Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of controlled animal studies.
ABSTRACT: AimsStem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a promising therapy for myocardial infarction, but its effects remain incompletely understood. We aim to systematically review the efficacy of EVs on myocardial infarction in both small and large animals.MethodsOn April 5, 2018, we searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases using variations of "myocardial infarction" and "extracellular vesicle". Controlled studies about the treatment effects of stem cell-derived EVs in myocardial infarction animal model were included. Meta-regression analysis was used to reveal the factors affecting the EVs treatments.ResultsOf 1210 studies retrieved, 24 were eligible for meta-analysis. EVs injection was associated with the improvements of left ventricular ejection fraction (12.65%), fractional shortening (7.54%) and the reduction of infarct size/area at risk (-15.55%). Meta-regression analysis did not reveal the association between treatment efficacy and type of stem cell, ligation-to-injection interval, route of delivery, dosage of delivery or follow-up period (all P values > 0.05). The median quality score of eligible studies was only 1, indicating potential risks of bias.ConclusionStem cell-derived EVs improve cardiac function and reduce infarct size in myocardial infarction animals, but current pool-up study reveals no associations between common factors and treatment effects.
Project description:RATIONALE:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are tiny membrane-enclosed droplets released by cells through membrane budding or exocytosis. The myocardial reparative abilities of EVs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have not been directly compared with the source iPSCs. OBJECTIVE:To examine whether iPSC-derived EVs can influence the biological functions of cardiac cells in vitro and to compare the safety and efficacy of iPSC-derived EVs (iPSC-EVs) and iPSCs for cardiac repair in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS:Murine iPSCs were generated, and EVs isolated from culture supernatants by sequential centrifugation. Atomic force microscopy, high-resolution flow cytometry, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and mass spectrometry were used to characterize EV morphology and contents. iPSC-EVs were enriched in miRNAs and proteins with proangiogenic and cytoprotective properties. iPSC-EVs enhanced angiogenic, migratory, and antiapoptotic properties of murine cardiac endothelial cells in vitro. To compare the cardiac reparative capacities in vivo, vehicle, iPSCs, and iPSC-EVs were injected intramyocardially at 48 hours after a reperfused myocardial infarction in mice. Compared with vehicle-injected mice, both iPSC- and iPSC-EV-treated mice exhibited improved left ventricular function at 35 d after myocardial infarction, albeit iPSC-EVs rendered greater improvement. iPSC-EV injection also resulted in reduction in left ventricular mass and superior perfusion in the infarct zone. Both iPSCs and iPSC-EVs preserved viable myocardium in the infarct zone, whereas reduction in apoptosis was significant with iPSC-EVs. iPSC injection resulted in teratoma formation, whereas iPSC-EV injection was safe. CONCLUSIONS:iPSC-derived EVs impart cytoprotective properties to cardiac cells in vitro and induce superior cardiac repair in vivo with regard to left ventricular function, vascularization, and amelioration of apoptosis and hypertrophy. Because of their acellular nature, iPSC-EVs represent a safer alternative for potential therapeutic applications in patients with ischemic myocardial damage.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated improved cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI) after administration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into ischaemic myocardium. A growing body of literature supports paracrine effectors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), as the main mediators of the therapeutic benefits of EPCs. The direct use of paracrine factors is an attractive strategy that harnesses the effects of cell therapy without concerns of cell engraftment or viability. We aim to reproduce the beneficial effects of EPC treatment through delivery of EPC-derived EVs within a shear-thinning gel (STG) for precise localization and sustained delivery.EVs were harvested from EPCs isolated from adult male Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) rats and characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and mass spectrometry. EVs were incorporated into the STG and injected at the border zone in rat models of MI. Haemodynamic function, angiogenesis, and myocardial remodelling were analyzed in five groups: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control, STG control, EVs in PBS, EVs in STG, and EPCs in STG. Electron microscopy and NTA of EVs showed uniform particles of 50-200 nm. EV content analysis revealed several key angiogenic mediators. EV uptake by endothelial cells was confirmed and followed by robust therapeutic angiogenesis. In vivo animal experiments demonstrated that delivery of EVs within the STG resulted in increased peri-infarct vascular proliferation, preservation of ventricular geometry, and improved haemodynamic function post-MI.EPC-derived EVs delivered into ischaemic myocardium via an injectable hydrogel enhanced peri-infarct angiogenesis and myocardial haemodynamics in a rat model of MI. The STG greatly increased therapeutic efficiency and efficacy of EV-mediated myocardial preservation.
