The evolution of skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayers and their topological Hall signature.
ABSTRACT: The topological Hall effect (THE) is the Hall response to an emergent magnetic field, a manifestation of the skyrmion Berry-phase. As the magnitude of THE in magnetic multilayers is an open question, it is imperative to develop comprehensive understanding of skyrmions and other chiral textures, and their electrical fingerprint. Here, using Hall-transport and magnetic-imaging in a technologically viable multilayer film, we show that topological-Hall resistivity scales with the isolated-skyrmion density over a wide range of temperature and magnetic-field, confirming the impact of the skyrmion Berry-phase on electronic transport. While we establish qualitative agreement between the topological-Hall resistivity and the topological-charge density, our quantitative analysis shows much larger topological-Hall resistivity than the prevailing theory predicts for the observed skyrmion density. Our results are fundamental for the skyrmion-THE in multilayers, where interfacial interactions, multiband transport and non-adiabatic effects play an important role, and for skyrmion applications relying on THE.
Project description:Dynamics of string-like objects is an important issue in a broad range of physical systems, including vortex lines in superconductors, viscoelastic polymers, and superstrings in elementary particle physics. In noncentrosymmetric magnets, string forms of magnetic skyrmions are present as topological spin objects, and their current-induced dynamics has recently attracted intense interest. We show in the chiral magnet MnSi that the current-induced deformation dynamics of skyrmion strings results in transport response associated with the real-space Berry phase. Prominent nonlinear Hall signals emerge above the threshold current only in the skyrmion phase. We clarify the mechanism for these nonlinear Hall signals by adopting spin density wave picture to describe the moving skyrmion lattice; deformation of skyrmion strings occurs in an asymmetric manner due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which leads to the nonreciprocal nonlinear Hall response originating from an emergent electromagnetic field. This finding reveals the dynamical nature of string-like objects and consequent transport outcomes in noncentrosymmetric systems.
Project description:Nanometer-scale skyrmions are prospective candidates for information bits in low-power consumption devices owing to their topological nature and controllability with low current density. Studies on skyrmion dynamics in different classes of materials have exploited the topological Hall effect and current-driven fast motion of skyrmionic bubbles. However, the small current track motion of a single skyrmion and few-skyrmion aggregates remains elusive. Here, we report the tracking of creation and extinction and motion of 80-nm-size skyrmions upon directional one-current pulse excitations at low current density of the order of 109 A m-2 in designed devices with the notched hole. The Hall motion of a single skyrmion and the torque motions of few-skyrmion aggregates have been directly revealed. The results exemplify low-current density controls of skyrmions, which will pave the way for the application of skyrmions.
Project description:The direct imaging of current density vector distributions in thin films has remained a daring challenge. Here, we report that an inhomogeneous current distribution can be mapped directly by the trajectories of magnetic half-skyrmions driven by an electrical current in Pt/Co/Ta trilayer, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The half-skyrmion carries a topological charge of 0.5 due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which leads to the half-skyrmion Hall effect. The Hall angle of half-skyrmions is independent of current density and can be reduced to as small as 4° by tuning the thickness of the Co layer. The Hall angle is so small that the elongation path of half-skyrmion approximately delineates the invisible current flow as demonstrated in both a continuous film and a curved track. Our work provides a practical technique to directly map inhomogeneous current distribution even in complex geometries for both fundamental research and industrial applications.
Project description:We propose a new theory of the topological Hall effect (THE) in systems with non-collinear magnetization textures such as magnetic skyrmions. We solve the problem of electron scattering on a magnetic skyrmion exactly, for an arbitrary strength of exchange interaction and the skyrmion size. We report the existence of different regimes of THE and resolve the apparent contradiction between the adiabatic Berry phase theoretical approach and the perturbation theory for THE. We traced how the topological charge Hall effect transforms into the spin Hall effect upon varying the exchange interaction strength or the skyrmion size. This transformation has a nontrivial character: it is accompanied by an oscillating behavior of both charge and spin Hall currents. This hallmark of THE allows one to identify the chirality driven contribution to Hall response in the experiments.
Project description:Magnetic skyrmion is a swirling topological spin texture behaving as an individual particle. It shows a gyro-motion similarly to that of a charged particle under a magnetic field, being led to the transverse shift to the electric current, i.e., skyrmion Hall effect. With the open boundaries of a sample, this results in an accumulation of skyrmions on one side and their depletion on the other side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that this effect propagates non-locally over tens of micrometers even where the electric current is absent, when the narrow wires bridge bar-shaped Pt/Co/Ir heterostructure thin film systems. This nonlocality can be understood in terms of the "chemical potential" gradient for the skyrmion bubble induced by the skyrmion Hall effect in the nonequilibrium steady state under the electric current. The present result shows that the skyrmion Hall effect acts as the skyrmion pump and the thermodynamic concepts can be applied to the aggregate of skyrmion bubbles.
