Furanoate-Based Nanocomposites: A Case Study Using Poly(Butylene 2,5-Furanoate) and Poly(Butylene 2,5-Furanoate)-co-(Butylene Diglycolate) and Bacterial Cellulose.
ABSTRACT: Polyesters made from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) have been in the spotlight due to their renewable origins, together with the promising thermal, mechanical, and/or barrier properties. Following the same trend, (nano)composite materials based on FDCA could also generate similar interest, especially because novel materials with enhanced or refined properties could be obtained. This paper presents a case study on the use of furanoate-based polyesters and bacterial cellulose to prepare nanocomposites, namely acetylated bacterial cellulose/poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) and acetylated bacterial cellulose/poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate)-co-(butylene diglycolate)s. The balance between flexibility, prompted by the furanoate-diglycolate polymeric matrix; and the high strength prompted by the bacterial cellulose fibres, enabled the preparation of a wide range of new nanocomposite materials. The new nanocomposites had a glass transition between -25⁻46 °C and a melting temperature of 61⁻174 °C; and they were thermally stable up to 239⁻324 °C. Furthermore, these materials were highly reinforced materials with an enhanced Young's modulus (up to 1239 MPa) compared to their neat copolyester counterparts. This was associated with both the reinforcing action of the cellulose fibres and the degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites. In terms of elongation at break, the nanocomposites prepared from copolyesters with higher amounts of diglycolate moieties displayed higher elongations due to the soft nature of these segments.
Project description:Poly(ether ester)s (PEEs) represent a promising class of segmented co-polymers, nevertheless the synthesis of PEEs based on renewable 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is still scarce. In this context, a series of poly(1,4-butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate)-co-poly(poly(propylene oxide) 2,5-furandicarboxylate) co-polyesters with different composition of stiff poly(1,4-butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PBF) and soft poly(poly(propylene oxide) 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PPOF) moieties were synthesized, via a two-step bulk polytransesterification reaction. The molar ratio of PBF/PPOF incorporated was varied (10 to 50 mol%) in order to prepare several novel materials with tuned properties. The materials were characterised in detail through several techniques, namely ATR FTIR, ¹H and 13C NMR, TGA, DSC, DMTA and XRD. Their hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation evaluation was also assessed. These new co-polymers showed either a semi-crystalline nature when higher PBF/PPOF ratios were used, and for approximately equal amounts of PBF and PPOF an amorphous co-polyester was obtained instead.
Project description:In the present study, three new biobased furanoate polyesters with potential use in food packaging applications, named poly(isosorbide furanoate) (PIsF), poly(methyl-propylene furanoate) (PMePF) and poly(1,4-cyclohexane-dimethylene 2,5-furanoate) (PCHDMF) were synthesized. As monomers for the preparation of the polyesters, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and diols with irregular or complicated structure were used, including isosorbide (IS), 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (MPD) and 1,4-cyclohexane-dimethanol (CHDM). The polymerization process was carried out via melt polycondensation method. The structural characteristics and thermal behavior of the polymers were studied. The kinetic fragility of the amorphous phase of the polymers was evaluated. The thermal degradation was studied by means of thermogravimetry and a pyrolysis Py-GC/MS (Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy) system to estimate the degradation mechanism.
Project description:Bio-based polyesters derived from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), including poly (ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF), poly(propylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PPF), and poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PBF) have been synthesized and modified with 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (CBDO). Copolyesters with increased glass transition temperature, good barrier and better mechanical properties, as well as higher transparency were reported in this work. The chemical structures, composition, and sequence distribution of the copolyesters were determined by ¹H NMR and 13C NMR. The degree of random (R) was close to 1 for all the copolyesters, indicating their random chemical structures. With the introduction of 10% CBDO units, the semi-crystalline PEF and PPF were changed into completely amorphous polyesters and the higher transparency was easily achieved. The glass transition temperature was increased from 87 °C for PEF to 91.1 °C for PETF-18, from 55.5 °C for PPF to 63.5 °C for PPTF-18, and from 39.0 °C for PBF to 43.5 °C for PBTF-18. The barrier properties investigation demonstrated that although the O₂ and CO₂ barrier of PEF/PPF/PBF were decreased by the addition of CBDO units, the modified copolyesters still showed good barrier properties.