Project description:Notwithstanding the uncertainties about the outcomes of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for heart repair, further insights are critically needed to improve this promising approach.To delineate the true effect of BMC therapy for cardiac repair and gain insights for future trials through systematic review and meta-analysis of data from eligible randomized controlled trials.Database searches through August 2014 identified 48 eligible randomized controlled trials (enrolling 2602 patients). Weighted mean differences for changes in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, infarct size, LV end-systolic volume, and LV end-diastolic volume were analyzed with random-effects meta-analysis. Compared with standard therapy, BMC transplantation improved LV ejection fraction (2.92%; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-3.92; P<0.00001), reduced infarct size (-2.25%; 95% confidence interval, -3.55 to -0.95; P=0.0007) and LV end-systolic volume (-6.37 mL; 95% confidence interval, -8.95 to -3.80; P<0.00001), and tended to reduce LV end-diastolic volume (-2.26 mL; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 0.07; P=0.06). Similar effects were noted when data were analyzed after excluding studies with discrepancies in reporting of outcomes. The benefits also persisted when cardiac catheterization was performed in control patients as well. Although imaging modalities partly influenced the outcomes, LV ejection fraction improved in BMC-treated patients when assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Early (<48 hours) BMC injection after myocardial Infarction was more effective in reducing infarct size, whereas BMC injection between 3 and 10 days proved superior toward improving systolic function. A minimum of 50 million BMCs seemed to be necessary, with limited additional benefits seen with increasing cell numbers. BMC therapy was safe and improved clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial Infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular accident during follow-up, albeit with differences between acute myocardial Infarction and chronic ischemic heart disease subgroups.Transplantation of adult BMCs improves LV ejection fraction, reduces infarct size, and ameliorates remodeling in patients with ischemic heart disease. These effects are upheld in the analyses of studies using magnetic resonance imaging and also after excluding studies with discrepant reporting of outcomes. BMC transplantation may also reduce the incidence of death, recurrent myocardial Infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular accident during follow-up.
Project description:Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs) are a promising source for myocardial repair, while the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to mediate cell-cell communication, however, the efficacy and mechanisms of hPSC-CVPC-secreted EVs (hCVPC-EVs) in the infarct healing when given at the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. Here, we report the cardioprotective effects of the EVs secreted from hESC-CVPCs under normoxic (EV-N) and hypoxic (EV-H) conditions in the infarcted heart and the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-related mechanisms. The hCVPC-EVs were confirmed by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking, and immunoblotting analysis. Injection of hCVPC-EVs into acutely infracted murine myocardium significantly improved cardiac function and reduced fibrosis at day 28 post MI, accompanied with the improved vascularization and cardiomyocyte survival at border zones. Consistently, hCVPC-EVs enhanced the tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), improved the cell viability, and attenuated the lactate dehydrogenase release of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) injury. Moreover, the improvement of the EV-H in cardiomyocyte survival and tube formation of HUVECs was significantly better than these in the EV-N. RNA-seq analysis revealed a high abundance of the lncRNA MALAT1 in the EV-H. Its abundance was upregulated in the infarcted myocardium and cardiomyocytes treated with hCVPC-EVs. Overexpression of human MALAT1 improved the cell viability of NRCM with OGD injury, while knockdown of MALAT1 inhibited the hCVPC-EV-promoted tube formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, luciferase activity assay, RNA pull-down, and manipulation of miR-497 levels showed that MALAT1 improved NRCMs survival and HUVEC tube formation through targeting miR-497. These results reveal that hCVPC-EVs promote the infarct healing through improvement of cardiomyocyte survival and angiogenesis. The cardioprotective effects of hCVPC-EVs can be enhanced by hypoxia-conditioning of hCVPCs and are partially contributed by MALAT1 via targeting the miRNA.
Project description:Cell transplantation studies have shown that injection of progenitor cells can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Transplantation of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) results in an increased ejection fraction, but survival and integration are low. Therefore, paracrine factors including extracellular vesicles (EVs) are likely to contribute to the beneficial effects. We investigated the contribution of EVs by transplanting hCPCs with reduced EV secretion. Interestingly, these hCPCs were unable to reduce infarct size post-MI. Moreover, injection of hCPC-EVs did significantly reduce infarct size. Analysis of EV uptake showed cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells primarily positive and a higher Ki67 expression in these cell types. Yes-associated protein (YAP), a proliferation marker associated with Ki67, was also increased in the entire infarcted area. In summary, our data suggest that EV secretion is the driving force behind the short-term beneficial effect of hCPC transplantation on cardiac recovery after MI.
