Proproliferative function of adaptor protein GRB10 in prostate carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (GRB10) is a well-known adaptor protein and a recently identified substrate of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Depletion of GRB10 increases insulin sensitivity and overexpression suppresses PI3K/Akt signaling. Because the major reason for the limited efficacy of PI3K/Akt-targeted therapies in prostate cancer (PCa) is loss of mTOR-regulated feedback suppression, it is therefore important to assess the functional importance and regulation of GRB10 under these conditions. On the basis of these background observations, we explored the status and functional impact of GRB10 in PCa and found maximum expression in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient PCa. In human PCa samples, GRB10 inversely correlated with PTEN and positively correlated with pAKT levels. Knockdown of GRB10 in nontumorigenic PTEN null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and tumorigenic PCa cell lines reduced Akt phosphorylation and selectively activated a panel of receptor tyrosine kinases. Similarly, overexpression of GRB10 in PTEN wild-type PCa cell lines accelerated tumorigenesis and induced Akt phosphorylation. In PTEN wild-type PCa, GRB10 overexpression promoted mediated PTEN interaction and degradation. PI3K (but not mTOR) inhibitors reduced GRB10 expression, suggesting primarily PI3K-driven regulation of GRB10. In summary, our results suggest that GRB10 acts as a major downstream effector of PI3K and has tumor-promoting effects in prostate cancer.-Khan, M. I., Al Johani, A., Hamid, A., Ateeq, B., Manzar, N., Adhami, V. M., Lall, R. K., Rath, S., Sechi, M., Siddiqui, I. A., Choudhry, H., Zamzami, M. A., Havighurst, T. C., Huang, W., Ntambi, J. M., Mukhtar, H. Proproliferatve function of adaptor protein GRB10 in prostate carcinoma.
Project description:Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway are hallmarks of prostate cancer (PCa). However, these alterations alone are insufficient for cells to acquire metastatic traits. Here, we have shown that the histone dimethyl transferase WHSC1 critically drives indolent PTEN-null tumors to become metastatic PCa. In a PTEN-null murine PCa model, WHSC1 overexpression in prostate epithelium cooperated with Pten deletion to produce a metastasis-prone tumor. Conversely, genetic ablation of Whsc1 prevented tumor progression in PTEN-null mice. Molecular characterization revealed that increased AKT activity due to PTEN loss directly phosphorylates WHSC1 at S172, preventing WHSC1 degradation by CRL4Cdt2 E3 ligase. Increased WHSC1 expression transcriptionally upregulates expression of RICTOR, a pivotal component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), to further enhance AKT activity. Therefore, the AKT/WHSC1/mTORC2 signaling cascade represents a vicious feedback loop that elicits unrestrained AKT signaling. Furthermore, we determined that WHSC1 positively regulates Rac1 transcription to increase tumor cell motility. The biological importance of a WHSC1-mediated signaling cascade is substantiated by patient sample analysis in which WHSC1 signaling is tightly correlated with disease progression and recurrence. Taken together, our findings highlight a pivotal link between an epigenetic regulator, WHSC1, and key intracellular signaling molecules, AKT, RICTOR, and Rac1, to drive PCa metastasis.
Project description:Patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) have poor prognosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) regulate biological processes in a variety of cancers, but the precise roles of circRNAs in PCa are poorly understood. Herein, we identified a novel circRNA, termed circMBOAT2 (has_circ_0007334), which was significantly overexpressed in PCa tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of circMBOAT2 was associated with high Gleason score, advanced pathological T stage, and poor prognosis. Overexpression of circMBOAT2 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of PCa cells in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, circMBOAT2 overexpression upregulated the expression of mTOR by acting as a decoy for miR-1271-5p, resulting in the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, ultimately promoting the progression of PCa. Importantly, application of an inhibitor of mTOR significantly antagonized circMBOAT2-mediated PCa tumorigenesis in vivo. circMBOAT2 promotes proliferation and metastasis of PCa through miR-1271-5p/mTOR axis-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In summary, our findings uncover a molecular mechanism in the progression of PCa and indicate that circMBOAT2 may be a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa.
