Arginase-II negatively regulates renal aquaporin-2 and water reabsorption.
ABSTRACT: Type-II l-arginine:ureahydrolase, arginase-II (Arg-II), is abundantly expressed in the kidney. The physiologic role played by Arg-II in the kidney remains unknown. Herein, we report that in mice that are deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II-/-), total and membrane-associated aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein levels were significantly higher compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Water deprivation enhanced Arg-II expression, AQP2 levels, and membrane association in collecting ducts. Effects of water deprivation on AQP2 were stronger in Arg-II-/- mice than in WT mice. Accordingly, a decrease in urine volume and an increase in urine osmolality under water deprivation were more pronounced in Arg-II-/- mice than in WT mice, which correlated with a weaker increase in plasma osmolality in Arg-II-/- mice. There was no difference in vasopressin release under water deprivation conditions between either genotype of mice. Although total AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2-S256 levels (mediated by PKA) in kidneys under water deprivation conditions were significantly higher in Arg-II-/- mice compared with WT animals, there is no difference in the ratio of AQP2-S256:AQP2. In cultured mouse collecting duct principal mCCDcl1 cells, expression of both Arg-II and AQP2 were enhanced by the vasopressin type 2 receptor agonist, desamino- d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). Silencing Arg-II enhanced the expression and membrane association of AQP2 by dDAVP without influencing cAMP levels. In conclusion, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that Arg-II negatively regulates AQP2 and the urine-concentrating capability in kidneys via a mechanism that is not associated with the modulation of the cAMP pathway.-Huang, J., Montani, J.-P., Verrey, F., Feraille, E., Ming, X.-F., Yang, Z. Arginase-II negatively regulates renal aquaporin-2 and water reabsorption.
Project description:AIM: Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel located in the collecting tubule and collecting duct cells of mammalian kidney. The aim of this study is to investigate whether PKC? plays a role in vasopressin-induced AQP2 trafficking in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells. METHODS: AQP2-mIMCD3 stable cell line was constructed by transfection of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells with AQP2-GFP construct. Then the cells were transfected with PKC? shRNA, PKC? A/25E, or PKC? scrambled shRNA. The expression levels of PKC?, AQP2, and phospho-S256-AQP2 were analyzed using Western blot. The interaction between AQP2 and PKC? was examined using immunoprecipitation. The distribution of AQP2 and microtubules was studied using immunocytochemistry. The AQP2 trafficking was examined using the biotinylation of surface membranes. RESULTS: Treatment of AQP2-mIMCD3 cells with 100 ?mol/L of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DdAVP) for 30 min stimulated the translocation of AQP2 from the cytoplasm to plasma membrane through influencing the microtubule assembly. Upregulation of active PKC? by transfection with PKC? A/25E plasmids resulted in de-polymerization of ?-tubulin and redistributed AQP2 in the cytoplasm. Down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA partially inhibited DdAVP-stimulated AQP2 trafficking without altering ?-tubulin distribution. Although 100 ?mol/L of DdAVP increased AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256, down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA did not influence DdAVP-induced AQP2 phosphorylation, suggesting that AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256 was independent of PKC?. Moreover, PKC? did not physically interact with AQP2 in the presence or absence of DdAVP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that PKC? regulates AQP2 trafficking induced by DdAVP via microtubule assembly.
Project description:By phosphoproteome analysis, we identified a phosphorylation site, serine 264 (pS264), in the COOH terminus of the vasopressin-regulated water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP2). In this study, we examined the regulation of AQP2 phosphorylated at serine 264 (pS264-AQP2) by vasopressin, using a phospho-specific antibody (anti-pS264). Immunohistochemical analysis showed pS264-AQP2 labeling of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) from control mice, whereas AQP2 knockout mice showed a complete absence of labeling. In rat and mouse, pS264-AQP2 was present throughout the collecting duct system, from the connecting tubule to the terminal IMCD. Immunogold electron microscopy, combined with double-labeling confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers, determined that the majority of pS264 resides in compartments associated with the plasma membrane and early endocytic pathways. In Brattleboro rats treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP), the abundance of pS264-AQP2 increased 4-fold over controls. Additionally, dDAVP treatment resulted in a time-dependent change in the distribution of pS264 from predominantly intracellular vesicles, to both the basolateral and apical plasma membranes. Sixty minutes after dDAVP exposure, a proportion of pS264-AQP2 was observed in clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and recycling compartments, but not lysosomes. Overall, our results are consistent with a dynamic effect of AVP on the phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of AQP2.