Project description:The ability of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to regulate a broad range of cellular processes has recently been exploited for the treatment of diseases. For example, EVs secreted by stem cells injected into infarcted hearts can induce recovery through the delivery of stem-cell-specific miRNAs. However, the retention of the EVs and the therapeutic effects are short-lived. Here, we show that an engineered hydrogel patch capable of slowly releasing EVs secreted from cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells reduced arrhythmic burden, promoted ejection-fraction recovery, decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis 24 hours after infarction, and reduced infarct size and cell hypertrophy 4 weeks post-infarction when implanted onto infarcted rat hearts. We also show that the EVs are enriched with cardiac-specific miRNAs known to modulate cardiomyocyte-specific processes. The extended delivery of EVs secreted from iPS-cell-derived cardiomyocytes into the heart may help understand heart recovery and treat heart injury.
Project description:Conditioning-like infarct limitation by enhanced level of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated in many animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in vivo. We sought to evaluate the effect of H2S on myocardial infarction across in vivo pre-clinical studies of MIRI using a comprehensive systematic review followed by meta-analysis. Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched for pre-clinical investigation of the effect of H2S on MIRI in vivo. Retained records (6031) were subjected to our pre-defined inclusion criteria then were objectively critiqued. Thirty-two reports were considered eligible to be included in this study and were grouped, based on the time of H2S application, into preconditioning and postconditioning groups. Data were pooled using random effect meta-analysis. We also investigated the possible impact of different experimental variables and the risk of bias on the observed effect size. Preconditioning with H2S (n = 23) caused a significant infarct limitation of - 20.25% (95% CI - 25.02, - 15.47). Similarly, postconditioning with H2S (n = 40) also limited infarct size by - 21.61% (95% CI - 24.17, - 19.05). This cardioprotection was also robust and consistent following sensitivity analyses where none of the pre-defined experimental variables had a significant effect on the observed infarct limitation. H2S shows a significant infarct limitation across in vivo pre-clinical studies of MIRI which include data from 825 animals. This infarct-sparing effect is robust and consistent when H2S is applied before ischemia or at reperfusion, independently on animal size or sulfide source. Validating this infarct limitation using large animals from standard medical therapy background and with co-morbidities should be the way forward.
Project description:Diabetes is a risk factor for myocardial infarction, and outcomes after myocardial infarction are worse among diabetics compared with nondiabetics. Diabetes is associated with impaired Heme clearance. Here, we determined whether heme toxicity and impaired heme clearance contribute to diabetic myocardial infarction injury and assessed IL-10 as a therapeutic agent for diabetic myocardial infarction. Plasma-free hemoglobin was significantly elevated in diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic mice after myocardial infarction. Infarct size had strong correlation to the level of plasma-free hemoglobin. Hemoglobin and reactive iron deposition within the infarct zone were also demonstrated in diabetic MI. IL-10 significantly reduced infarct size and improved cardiac function in diabetic mice. Moreover, IL-10 improved capillary density, reduced apoptosis, and decreased inflammation in the border zone of the infarcted hearts, findings that were partially inhibited by Tin protoporphyrin (a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor). IL-10 upregulated CD163, the hemoglobin:haptoglobin scavenger receptor, and heme oxygenase-1 in THP-1-derived and primary human CD14+ macrophages. IL-10 significantly protected against ischemic injury when HL-1 cardiomyocytes were cotreated with hemoglobin. Together, our findings indicate that IL-10 is cardioprotective in diabetic myocardial infarction via upregulation of heme clearance pathways. These findings implicate heme clearance as a potentially novel therapeutic direction for diabetic myocardial infarction.
Project description:To unveil the role of Angiopoietin-2 in regulating vascular remodeling after myocardial infarction Overall design: Infarct border zone endothelial cells were sorted from myocardial infarction model mice deleting Angiopoietin-2 or Wild-type control.
Project description:Genetically human apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?32 is associated with a decreased risk of ischemic heart disease. ApoE deficiency in mice impairs infarct healing after myocardial infarction (MI). After the ischemic injury, a large number of neutrophils are firstly recruited into the infarct zone and then degrade dead material and promote reparative phase transformation. The role of ApoE in inflammation response in the early stage of MI remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ApoE deficiency on neutrophils' function and myocardial injury after myocardial infarction. By left coronary artery ligation in ApoE -/- and wild-type (WT) mice, we observed increased infarct size and neutrophil infiltration in ApoE -/- mice. Within the infarct zone, more neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were observed in ApoE -/- mice, while increased ex vivo NET formation was detected in ApoE -/- mouse-derived neutrophils through the NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent pathway. Suppressing overproduced NETs reduced myocardial injury in ApoE -/- mice after ligation. In general, our findings reveal a critical role of apolipoprotein E in regulating Ly6G+ neutrophil activation and NET formation, resulting in limiting myocardial injury after myocardial infarction. In such a process, apolipoprotein E regulates NET formation via the ROS-MAPK-MSK1 pathway.