Project description:In this hospital-based case-control study of 413 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 807 cancer-free controls, we investigated the role of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of pivotal genes in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. We genotyped 17 SNPs in mTOR, Raptor, AKT1, AKT2, PTEN, and K-ras and found that 4 were associated with PCa susceptibility. Among the variants, the homozygote variant CC genotype of mTOR rs17036508 C>T were associated with higher PCa risk than the wild TT genotypes (adjusted OR = 3.73 (95% CI = 1.75-7.94), P = 0.001). The GT genotype of mTOR rs2295080 G>T was more protective than the TT genotypes (adjusted OR=0.54 (95% CI=0.32-0.91), P=0.020). The distributions of Raptor rs1468033 A>G genotypes differed between cases and controls, especially in subgroups defined by age, BMI, smoking status, and ethnicity. The CT/CC genotypes of AKT2 rs7250897 C>T were associated with an increased risk of PCa, particularly in subgroups of age >71 and BMI >24 kg/m2. These findings suggest that SNPs in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway may contribute to the risk of PCa in Chinese men.
Project description:cir-ITCH, a well-known tumor-suppressive circular RNA, plays a critical role in different cancers. However, its expression and functional role in prostate cancer (PCa) are unclear. Herein, we explored the potential mechanism and tumor-inhibiting role of cir-ITCH in PCa. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we analyzed the expression of cir-ITCH in PCa and paired adjacent nontumor tissue samples resected during surgical operation, as well as in two cell lines of human PCa (LNCaP and PC-3) and the immortalized normal prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1). Cell viability and migration of PCa cell lines were evaluated using CCK-8 and wound-healing assays. Expression of key proteins of the Wnt/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways was detected using western blotting. We found that cir-ITCH expression was typically downregulated in the tissues and cell lines of PCa compared to that in the peritumoral tissue and in RWPE-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that cir-ITCH overexpression significantly inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human PCa cells and that reciprocal inhibition of expression occurred between cir-ITCH and miR-17. Proteins in the Wnt/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways were downregulated by overexpression of cir-ITCH both in androgen receptor-positive LNCaP cells and androgen receptor-negative PC-3 cells. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cir-ITCH plays a tumor-suppressive role in human PCa cells, partly through the Wnt/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Thus, cir-ITCH may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of PCa, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:A major clinical hurdle for the management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in patients is the resistance of tumors to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and their subsequent development into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While recent studies have identified potential pathways involved in CRPC development, the drivers of CRPC remain largely undefined. Here we determined that nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCoA2, also known as SRC-2), which is frequently amplified or overexpressed in patients with metastatic PCa, mediates development of CRPC. In a murine model, overexpression of NCoA2 in the prostate epithelium resulted in neoplasia and, in combination with Pten deletion, promoted the development of metastasis-prone cancer. Moreover, depletion of NCoA2 in PTEN-deficient mice prevented the development of CRPC. In human androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, androgen signaling suppressed NCoA2 expression, and NCoA2 overexpression in murine prostate tumors resulted in hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling, promoting tumor malignance. Analysis of PCa patient samples revealed a strong correlation among NCoA2-mediated signaling, disease progression, and PCa recurrence. Taken together, our findings indicate that androgen deprivation induces NCoA2, which in turn mediates activation of PI3K signaling and promotes PCa metastasis and CRPC development. Moreover, these results suggest that the inhibition of NCoA2 has potential for PCa therapy.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency. In addition, Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway were coactivated in a substantial fraction of human high-grade tumors. We found that Akt mediated Bmi1 phosphorylation, enhancing its oncogenic potential in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. This process also modulated the DNA damage response and affected genomic stability. Together, our findings demonstrate the etiological role of Bmi1 in PCa, unravel an oncogenic collaboration between Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and provide mechanistic insights into the modulation of Bmi1 function by phosphorylation during prostate carcinogenesis.
