On the calculation of sample entropy using continuous and discrete human gait data.
ABSTRACT: Sample entropy (SE) has relative consistency using biologically-derived, discrete data >500 data points. For certain populations, collecting this quantity is not feasible and continuous data has been used. The effect of using continuous versus discrete data on SE is unknown, nor are the relative effects of sampling rate and input parameters m (comparison vector length) and r (tolerance). Eleven subjects walked for 10-minutes and continuous joint angles (480Hz) were calculated for each lower-extremity joint. Data were downsampled (240, 120, 60Hz) and discrete range-of-motion was calculated. SE was quantified for angles and range-of-motion at all sampling rates and multiple combinations of parameters. A differential relationship between joints was observed between range-of-motion and joint angles. Range-of-motion SE showed no difference; whereas, joint angle SE significantly decreased from ankle to knee to hip. To confirm findings from biological data, continuous signals with manipulations to frequency, amplitude, and both were generated and underwent similar analysis to the biological data. In general, changes to m, r, and sampling rate had a greater effect on continuous compared to discrete data. Discrete data was robust to sampling rate and m. It is recommended that different data types not be compared and discrete data be used for SE.
Project description:Evidence suggests that the tibiotalar and subtalar joints provide near six degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion. Yet, kinematic models frequently assume one DOF at each of these joints. In this study, we quantified the accuracy of kinematic models to predict joint angles at the tibiotalar and subtalar joints from skin-marker data. Models included 1 or 3 DOF at each joint. Ten asymptomatic subjects, screened for deformities, performed 1.0m/s treadmill walking and a balanced, single-leg heel-rise. Tibiotalar and subtalar joint angles calculated by inverse kinematics for the 1 and 3 DOF models were compared to those measured directly in vivo using dual-fluoroscopy. Results demonstrated that, for each activity, the average error in tibiotalar joint angles predicted by the 1 DOF model were significantly smaller than those predicted by the 3 DOF model for inversion/eversion and internal/external rotation. In contrast, neither model consistently demonstrated smaller errors when predicting subtalar joint angles. Additionally, neither model could accurately predict discrete angles for the tibiotalar and subtalar joints on a per-subject basis. Differences between model predictions and dual-fluoroscopy measurements were highly variable across subjects, with joint angle errors in at least one rotation direction surpassing 10° for 9 out of 10 subjects. Our results suggest that both the 1 and 3 DOF models can predict trends in tibiotalar joint angles on a limited basis. However, as currently implemented, neither model can predict discrete tibiotalar or subtalar joint angles for individual subjects. Inclusion of subject-specific attributes may improve the accuracy of these models.
Project description:Camera-based motion capture systems are the current gold standard for motion analysis. However, the use of wireless inertial sensor-based systems is increasing in popularity, largely due to convenient portability. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of wireless inertial sensors for measuring hip joint motion with a functional calibration requiring only one motion (walking) and neutral standing. Data were concurrently collected using a 10-camera motion capture system and a wireless inertial sensor-based system. Hip joint angles were measured for 10 participants during walking, jumping jack, and bilateral squat tasks and for a subset (n?=?5) a jump turn task. Camera-based system hip joint angles were calculated from retro-reflective marker positions and sensor-based system angles were calculated in MATLAB using the sensor output quaternions. Most hip joint angles measured with the sensor-based system were within 6° of angles measured with the camera motion capture system. Accurate measurement of motion outside of a laboratory setting has broad implications for diagnosing movement abnormalities, monitoring sports performance, and assessing rehabilitation progress.
