Association of Diabetes Mellitus Status and Glycemic Control With Secondary Prevention Medication Adherence After Acute Myocardial Infarction.
ABSTRACT: Background Cardioprotective medication adherence can mitigate the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality after acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ). We examined the associations of diabetes mellitus status and glycemic control with cardioprotective medication adherence after AMI . Methods and Results We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 14 517 US veterans who were hospitalized for their first AMI between 2011 and 2014 and prescribed a beta-blocker, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA-reductase inhibitor, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. The primary exposure was a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus; in diabetes mellitus patients, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was a secondary exposure. The primary outcome was 1-year adherence to all 3 medication classes, defined as proportion of days covered ≥0.8, assessed using adjusted risk differences and multivariable Poisson regression. Of 14 517 patients (mean age, 66.3 years; 98% male), 52% had diabetes mellitus; 9%, 31%, 24%, 15%, and 21% had HbA1c <6%, 6% to 6.9%, 7% to 7.9%, 8% to 8.9%, and ≥9%, respectively. Diabetes mellitus patients were more likely to be adherent to all 3 drug classes than those without diabetes mellitus (adjusted difference in adherence, 2.1% [0.5, 3.7]). Relative to those with HbA1c 6% to 6.9%, medication adherence declined with increasing HbA1c (risk ratio of achieving proportion of days covered ≥0.8, 0.99 [0.94, 1.04], 0.93 [0.87, 0.99], 0.82 [0.77, 0.88] for HbA1c 7-7.9%, 8-8.9%, and ≥9%, respectively). Conclusions Although diabetes mellitus status had a minor positive impact on cardioprotective medication adherence after AMI , glycemic control at the time of AMI may help identify diabetes mellitus patients at risk of medication nonadherence who may benefit from adherence interventions after AMI .
Project description:Background Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) and has been associated with 2- to 4-fold higher mortality. Diabetes mellitus-related mortality has not been reassessed in individuals receiving routine care in the United States in the contemporary era of CVD risk reduction. Methods and Results We retrospectively studied 963 648 adults receiving care in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System from 2002 to 2014; mean follow-up was 8 years. We estimated associations of diabetes mellitus status and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with all-cause and CVD mortality using covariate-adjusted incidence rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Of participants, 34% had diabetes mellitus. Compared with nondiabetic individuals, patients with diabetes mellitus had 7.0 (95% CI , 6.7-7.4) and 3.5 (95% CI, 3.3-3.7) deaths/1000-person-years higher all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The age-, sex-, race-, and ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes mellitus-related mortality was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.28-1.31), and declined with adjustment for CVD risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.16-1.19]) and glycemia (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.02-1.05]). Among individuals with diabetes mellitus, CVD mortality increased as HbA1c exceeded 7% (hazard ratios, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.08-1.14], 1.25 [95% CI, 1.22-1.29], and 1.52 [95% CI, 1.48-1.56] for HbA1c 7%-7.9%, 8%-8.9%, and ≥9%, respectively, relative to HbA1c 6%-6.9%). HbA1c 6% to 6.9% was associated with the lowest mortality risk irrespective of CVD history or age. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus remains significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, although diabetes mellitus-related excess mortality is lower in the contemporary era than previously. We observed a gradient of mortality risk with increasing HbA1c >6% to 6.9%, suggesting HbA1c remains an informative predictor of outcomes even if causality cannot be inferred.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The exact pathway linking health literacy, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and glycemic control for type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Understanding the relationship between patient factors, medication adherence, and lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may help patients better manage their disease. This study examined the association of health literacy and medication self-efficacy with self-reported diabetes medication adherence, and the association of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and self-reported diabetes medication adherence with HbA1c of patients with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional study utilized a face-to-face questionnaire at two family medicine clinics in a Midwestern state among 174 patients; subjects enrolled were at least 20 years old with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, prescribed at least one oral diabetes medicine, and understood English. Questionnaires were administered to assess the participants': health literacy, using the Newest Vital Sign six-item questionnaire (NVS); self-efficacy for medication use, using the 13-item Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale; and self-report medication adherence, using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. HbA1c values were obtained from participants' electronic medical records. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the association of health literacy and medication self-efficacy with both medication adherence and HbA1c level after controlling for all other covariates.<h4>Results</h4>Self-reported health status (? = 0.17, <i>p</i> = 0.015) and medication self-efficacy (? = 0.53, <i>p</i> < 0.001) were positively associated with diabetes medication adherence. Health literacy was neither associated with diabetes medication adherence (? = -0.04, <i>p</i> = 0.586) nor HbA1c (? = -0.06, <i>p</i> = 0.542). Lower diabetes medication adherence (? = -0.26, <i>p</i> = 0.008) and higher number of prescribed medications (? = 0.28, <i>p</i> = 0.009) were correlated with higher HbA1c.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Health literacy, as measured by the NVS, does not correlate with medication adherence or glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Interventions to improve patients' self-efficacy of medication use may improve diabetes medication adherence.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Individuals with type 1 diabetes have experienced an increase in life expectancy, yet it is unknown what level of glycemic control is ideal for maintaining late-life brain health. We investigated the association of long-term glycemic control with dementia in older individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We followed 3,433 members of a health care system with type 1 diabetes, aged ≥50 years, from 1996 to 2015. Repeated measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), dementia diagnoses, and comorbidities were ascertained from health records. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate the association of time-varying glycemic exposure with dementia, with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, baseline health conditions, and frequency of HbA1c measurement. RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up of 6.3 years, 155 individuals (4.5%) were diagnosed with dementia. Patients with ≥50% of HbA1c measurements at 8-8.9% (64-74 mmol/mol) and ≥9% (≥75 mmol/mol) had 65% and 79% higher risk of dementia, respectively, compared with those with <50% of measurements exposed (HbA1c 8-8.9% adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.65 [95% CI 1.06, 2.57] and HbA1c ≥9% aHR 1.79 [95% CI 1.11, 2.90]). By contrast, patients with ≥50% of HbA1c measurements at 6-6.9% (42-52 mmol/mol) and 7-7.9% (53-63 mmol/mol) had a 45% lower risk of dementia (HbA1c 6-6.9% aHR 0.55 [95% CI 0.34, 0.88] and HbA1c 7-7.9% aHR 0.55 [95% CI 0.37, 0.82]). CONCLUSIONS:Among older patients with type 1 diabetes, those with majority exposure to HbA1c 8-8.9% and ≥9% had increased dementia risk, while those with majority exposure to HbA1c 6-6.9% and 7-7.9% had reduced risk. Currently recommended glycemic targets for older patients with type 1 diabetes are consistent with healthy brain aging.
Project description:Objective:The study aimed to evaluate the association between disease knowledge and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted for three months, in patients with type 2 diabetes who visited three community pharmacies located in Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Patients' disease knowledge and their adherence to medications were documented using Arabic versions of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test and the General Medication Adherence Scale respectively. Data were analyzed through SPSS version 23. Chi-square test was used to report association of demographics with adherence. Spearman's rank correlation was employed to report the relationship among HbA1c values, disease knowledge and adherence. Logistic regression model was utilized to report the determinants of medication adherence and their corresponding adjusted odds ratio. Study was approved by concerned ethical committee (IRB-UGS-2019-05-001). Results:A total of 318 patients consented to participate in the study. Mean HbA1c value was 8.1%. A third of patients (N = 105, 33%) had high adherence and half of patients (N = 162, 50.9%) had disease knowledge between 51% - 75%. A significantly weak-to-moderate and positive correlation (? = 0.221, p < 0.01) between medication adherence and disease knowledge was reported. Patients with >50% correct answers in the diabetes knowledge test questionnaire were more likely to be adherent to their medications (AOR 4.46, p < 0.01). Conclusion:Disease knowledge in most patients was average and half of patients had high-to-good adherence. Patients with better knowledge were 4 to 5 times more likely to have high adherence. This highlights the importance of patient education and awareness regarding medication adherence in managing diabetes.