Project description:Previously, we have synthesized a diverse range of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA)-based semiaromatic polyamides via enzymatic polymerization. This novel class of polymers are biobased alternatives to polyphthalamides, which are petrol-based semiaromatic polyamides. From a commercial perspective, they have interesting properties as high-performance materials and engineering thermoplastics. It is even more appealing to explore novel FDCA-based polyamides with added functionality, for the development of sustainable functional materials. Here, a set of FDCA-based heteroatom polyamides have been successfully produced via Novozyme 435 (N435)-catalyzed polymerization of biobased dimethyl 2,5-furandicarboxylate with (potentially)heteroatom diamines, namely, 4,9-dioxa-1,12-dodecanediamine (DODA), diethylenetriamine, and 3,3-ethylenediiminopropylamine. We performed the enzymatic polymerization in solution and bulk. The latter approach is more sustainable and results in higher molecular weight products. Among the tested heteroatom diamines, N435 shows the highest catalytic activity toward DODA. Furthermore, we find that all obtained FDCA-based heteroatom polyamides are amorphous materials with a relatively high thermal stability. These heteroatom polyamides display a glass-transition temperature ranging from 41 to 107 °C.
Project description:Two series of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters derived from succinic and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acids, and di-O-2-(hydroxyethyl) resorcinol as diol substituent of either 1,4-butanediol or ethylene glycol, respectively, were obtained by ring opening polymerization(ROP) performed in bulk and catalyzed by Sn(Oct)₂. Cyclic oligomers of furandicarboxylate of di-O-2-(hydroxyethyl) resorcinol were successfully synthesized by high-dilution condensation, and then copolymerized with cyclic oligomers of either butylene or ethylene succinate. The synthesized resorcinol-containing succinate-furanoatecopolyesters had Mw oscillating between 50,000 and 30,000 g·mol-1 depending on composition, and they all displayed a nearly random microstructure. They showed an excellent thermal stability with onset decomposition temperatures near 300 °C. They are amorphous with Tg increasing monotonically with the content in resorcinol in both series with values ranging from -30 or -13 °C for butylene and ethylene-based copolyesters, respectively, up to around 45 °C. The resorcinol-containing succinate-furanoate copolyesters showed appreciable hydrolytic degradation when incubated for a few weeks in water under physiological conditions, a behavior that was notably enhanced in the presence of lipases.
Project description:We report a process for converting fructose, at a high concentration (15 weight %), to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a monomer used in the production of polyethylene furanoate, a renewable plastic. In our process, fructose is dehydrated to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yields (70%) using a ?-valerolactone (GVL)/H2O solvent system. HMF is subsequently oxidized to FDCA over a Pt/C catalyst with 93% yield. The advantage of our system is the higher solubility of FDCA in GVL/H2O, which allows oxidation at high concentrations using a heterogeneous catalyst that eliminates the need for a homogeneous base. In addition, FDCA can be separated from the GVL/H2O solvent system by crystallization to obtain >99% pure FDCA. Our process eliminates the use of corrosive acids, because FDCA is an effective catalyst for fructose dehydration, leading to improved economic and environmental impact of the process. Our techno-economic model indicates that the overall process is economically competitive with current terephthalic acid processes.