Project description:Arginine vasopressin (AVP) enhances water reabsorption in the renal collecting duct by vasopressin V? receptor (V?R)-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), cAMP-promoted phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and increased abundance of AQP2 on the apical membrane. Multiple isoforms of adenylate cyclase exist, and the roles of individual AC isoforms in water homeostasis are not well understood. Here, we found that levels of AC6 mRNA, the most highly expressed AC isoform in the inner medulla, inversely correlate with fluid intake. Moreover, mice lacking AC6 had lower levels of inner medullary cAMP, reduced abundance of phosphorylated AQP2 (at both serine-256 and serine-269), and lower urine osmolality than wild-type mice. Water deprivation or administration of the V?R agonist dDAVP did not increase urine osmolality of AC6-deficient mice to the levels of wild-type mice. Furthermore, AC6-deficient mice lacked dDAVP-promoted inner medullary cAMP formation and phosphorylation of serine-269 and had attenuated increases in both phosphorylation of serine-256 and apical membrane AQP2 trafficking. In summary, AC6 expression determines inner medullary cAMP formation and AQP2 phosphorylation and trafficking, the absence of which causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Project description:Congenital progressive hydronephrosis (cph) is a spontaneous recessive mutation that causes severe hydronephrosis and obstructive nephropathy in affected mice. The mutation has been mapped to the distal end of mouse chromosome 15, but the mutated gene has not been found. Here, we describe the identification of a single base pair change in aquaporin-2 (Aqp2) in cph mutants through genetic linkage mapping. The C-T change led to the substitution of a Ser (S256) by a Leu in the cytoplasmic tail of the Aqp2 protein, preventing its phosphorylation at S256 and the subsequent accumulation of Aqp2 on the apical membrane of the collecting duct principal cells. The interference with normal trafficking of Aqp2 by this mutation resulted in a severe urine concentration defect. cph homozygotes demonstrated polydipsia and produced a copious amount of hypotonic urine. The urine concentration defect could not be corrected by [deamino-Cys1,D-Arg8]-vasopressin (DDAVP, a vasopressin analog), characteristic of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The nephrogenic diabetes insipidus symptoms and the absence of developmental defects in the pyeloureteral peristaltic machinery in the mutants before the onset of hydronephrosis suggest that the congenital obstructive nephropathy is most likely a result of the polyuria. This study has revealed the genetic basis for the classical cph mutation and has provided direct genetic evidence that S256 in Aqp2 is indispensable for the apical accumulation, but not the general glycosylation or membrane association, of Aqp2.
Project description:Trafficking of the water channel aquaporin-2 to the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct is mediated by arginine vasopressin, rendering the cell permeable to water. We recently identified a novel form of aquaporin-2 that is phosphorylated at serine-269 (pS269-AQP2). Using antibodies specific for this form of the water channel, we detected rat and mouse pS269-AQP2 in the connecting tubule and throughout the collecting duct system. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers and immunogold electron microscopy, we found that pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane of principal cells. In vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats, pS269-AQP2 was undetectable but dramatically increased in abundance after these rats were treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP). This increase occurred only at the apical plasma membrane, even after long-term dDAVP treatment. Following dDAVP there was a time-dependent redistribution of total aquaporin-2 from predominantly intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane, clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and lysosomes. However, pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane at any time. Our results show that S269 phosphorylated aquaporin-2 is exclusively associated with the apical plasma membrane, where it escapes endocytosis to remain at the cell surface.