Project description:We evaluated changes in oral diabetes mellitus medication adherence and persistence, as well as glycemic control for the year prior to breast cancer (BC) diagnosis (Year -1), during BC treatment, and in subsequent years.Cohort study of 4216 women diagnosed with incident early stage (I and II) invasive BC from 1990-2008, enrolled in Group Health Cooperative. Adherence was measured in prevalent users at baseline (N?=?509), during treatment, and 1-3?years post-diagnosis using medication possession ratio (MPR), % adherent (MPR ?0.80) and discontinuation rates. Laboratory data on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) was obtained for the corresponding periods.Compared with Year -1, mean MPR for metformin/sulfonylureas (0.86 vs 0.49, p?<?0.001) and % adherent (75.3% vs 24.6%, p?<?0.001) declined during BC treatment. MPR and % adherent rose slightly during Years 1-3 post-diagnosis but never returned to baseline. Discontinuation rates increased from treatment to Year +1 (59.3% vs 75.6%, p?<?0.001) and remained elevated during subsequent observation periods. Compared with baseline, increased HbA1c (7.0% vs 7.4%, p?=?0.001) and % women with high HbA1c >7.0% (34.9% vs 51.1%, p?<?0.001) coincided with decreased adherence.Diabetes mellitus medication adherence declined following BC diagnosis, whereas discontinuation rates were relatively stable but poor overall. The proportion of adherent users increased only marginally following treatment, whereas the proportion of women meeting goals for HbA1c decreased considerably. These data support the hypothesis that adherence and subsequent glycemic control are sensitive to BC diagnosis and treatment. Confirmatory studies in other settings, on reasons for reduced adherence post-cancer diagnosis, and on subsequent indicators of glycemic control are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Within the sphere of diabetes self-management, much emphasis has been placed on medication adherence. There has been a shift in thinking about medication adherence, moving from "compliance" and historically paternalistic models of care, to seeking better ways of characterizing dynamic and complex relationships that determine medication adherence and diabetes control. This study sought to understand the relationship between patient's attitudes and medication adherence for oral anti-diabetics in Thailand. METHODS:In-depth interviews of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking oral anti-diabetic drugs, at the out-patient clinic run by the Department of Family Medicine, Chiang Mai University between May and December 2016. Thematic analysis followed the WHO framework for medication adherence in chronic disease to explore patient's attitudes and their influence on medication compliance. RESULTS:Of 24 patients, 9 were men. The mean age was 62?years (SD 8.9?years). 67% had high compliance. Four themes were identified as important factors related to medication adherence: attitudes toward disease, attitudes toward treatment, attitudes toward family support and attitudes toward health care team. Specifically, symptoms at diagnosis, understanding and acceptance in taking medication, the presence of family support and the perception of concern by the doctor relate to improved medication compliance. CONCLUSIONS:Medication adherence in Thai patients with diabetes requires support from both the health care providers and the family. The patient's perception of the doctor's concern creates greater patient trust in the health care team. This trust, along with family support, helps deepen patients' understanding of the disease, accept the chronic nature of their disease, and engenders a positive attitude towards taking medication that can improve medication adherence.
Project description:Among patients with various levels of health literacy, the effects of collaborative, patient-provider, medication-planning tools on outcomes relevant to self-management are uncertain. Objective. Among adult patients with type II diabetes mellitus, we tested the effectiveness of a medication-planning tool (Medtable™) implemented via an electronic medical record to improve patients' medication knowledge, adherence, and glycemic control compared to usual care. Design. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial in outpatient primary care clinics. 674 patients received either the Medtable tool or usual care and were followed up for up to 12 months. Results. Patients who received Medtable had greater knowledge about indications for medications in their regimens and were more satisfied with the information about their medications. Patients' knowledge of drug indication improved with Medtable regardless of their literacy status. However, Medtable did not improve patients' demonstrated medication use, regimen adherence, or glycemic control (HbA1c). Conclusion. The Medtable tool supported provider/patient collaboration related to medication use, as reflected in patient satisfaction with communication, but had limited impact on patient medication knowledge, adherence, and HbA1c outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01296633.