Project description:Surgical repairs of torn rotator cuff tendons frequently fail. Immobilization has been shown to improve tissue mechanical properties in an animal model of rotator cuff repair, and passive motion has been shown to improve joint mechanics in animal models of flexor tendon repair. Our objective was to determine if daily passive motion would improve joint mechanics in comparison with continuous immobilization in a rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that daily passive motion would result in improved passive shoulder joint mechanics in comparison with continuous immobilization initially and that there would be no differences in passive joint mechanics or insertion site mechanical properties after four weeks of remobilization.A supraspinatus injury was created and was surgically repaired in sixty-five Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were separated into three postoperative groups (continuous immobilization, passive motion protocol 1, and passive motion protocol 2) for two weeks before all underwent a remobilization protocol for four weeks. Serial measurements of passive shoulder mechanics (internal and external range of motion and joint stiffness) were made before surgery and at two and six weeks after surgery. After the animals were killed, collagen organization and mechanical properties of the tendon-to-bone insertion site were determined.Total range of motion for both passive motion groups (49% and 45% of the pre-injury values) was less than that for the continuous immobilization group (59% of the pre-injury value) at two weeks and remained significantly less following four weeks of remobilization exercise. Joint stiffness at two weeks was increased for both passive motion groups in comparison with the continuous immobilization group. At both two and six weeks after repair, internal range of motion was significantly decreased whereas external range of motion was not. There were no differences between the groups in terms of collagen organization or mechanical properties.In this model, immediate postoperative passive motion was found to be detrimental to passive shoulder mechanics. We speculate that passive motion results in increased scar formation in the subacromial space, thereby resulting in decreased range of motion and increased joint stiffness. Passive motion had no effect on collagen organization or tendon mechanical properties measured six weeks after surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The postoperative nursing intervention with immediate cryotherapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) remains elusive regarding the postoperative pain and range of motion (ROM) for patients undergoing computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (CAS-TKA). METHODS:A prospective, randomized controlled trial with a purposive sampling method was utilized. Sixty patients scheduled for a unilateral CAS-TKA at a medical center were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). The intervention group applied programed cryotherapy and CPM within 1?h while returning to the ward on the day of surgery, while the control group did not. Data were analyzed using mixed models to compare the numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain, ROM, and swelling at postoperative day (POD) 4. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in the NRS score between the groups (p = 0.168). The intervention group had significantly higher ROM than the control group (98° vs. 91°, p = 0.004) at POD 4. Although no significant difference in joint swelling was found between groups (p = 0.157), the intervention group had lower mean joint swelling (32.2?cm) than the control group (33.9?cm). CONCLUSIONS:Immediate programmed cryotherapy and continuous passive motion could help to improve ROM quickly after CAS-TKA. It should be incorporated into the daily nursing plan for patients undergoing CAS-TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04136431 . Registered 23 October 2019-retrospectively registered.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Diagrammatic recording of finger joint angles by using two criss-crossed paper strips can be a quick substitute to the standard goniometry. As a preliminary step toward clinical validation of the diagrammatic technique, the current study employed healthy subjects and non-professional raters to explore whether reliability estimates of the diagrammatic goniometry are comparable with those of the standard procedure. METHODS: The study included two procedurally different parts, which were replicated by assigning 24 medical students to act interchangeably as 12 subjects and 12 raters. A larger component of the study was designed to compare goniometers side-by-side in measurement of finger joint angles varying from subject to subject. In the rest of the study, the instruments were compared by parallel evaluations of joint angles similar for all subjects in a situation of simulated change of joint range of motion over time. The subjects used special guides to position the joints of their left ring finger at varying angles of flexion and extension. The obtained diagrams of joint angles were converted to numerical values by computerized measurements. The statistical approaches included calculation of appropriate intraclass correlation coefficients, standard errors of measurements, proportions of measurement differences of 5 or less degrees, and significant differences between paired observations. RESULTS: Reliability estimates were similar for both goniometers. Intra-rater and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.69 to 0.93. The corresponding standard errors of measurements ranged from 2.4 to 4.9 degrees. Repeated measurements of a considerable number of raters fell within clinically non-meaningful 5 degrees of each other in proportions comparable with a criterion value of 0.95. Data collected with both instruments could be similarly interpreted in a simulated situation of change of joint range of motion over time. CONCLUSIONS: The paper goniometer and the standard goniometer can be used interchangeably by non-professional raters for evaluation of normal finger joints. The obtained results warrant further research to assess clinical performance of the paper strip technique.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the effect of (new) treatments or analyse prevalence and risk factors of contractures, rating scales are used based on joint range of motion. However, cut-off points for levels of severity vary between scales, and it seems unclear how cut-off points relate to function. The purpose of this study was to compare severity ratings of different rating scales for the shoulder and elbow and relate these with functional range of motion. METHODS:Often used contracture severity rating scales in orthopedics, physiotherapy, and burns were included. Functional range of motion angles for the shoulder and elbow were derived from a recent synthesis published by our group. Shoulder flexion and elbow flexion range of motion data of patients three months after a burn injury were rated with each of the scales to illustrate the effects of differences in classifications. Secondly, the shoulder and elbow flexion range of motion angles were related to the required angles to perform over 50 different activities of daily living tasks. RESULTS:Eighteen rating scales were included (shoulder: 6, elbow: 12). Large differences in the number of severity levels and the cut-off points between scales were determined. Rating the measured range of motions with the different scales showed substantial inconsistency in the number of joints without impairment (shoulder: 14-36%, elbow: 26-100%) or with severe impairment (shoulder: < 10%-29%, elbow 0%-17%). Cut-off points of most scales were not related to actual function in daily living. CONCLUSION:There is an urgent need for rating scales that express the severity of contractures in terms of loss of functionality. This study proposes a direction for a solution.