Project description:SrRuO3, a 4d ferromagnet with multiple Weyl nodes at the Fermi level, offers a rich playground to design epitaxial heterostructures and superlattices with fascinating magnetic and magnetotransport properties. Interfacing ultrathin SrRuO3 layers with large spin-orbit coupling 5d transition-metal oxides, such as SrIrO3, results in pronounced peaklike anomalies in the magnetic field dependence of the Hall resistivity. Such anomalies have been attributed either to the formation of Néel-type skyrmions or to modifications of the Berry curvature of the topologically nontrivial conduction bands near the Fermi level of SrRuO3. Here, epitaxial multilayers based on SrRuO3 interfaced with 5d perovskite oxides, such as SrIrO3 and SrHfO3, were studied. This work focuses on the magnetotransport properties of the multilayers, aiming to unravel the role played by the interfaces with 5d perovskites in the peaklike anomalies of the Hall resistance loops of SrRuO3 layers. Interfacing with large band gap insulating SrHfO3 layers did not influence the anomalous Hall resistance loops, while interfacing with the nominally paramagnetic semimetal SrIrO3 resulted in pronounced peaklike anomalies, which have been lately attributed to a topological Hall effect contribution as a result of skyrmions. This interpretation is, however, under strong debate and lately alternative causes, such as inhomogeneity of the thickness and the electronic properties of the SrRuO3 layers, have been considered. Aligned with these latter proposals, our findings reveal the central role played in the anomalies of the Hall resistivity loops by electronic inhomogeneity of SrRuO3 layers due to the interfacing with semimetallic 5d5 SrIrO3.
Project description:The magnetic skyrmion is a nanoscale topological object characterized by the winding of magnetic moments, appearing in magnetic materials with broken inversion symmetry. Because of its low current threshold for driving the skyrmion motion, they have been intensely studied toward novel storage applications by using electron-beam, X-ray, and visible light microscopies. Here, we demonstrate another imaging method for skyrmions by using spin-caloritronic phenomena, that is, the spin Seebeck and anomalous Nernst effects, as a probe of magnetic texture. We scanned a focused heating spot on a Hall-cross shaped MgO/CoFeB/Ta/W multilayer film and mapped the magnitude as well as the direction of the resultant thermoelectric current due to the spin-caloritronic phenomena. Our experimental and calculation reveal that the characteristic patterns in the thermoelectric signal distribution reflect the skyrmions' magnetic texture. The thermoelectric microscopy will be a complementary and useful imaging technique for the development of skyrmion devices owing to the unique symmetry of the spin-caloritronic phenomena.
Project description:Skyrmions hold promise for next-generation magnetic storage as their nanoscale dimensions may enable high information storage density and their low threshold for current-driven motion may enable ultra-low energy consumption. Skyrmion-hosting nanowires not only serve as a natural platform for magnetic racetrack memory devices but also stabilize skyrmions. Here we use the topological Hall effect (THE) to study phase stability and current-driven dynamics of skyrmions in MnSi nanowires. THE is observed in an extended magnetic field-temperature window (15-30 K), suggesting stabilization of skyrmions in nanowires compared with the bulk. Furthermore, we show in nanowires that under the high current density of 10(8)-10(9) A m(-2), the THE decreases with increasing current densities, which demonstrates the current-driven motion of skyrmions generating the emergent electric field in the extended skyrmion phase region. These results open up the exploration of skyrmions in nanowires for fundamental physics and magnetic storage technologies.
Project description:Magnetic skyrmions are swirling magnetic textures with novel characteristics suitable for future spintronic and topological applications. Recent studies confirmed the room-temperature stabilization of skyrmions in ultrathin ferromagnets. However, such ferromagnetic skyrmions show an undesirable topological effect, the skyrmion Hall effect, which leads to their current-driven motion towards device edges, where skyrmions could easily be annihilated by topographic defects. Recent theoretical studies have predicted enhanced current-driven behavior for antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled skyrmions. Here we present the stabilization of these skyrmions and their current-driven dynamics in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo films. By utilizing element-specific X-ray imaging, we find that the skyrmions in the Gd and FeCo sublayers are antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled. We further confirm that ferrimagnetic skyrmions can move at a velocity of ~50?m?s-1 with reduced skyrmion Hall angle, |?SkHE| ~?20°. Our findings open the door to ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic skyrmionics while providing key experimental evidences of recent theoretical studies.
Project description:An emergent topological particle in magnets, skyrmion, has several unique features distinct from the other magnetic textures such as domain wall, helical structure, and vortex. It is characterized by a topological integer called skyrmion number N sk , which counts how many times the directions of the magnetic moments wrap the unit sphere. This N sk gives the chiral nature of the skyrmion dynamics, and leads to the extremely small critical current density j c for the current-driven motion in terms of spin transfer torque effect. The finite j c indicates the pinning effect due to the disorder such as impurities and defects, and the behaviors of skyrmions under disorder have not been explored well theoretically although it is always relevant in real systems. Here we reveal by a numerical simulation of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation that there are four different skyrmion phases with the strong disorder, i.e., (A) pinned state, (B) depinned state, (C) skyrmion multiplication/annihilation, and (D) segregation of skyrmions, as the current density increases, while only two phases (A) and (B) appear in the weak disorder case. The microscopic mechanisms of the new phases (C) and (D) are analyzed theoretically. These results offer a coherent understanding of the skyrmion dynamics under current with disorder.