complementary biological and model systems that explore PCET in electron transfer (ET) through hydrogen bonds [azurin as compared to donor-acceptor (D-A) hydrogen-bonded networks], the activation of C-H bonds [alcohol dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase (SLO) as compared to Fe(III) metal complexes], and the generation and transport of amino acid radicals [photosystem II (PSII) and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) as compared to tyrosine-modified photoactive Re(I) and Ru(II) complexes]. In providing these comparisons, the fundamental principles of PCET in biology are illustrated in a tangible way.
Project description:The reaction of soybean lipoxygenase-1 with linoleic acid has been extensively studied and displays very large kinetic isotope effects. In this work, substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects as well as the viscosity dependence of the oxidation of arachidonic acid were investigated. The hydrogen atom abstraction step was rate-determining at all temperatures, but was partially masked by a viscosity-dependent step at ambient temperatures. The observed KIEs on k(cat) were large ( approximately 100 at 25 degrees C).
Project description:The second helix in lipoxygenases adapts to permit substrate access to the active site, but details of this process are varied and poorly understood. We therefore examined the dynamics of helix 2 in solutions of spin-labeled soybean lipoxygenase-1 and spin relaxation at 60 K of the spin-labels by catalytic iron. Helix 2 in soybean lipoxygenase structures is surface-exposed and contains one turn of ?-helix, centrally located. A site-directed spin-label scan of 18 of the 21 helix 2 residues, and electron paramagnetic resonance, showed that the ?-helical segment became unusually mobile, on a nanosecond time scale, under conditions favoring substrate binding (pH 9 and lipid addition), while segments before and after had relatively unchanged dynamics. Backbone dynamics of residues in the ?-helical segment appeared to be correlated, at pH 9. Samples also were frozen to examine the polarity and proticity of the local environments, the effect of the local environment on intrinsic relaxation, and dipolar relaxation by two symmetries of catalytic iron. The average hyperfine tensor component, Azz, of four ?-helix residues decreased by 1.75 G, with an increase in pH from 7 to 9, while it remained unaffected for nearby buried residues. Power saturation data suggested the change in polarity specific to the ?-helix altered the intrinsic relaxation rates. Different symmetries of iron contributed to distance-dependent magnetic relaxation. We interpret these data to mean that a ?-helix in the second helix of plant lipoxygenases is highly dynamic and is the site where lipid chains penetrate to inner helices that outline the substrate pocket.
Project description:The rate constants for typical concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions depend on the vibronic coupling between the diabatic reactant and product states. The form of the vibronic coupling is different for electronically adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions, which are associated with hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and electron-proton transfer (EPT) mechanisms, respectively. Most PCET rate constant expressions rely on the Condon approximation, which assumes that the vibronic coupling is independent of the nuclear coordinates of the solute and the solvent or protein. Herein we test the Condon approximation for PCET vibronic couplings. The dependence of the vibronic coupling on molecular geometry is investigated for an open and a stacked transition state geometry of the phenoxyl-phenol self-exchange reaction. The calculations indicate that the open geometry is electronically nonadiabatic, corresponding to an EPT mechanism that involves significant electronic charge redistribution, while the stacked geometry is predominantly electronically adiabatic, corresponding primarily to an HAT mechanism. Consequently, a single molecular system can exhibit both HAT and EPT character. The dependence of the vibronic coupling on the solvent or protein configuration is examined for the soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. The calculations indicate that this PCET reaction is electronically nonadiabatic with a vibronic coupling that does not depend significantly on the protein environment. Thus, the Condon approximation is shown to be valid for the solvent and protein nuclear coordinates but invalid for the solute nuclear coordinates in certain PCET systems. These results have significant implications for the calculation of rate constants, as well as mechanistic interpretations, of PCET reactions.
Project description:Soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) catalyzes the C-H abstraction from the reactive carbon (C-11) in linoleic acid as the first and rate-determining step in the formation of alkylhydroperoxides. While previous labeling strategies have focused on deuterium labeling to ascertain the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects for this reaction, there is an emerging interest and need for selectively enriched 13C isotopologues. In this report, we present synthetic strategies for site-specific 13C labeled linoleic acid substrates. We take advantage of a Corey-Fuchs formyl to terminal 13C-labeled alkyne conversion, using 13CBr4 as the labeling source, to reduce the number of steps from a previous fatty acid 13C synthetic labeling approach. The labeled linoleic acid substrates are useful as nuclear tunneling markers and for extracting active site geometries of the enzyme-substrate complex in lipoxygenase.
Project description:The proposed contributions of distinct classes of local versus global protein motions during enzymatic bond making/breaking processes has been difficult to verify. We employed soybean lipoxygenase-1 as a model system to investigate the impact of high pressure at variable temperatures on the hydrogen-tunneling properties of the wild-type protein and three single-site mutants. For all variants, pressure dramatically elevates the enthalpies of activation for the C-H activation. In contrast, the primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for C-H activation and their corresponding temperature dependencies remain unchanged up to ca. 700?bar. The differential impact of elevated hydrostatic pressure on the temperature dependencies of rate constants versus substrate KIEs provides direct evidence for two distinct classes of protein motions: local, isotope-dependent donor-acceptor distance-sampling modes, and a more global, isotope-independent search for productive protein conformational sub-states.