Project description:In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same. The ground medium is the key factor that changes the toe postures adopted by ostriches during the stance phase in slow to fast locomotion. The 3rd toe and the 4th toe are connected by the interphalangeal ligament, and the motions of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints are highly synchronized on a loose sand substrate. The 3rd toe and 4th toe are coupled to maintain static balance in slow locomotion and dynamic balance in fast locomotion. In addition, the gait pattern has a marked effect on the range of forward displacement of the toenail (YTN). The ostrich toenail plays an important role in preventing slip and provides traction at push-off in a sandy environment. The metatarsophalangeal joint plays an important role in energy saving during fast locomotion on loose sand substrates. Simulation reveals that the particle velocity field, particle force field and sand particle disturbance in the running gait are denser than those in the walking gait.
Project description:Multistate models are used to characterize individuals' natural histories through diseases with discrete states. Observational data resources based on electronic medical records pose new opportunities for studying such diseases. However, these data consist of observations of the process at discrete sampling times, which may either be pre-scheduled and non-informative, or symptom-driven and informative about an individual's underlying disease status. We have developed a novel joint observation and disease transition model for this setting. The disease process is modeled according to a latent continuous-time Markov chain; and the observation process, according to a Markov-modulated Poisson process with observation rates that depend on the individual's underlying disease status. The disease process is observed at a combination of informative and non-informative sampling times, with possible misclassification error. We demonstrate that the model is computationally tractable and devise an expectation-maximization algorithm for parameter estimation. Using simulated data, we show how estimates from our joint observation and disease transition model lead to less biased and more precise estimates of the disease rate parameters. We apply the model to a study of secondary breast cancer events, utilizing mammography and biopsy records from a sample of women with a history of primary breast cancer.
Project description:Acetabular dysplasia is a known cause of hip osteoarthritis. In addition to abnormal anatomy, changes in kinematics, joint reaction forces (JRFs), and muscle forces could cause tissue damage to the cartilage and labrum, and may contribute to pain and fatigue. The objective of this study was to compare lower extremity joint angles, moments, hip JRFs and muscle forces during gait between patients with symptomatic acetabular dysplasia and healthy controls. Marker trajectories and ground reaction forces were measured in 10 dysplasia patients and 10 typically developing control subjects. A musculoskeletal model was scaled in OpenSim to each subject and subject-specific hip joint centers were determined using reconstructions from CT images. Joint kinematics and moments were calculated using inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics, respectively. Muscle forces and hip JRFs were estimated with static optimization. Inter-group differences were tested for statistical significance (p?0.05) and large effect sizes (d?0.8). Results demonstrated that dysplasia patients had higher medially directed JRFs. Joint angles and moments were mostly similar between the groups, but large inter-group effect sizes suggested some restriction in range of motion by patients at the hip and ankle. Higher medially-directed JRFs and inter-group differences in hip muscle forces likely stem from lateralization of the hip joint center in dysplastic patients. Joint force differences, combined with reductions in range of motion at the hip and ankle may also indicate compensatory strategies by patients with dysplasia to maintain joint stability.
Project description:We develop a deep learning refined kinematic model for accurately assessing upper limb joint angles using a single Kinect v2 sensor. We train a long short-term memory recurrent neural network using a supervised machine learning architecture to compensate for the systematic error of the Kinect kinematic model, taking a marker-based three-dimensional motion capture system (3DMC) as the golden standard. A series of upper limb functional task experiments were conducted, namely hand to the contralateral shoulder, hand to mouth or drinking, combing hair, and hand to back pocket. Our deep learning-based model significantly improves the performance of a single Kinect v2 sensor for all investigated upper limb joint angles across all functional tasks. Using a single Kinect v2 sensor, our deep learning-based model could measure shoulder and elbow flexion/extension waveforms with mean CMCs >0.93 for all tasks, shoulder adduction/abduction, and internal/external rotation waveforms with mean CMCs >0.8 for most of the tasks. The mean deviations of angles at the point of target achieved and range of motion are under 5° for all investigated joint angles during all functional tasks. Compared with the 3DMC, our presented system is easier to operate and needs less laboratory space.