Project description:Prostate carcinogenesis involves alterations in several signaling pathways, the most prominent being the PI3K/AKT pathway. This pathway is constitutively active and drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to advanced metastatic disease. PTEN, a critical tumor and metastasis suppressor gene negatively regulates cell survival, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PTEN is mutated, downregulated/dysfunctional in many cancers and its dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis in PCa. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-4534 (miR-4534) is overexpressed in PCa and show that miR-4534 is hypermethylated in normal tissues and cell lines compared to PCa tissues/cells. miR-4534 exerts its oncogenic effects partly by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN gene. Knockdown of miR-4534 impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Suppression of miR-4534 and its effects on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We performed parallel experiments in non-cancer RWPE1 cells by overexpessing miR-4534 followed by functional assays. Overexpression of miR-4534 induced pro-cancerous characteristics in this non-cancer cell line. Statistical analyses revealed that miR-4534 has potential to independently distinguish malignant from normal tissues and positively correlated with poor overall and PSA recurrence free survival. Taken together, our results show that depletion of miR-4534 in PCa induces a tumor suppressor phenotype partly through induction of PTEN. These results have important implications for identifying and defining the role of new PTEN regulators such as microRNAs in prostate tumorigenesis. Understanding aberrantly overexpressed miR-4534 and its downregulation of PTEN will provide mechanistic insight and therapeutic targets for PCa therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Over-activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is one of important mechanisms to promote castration resistant prostate cancer, the final stage of prostate cancer (PCa). Dysregulation of PP1-meditaed AKT dephosphorylation might contribute to such an event but is not fully understood. As a newly identified tumor suppressor, MIIP exerts its role in various types of cancer but has not been investigated in PCa. RESULTS:We first demonstrated that overexpression of migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) in human PCa cell lines suppresses their growth while knockdown of MIIP does the opposite in vitro. Although MIIP has no effect on the expression of AR and its target genes or the nuclear translocation of AR in AR-positive PCa cells, MIIP overexpression significantly inhibits activation of AKT-mTOR pathway in both AR- positive and negative PCa cells whereas knockdown of MIIP enhances AKT-mTOR signaling. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that MIIP interacts with PP1α via its C-terminal part but does not affect its protein level. Importantly, silence of PP1α reversed the inhibitory effect of MIIP on AKT phosphorylation and cell growth in PCa cell lines, while MIIP∆C, which is incapable of interacting with PP1α, loses MIIP's effect, suggesting that MIIP exerts its roles via interaction with PP1α. Further, MIIP overexpression inhibits the growth of both AR- positive and negative PCa xenograft in nude mice. Finally, immunohistochemical staining of PCa tissue microarray showed that MIIP expression level is downregulated in PCa and negatively correlated with Gleason score of PCa. CONCLUSION:We discovered that MIIP is a novel suppressor of oncogenic AKT-mTOR signaling in PCa by facilitating PP1-meditaed AKT dephosphorylation. Our study further emphasized the tumor suppressive role of MIIP and illustrated a novel mechanism.
Project description:Understanding remains incomplete of the mechanisms underlying initiation and progression of prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men. The transcription factor SOX4 is overexpressed in many human cancers, including prostate cancer, suggesting it may participate in prostate tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated this possibility by genetically deleting Sox4 in a mouse model of prostate cancer initiated by loss of the tumor suppressor Pten. We found that specific homozygous deletion of Sox4 in the adult prostate epithelium strongly inhibited tumor progression initiated by homozygous loss of Pten. Mechanistically, Sox4 ablation reduced activation of AKT and ?-catenin, leading to an attenuated invasive phenotype. Furthermore, SOX4 expression was induced by Pten loss as a result of the activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling, suggesting a positive feedback loop between SOX4 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR activity. Collectively, our findings establish that SOX4 is a critical component of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in prostate cancer, with potential implications for combination-targeted therapies against both primary and advanced prostate cancers.
Project description:Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), a mevalonate pathway enzyme, is highly expressed in several cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). To date, the mechanistic, functional, and clinical significance of FDPS in cancer remains unexplored. We evaluated the FDPS expression and its cancer-associated phenotypes using in vitro and in vivo methods in PTEN-deficient and sufficient human and mouse PCa cells and tumors. Interestingly, FDPS overexpression synergizes with PTEN deficiency in PTEN conditionally knockout mice (P?<?0.05) and expressed significantly higher in human (P?<?0.001) PCa tissues, cell lines, and murine tumoroids compared to respective controls. In silico analysis revealed that FDPS is associated with increasing Gleason score, PTEN functionally deficient status, and poor survival of PCa. Ectopic overexpression of FDPS promotes oncogenic phenotypes such as colony formation (P?<?0.01) and proliferation (P?<?0.01) through activation of AKT and ERK signaling by prenylating Rho A, Rho G, and CDC42 small GTPases. Of interest, knockdown of FDPS in PCa cells exhibits decreased colony growth and proliferation (P?<?0.001) by modulating AKT and ERK pathways. Further, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PI3K but not AKT reduced FDPS expression. Pharmacological targeting of FDPS by zoledronic acid (ZOL), which is already in clinics, exhibit reduced growth and clonogenicity of human and murine PCa cells (P?<?0.01) and 3D tumoroids (P?<?0.02) by disrupting AKT and ERK signaling through direct interference of small GTPases protein prenylation. Thus, FDPS plays an oncogenic role in PTEN-deficient PCa through GTPase/AKT axis. Identifying mevalonate pathway proteins could serve as a therapeutic target in PTEN dysregulated tumors.