Project description:The final adjustment of urine volume occurs in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), chiefly mediated by the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2). With vasopressin stimulation, AQP2 accumulation in the apical plasma membrane of principal cells allows water reabsorption from the lumen. We report that FXYD1 (phospholemman), better known as a regulator of Na,K-ATPase, has a role in AQP2 trafficking. Daytime urine of Fxyd1 knockout mice was more dilute than WT despite similar serum vasopressin, but both genotypes could concentrate urine during water deprivation. FXYD1 was found in IMCD. In WT mice, phosphorylated FXYD1 was detected intracellularly, and vasopressin induced its dephosphorylation. We tested the hypothesis that the dilute urine in knockouts was caused by alteration of AQP2 trafficking. In WT mice at baseline, FXYD1 and AQP2 were not strongly co-localized, but elevation of vasopressin produced translocation of both FXYD1 and AQP2 to the apical plasma membrane. In kidney slices, baseline AQP2 distribution was more scattered in the Fxyd1 knockout than in WT. Apical recruitment of AQP2 occurred in vasopressin-treated Fxyd1 knockout slices, but upon vasopressin washout, there was more rapid reversal of apical AQP2 localization and more heterogeneous cytoplasmic distribution of AQP2. Notably, in sucrose gradients, AQP2 was present in a detergent-resistant membrane domain that had lower sedimentation density in the knockout than in WT, and vasopressin treatment normalized its density. We propose that FXYD1 plays a role in regulating AQP2 retention in apical membrane, and that this involves transfers between raft-like membrane domains in endosomes and plasma membranes.
Project description:NSIAD is a rare X-linked condition, caused by activating mutations in the AVPR2 gene coding for the vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R) associated with hyponatremia, despite undetectable plasma vasopressin levels. We have recently provided in vitro evidence that, compared to V2R-wt, expression of activating V2R mutations R137L, R137C and F229V cause a constitutive redistribution of the AQP2 water channel to the plasma membrane, higher basal water permeability and significantly higher basal levels of p256-AQP2 in the F229V mutant but not in R137L or R137C. In this study, V2R mutations were expressed in collecting duct principal cells and the associated signalling was dissected. V2R-R137L and R137C mutants had significantly higher basal pT269-AQP2 levels -independently of S256 and PKA-which were reduced to control by treatment with Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Interestingly, ROCK activity was found significantly higher in V2R-R137L along with activation of the G?12/13-Rho-ROCK pathway. Of note, inhibition of ROCK reduced the basal elevated osmotic water permeability to control. To conclude, our data demonstrate for the first time that the gain-of-function mutation of the V2R, R137L causing NSIAD, signals through an alternative PKA-independent pathway that increases AQP2 membrane targeting through ROCK-induced phosphorylation at S/T269 independently of S256 of AQP2.
Project description:Fine tuning of urine concentration occurs in the renal collecting duct in response to circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP stimulates intracellular cAMP production, which mediates exocytosis of sub-apical vesicles containing the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Protein Kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates AQP2 on serine-256 (S256), which triggers plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. This mediates insertion of AQP2 into the apical plasma membrane, increasing water permeability of the collecting duct. AQP2 is a homo-tetramer. When S256 on all four monomers is changed to the phosphomimic aspartic acid (S256D), AQP2-S256D localizes to the plasma membrane and internalization is decreased. In contrast, when S256 is mutated to alanine (S256A) to mimic non-phosphorylated AQP2, AQP2-S256A localizes to intracellular vesicles as well as the plasma membrane, with increased internalization from the plasma membrane. S256 phosphorylation is not necessary for exocytosis and dephosphorylation is not necessary for endocytosis, however, the degree of S256 phosphorylation is hypothesized to regulate the kinetics of AQP2 endocytosis and thus, retention time in the plasma membrane. Using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS), we determined how the number of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated S256 monomers in the AQP2 tetramer affects diffusion speed of AQP2 in the plasma membrane. When all four monomers mimicked constitutive phosphorylation (AQP2-S256D), diffusion was faster than when all four were non-phosphorylated (AQP2-S256A). AQP2-WT diffused at a speed similar to that of AQP2-S256D. When an average of two or three monomers in the tetramer were constitutively phosphorylated, the average diffusion coefficients were not significantly different to that of AQP2-S256D. However, when only one monomer was phosphorylated, diffusion was slower and similar to AQP2-S256A. Thus, AQP2 with two to four phosphorylated monomers has faster plasma membrane kinetics, than the tetramer which contains just one or no phosphorylated monomers. This difference in diffusion rate may reflect behavior of AQP2 tetramers destined for either plasma membrane retention or endocytosis.