Project description:A one pot-two step procedure for the synthesis of diethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate (DEFDC) starting from mucic acid without isolation of the intermediate furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) was studied. Then, the production of three different kinds of furan-based polyesters- polyethylene-2,5-furan dicarboxylate (PEF), polyhydropropyl-2,5-furan dicarboxylate(PHPF) and polydiglycerol-2,5-furandicarboxylate (PDGF)-was realized through a Co(Ac)₂·4H₂O catalyzed polytransesterification performed at 160 °C between DEFDC and a defined diol furan-based prepolymer or pure diglycerol. In parallel to polymerization process, an unattended regioselective 1-OH acylation of glycerol by direct microwave-heated FDCA diester transesterification led to the formation of a symmetric prepolymer ready for further polymerization and clearly identified by 2D NMR sequences. Furthermore, the synthesis of a more soluble and hydrophilic diglycerol-based furanic polyester was also achieved. The resulting biobased polymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and XRD. The morphologies of the resulted polymers were observed by FE-SEM and the purity of the material by EDX.
Project description:Biodegradable polymers and their composites are considered promising materials for replacing conventional polymer plastics in various engineering fields. In this study, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites filled with 5% aluminum nitride nanoparticles were successfully fabricated. The aluminum nitride nanoparticles were surface-modified to improve their interaction with the PBS matrix. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposites with surface-modified nanoparticles had better interface interaction and dispersion in the polymer matrix than those with untreated nanoparticles. The PBS/modified AlN nanocomposites exhibited maximal thermal conductivity enhancement, 63.7%, compared to the neat PBS. In addition, other thermomechanical properties of the PBS nanocomposites were investigated in this study. The nanocomposites also showed a superior storage modulus compared to the neat PBS matrix. In this work, a PBS nanocomposite with suitable thermal conductivity that can be used in various electronic fields was fabricated.
Project description:The enzymatic synthesis of polyesters in solventless systems is an environmentally friendly and sustainable method for synthetizing bio-derived materials. Despite the greenness of the technique, in most cases only short oligoesters are obtained, with limited practical applications or requiring further chemical processing for their elongation. In this work, we present a catalyst-free thermal upgrade of enzymatically synthesized oligoesters. Different aliphatic and aromatic oligoesters were synthesized using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (iCaLB) as the catalyst (70 °C, 24 h) yielding poly(1,4-butylene adipate) (PBA, Mw = 2200), poly(1,4-butylene isophthalate) (PBI, Mw = 1000), poly(1,4-butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PBF, Mw = 600), and poly(1,4-butylene 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylate) (PBP, Mw = 1000). These polyesters were successfully thermally treated to obtain an increase in Mw of 8.5, 2.6, 3.3, and 2.7 folds, respectively. This investigation focused on the most successful upgrade, poly(1,4-butylene adipate), then discussed the possible effect of di-ester monomers as compared to di-acids in the thermally driven polycondensation. The herein-described two-step synthesis method represents a practical and cost-effective way to synthesize higher-molecular-weight polymers without the use of toxic metal catalysts such as titanium(IV) tert-butoxide, tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, and in particular, antimony(IV) oxide. At the same time, the method allows for the extension of the number of reuses of the biocatalyst by preventing its exposure to extreme denaturating conditions.
Project description:Recently, we have developed an eco-friendly method for the preparation of a renewable dicarboxylic acid 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) from biomass-based 5-hydroxymethylfrufural (HMF). In the present work, we optimized our reported method, which used phosphate buffer and Fe(OH)₃ as the stabilizer to improve the stability of potassium ferrate, then got a purified FDCA (up to 99%) in high yield (91.7 wt %) under mild conditions (25 °C, 15 min, air atmosphere). Subsequently, the obtained FDCA, along with 1,6-hexanediol (HDO), which was also made from HMF, were used as monomers for the synthesis of poly(hexylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PHF) via direct esterification, and triphenyl phosphite was used as the antioxidant to alleviate the discoloration problem during the esterification. The intrinsic viscosity, mechanical properties, molecular structure, thermal properties, and degradability of the PHFs were measured or characterized by Koehler viscometer, universal tensile tester, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and weight loss method. The experimental evidence clearly showed that the furan-aromatic polyesters prepared from biomass-based HMF are viable alternatives to the petrochemical benzene-aromatic polyesters, they can serve as low-melting heat bondable fiber, high gas-barrier packaging material, as well as specialty material for engineering applications.