Project description:Objective:Medication adherence is impacted by regimen complexity. The SIMPLE (Simple basal Insulin titration, Metformin Plus Liraglutide for type 2 diabetes with very Elevated HbA1c) study compared GLP1RA plus basal insulin (GLP1RA+BI) to basal-bolus insulin (BBI) regimen in participants with very uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis aimed to evaluate medication adherence to GLP1RA+BI compared with BBI, the effect of adherence on clinical and patient-reported outcomes, and baseline predictors of adherence. Research design and methods:This was an analysis of the SIMPLE study based on prespecified outcome. The study took place in pragmatic, real-world setting. A total of 120 adults with T2DM and HgbA1c?10% were randomized to detemir plus liraglutide, or detemir plus aspart before each meal; 6-month follow-up. The main outcomes evaluated were: adherence, HgbA1c, weight, quality of life, and hypoglycemia. Adherence rate was calculated for each study medication at each follow-up visit; participants were classified as ?80%?or <80% adherent. Result:A higher percentage of participants in the GLP1RA+BI compared with the BBI group had ?80% adherence to detemir (59.3% vs 35.7%, p=0.02) as well as liraglutide versus aspart (57.4% vs 30.4%, p=0.007). Higher age was predictive of ?80% adherence (OR per 5-year increment=1.48, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.0, p=0.01). Higher adherence led to greater improvement in HbA1c and weight in both groups. Treatment with GLP1RA+BI compared with BBI led to greater improvement in HbA1c, weight, and quality of life and lower risk of hypoglycemia even after adjusting for the difference in adherence between groups. Conclusions:Adherence was higher with the simplified regimen of GLP1RA+BI compared with BBI. Greater adherence to the simpler regimen amplified the treatment effect on HbA1c, weight, quality of life, and risk of hypoglycemia, yet statistically significant greater benefits were noted even when adjusted for adherence. Trial registration number:NCT01966978.
Project description:We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, <6.5%; good, 6.5%-7.9%; moderate, 8.0%-8.9%; and poor, ?9.0%). Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (?9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics.
Project description:Elderly patients with diabetes are at increased fracture risk. Although long exposure to hyperglycemia may increase fracture risk via adverse effects on bone metabolism, tight glycemic control may increase risk via trauma subsequent to hypoglycemia. We tested the prospective relationship between glycemic control and fracture risk in 10,572 elderly patients (age ?65) with diabetes.Geriatric patients with diabetes were drawn from Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Electronic Health Record. Baseline was defined as age at first HbA1c after the latter of age 65 or ICD 9 code for diabetes. Cox analysis was used to test the relationship of updated mean HbA1c (average HbA1c over follow-up) with time to first fracture since baseline. HbA1c was categorized as follows: <6.5% [<48mmol/mol]; 6.5-6.9% [48-52mmol/mol]; 7-7.9% [53-63mmol/mol]; 8-8.9% [64-74 mmol-mol]; ?9% [?75mmol/mol]. The number of BMI measurements was used as a surrogate for relative frequency of outpatient visits, i.e. patient-provider contacts.During follow-up, there were 949 fracture events. HbA1c demonstrated a cubic relationship with fracture risk (p<0.05). In analyses accounting for age, sex, race, and number of BMI measures (a surrogate for patient-provider interaction), compared to an HbA1c of 7-7.9%, HRs (95% CIs) were: HbA1c<6.5% HR=0.97 (0.82-1.14), 6.5-6.9% HR=0.80 (0.66-0.97), 8-8.9% HR=1.13 (0.92-1.40), ?9% HR=1.19 (0.93-1.54).An HbA1c of 6.5-6.9% is associated with the lowest risk of fracture in elderly patients with diabetes. Risk associated with an HbA1c ?9% may be a marker of infrequent patient-provider interaction.