Project description:The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for urine concentration. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation of AQP2 at four conserved serine residues at the COOH-terminal tail (S256, S261, S264, and S269). We used numerous stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cell models, replacing serine residues with either alanine (A), which prevents phosphorylation, or aspartic acid (D), which mimics the charged state of phosphorylated AQP2, to address whether phosphorylation is involved in regulation of (i) apical plasma membrane abundance of AQP2, (ii) internalization of AQP2, (iii) AQP2 protein-protein interactions, and (iv) degradation of AQP2. Under control conditions, S256D- and 269D-AQP2 mutants had significantly greater apical plasma membrane abundance compared to wild type (WT)-AQP2. Activation of adenylate cyclase significantly increased the apical plasma membrane abundance of all S-A or S-D AQP2 mutants with the exception of 256D-AQP2, although 256A-, 261A-, and 269A-AQP2 mutants increased to a lesser extent than WT-AQP2. Biotin internalization assays and confocal microscopy demonstrated that the internalization of 256D- and 269D-AQP2 from the plasma membrane was slower than WT-AQP2. The slower internalization corresponded with reduced interaction of S256D- and 269D-AQP2 with several proteins involved in endocytosis, including Hsp70, Hsc70, dynamin, and clathrin heavy chain. The mutants with the slowest rate of internalization, 256D- and 269D-AQP2, had a greater protein half-life (t(1/2) = 5.1 h and t(1/2) = 4.4 h, respectively) compared to WT-AQP2 (t(1/2) = 2.9 h). Our results suggest that vasopressin-mediated membrane accumulation of AQP2 can be controlled via regulated exocytosis and endocytosis in a process that is dependent on COOH terminal phosphorylation and subsequent protein-protein interactions.
Project description:The action of vasopressin in rodent collecting ducts to regulate water permeability depends in part on increases in phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at three sites: Ser256, Ser264, and Ser269. Previous studies of AQP2 phosphorylation have depended largely on qualitative data using protein mass spectrometry and phospho-specific antibodies. Here, we use a new method employing phospho-specific antibodies to determine the percentage of total AQP2 phosphorylated at each site in the presence and absence of the V2-receptor-selective vasopressin analog dDAVP in rat renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and cultured mpkCCD cells. Phosphorylation of Ser269, a site previously implicated in plasma membrane retention, was found to increase from 3 to 26% of total AQP2 in rat IMCD cells following dDAVP. Quantification of immunogold labeling of the opposite kidneys from the same rats estimated that 11% of total AQP2 is present in the apical plasma membrane (APM) without injection of dDAVP and 25% is present in the APM after dDAVP. Surprisingly, the baseline level of Ser256 phosphorylation was constitutively high, and there was no increase with dDAVP (confirmed in 2 more sets of rats). In general, Ser264 phosphorylation remained below 5% of total. The pattern of response was similar in cultured mpkCCD cells (large increase in Ser269 phosphorylation following dDAVP, but constitutively high levels of Ser256 phosphorylation). We suggest from these studies that Ser269 phosphorylation may be a more consistent indicator of vasopressin action and AQP2 membrane abundance than is Ser256 phosphorylation.