Familial Mortality Risks in Patients With Heart Failure-A Swedish Sibling Study.
ABSTRACT: Background The influence of familial factors on the prognosis of heart failure ( HF ) is unknown. This nationwide follow-up study aimed to determine familial mortality risks of HF among Swedish siblings hospitalized for HF . Methods and Results We linked several Swedish nationwide registers for individuals aged 0 to 80 years. The study population consisted of 373 people hospitalized for HF for the first time between 2000 and 2012 with 1 proband sibling previously hospitalized for HF for the first time between 2000 and 2007. Families with congenital heart disease were excluded. Familial hazard ratios ( HR s) for mortality after first HF hospitalization were determined with Cox regression. The influence of proband survival was categorized as short survival (<5 years) or long survival (?5 years) and determined continuously for the initial 5 years of proband survival. Adjustments were made for age, sex, time period, and common HF comorbidities. Short proband survival was associated with a HR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.09) for overall mortality. This HR was 2.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-4.67) in patients without preceding coronary heart disease, whereas patients with ischemic HF had an HR of 1.84 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.23). For each year of proband survival, the risk of death decreased, with a HR of 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.98). Conclusions Our results suggest that family history of poor survival in specific relation to HF is an important risk factor for death in HF patients. Additional studies are needed to characterize the molecular underpinnings and detailed phenotypic characteristics of such patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-term data on outcomes of participants hospitalized with heart failure (HF) from low- and middle-income countries are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS:In the Trivandrum Heart Failure Registry (THFR) in 2013, 1205 participants from 18 hospitals in Trivandrum, India, were enrolled. Data were collected on demographics, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes. We performed survival analyses, compared groups and evaluated the association between heart failure (HF) type and mortality, adjusting for covariates that predicted mortality in a global HF risk score. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 61.2 (13.7) years. Ischemic heart disease was the most common cause (72%). The in-hospital mortality rate was higher for participants with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; 9.7%) compared with those with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; 4.8%; P?=?.003). After 3 years, 540 (44.8%) participants had died. The all-cause mortality rate was lower for participants with HFpEF (40.8%) compared with HFrEF (46.2%; P?=?.049). In multivariable models, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24 per decade, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.33), New York Heart Association functional class IV symptoms (HR 2.80, 95% CI 1.43-5.48), and higher serum creatinine (HR 1.12 per mg/dL, 95% CI 1.04-1.22) were associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Participants with HF in the THFR have high 3-year all-cause mortality. Targeted hospital-based quality improvement initiatives are needed to improve survival during and after hospitalization for HF.
Project description:AIMS:We aimed to search for associations between cognitive test results with mortality and rehospitalization in a Swedish prospective heart failure (HF) patient cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS:Two hundred and eighty-one patients hospitalized for HF (mean age, 74 years; 32% women) were assessed using cognitive tests: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), A Quick Test of Cognitive speed, Trail Making Test A, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. The mean follow-up time censored at rehospitalization or death was 13 months (interquartile range, 14) and 28 months (interquartile range, 29), respectively. Relations between cognitive test results, mortality, and rehospitalization risk were analysed using multivariable Cox regression model adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, smoking, educational level, New York Heart Association class, and prior cardiovascular disease. A total of 80 patients (29%) had signs of cognitive impairment (MoCA score < 23 points). In the fully adjusted Cox regression model using standardized values per 1 SD change of each cognitive test, lower score on MoCA [hazard ratio (HR), 0.75; confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.95; P = 0.016] and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (HR, 0.66; CI, 0.48-0.90; P = 0.008) yielded significant associations with increased mortality. Rehospitalization risk (n = 173; 62%) was significantly associated with lower MoCA score (HR, 0.84; CI, 0.71-0.99; P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS:Two included cognitive tests were associated with mortality in hospitalized HF patients, independently of traditional risk factors. In addition, worse cognitive test scores on MoCA heralded increased risk of rehospitalization.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to compare various measures of adiposity with risk for incident hospitalized heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for HF, particularly HFpEF. It is unknown which measures of adiposity, including anthropometrics and computed tomography (CT)-measured fat area, are most predictive of HF subtypes. METHODS:The authors studied 1,806 participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study without baseline cardiovascular disease who underwent anthropometrics (body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference) and an abdominal CT. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured from a single CT slice at L2-L3. Cox hazard models were used to examine associations of adiposity with incident hospitalized HFpEF and HFrEF events. Fully adjusted models included demographics, HF risk factors, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up of 11 years, there were 34 HFpEF and 36 HFrEF events. The fully adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) per 1-SD higher of each anthropometric and CT-measured adiposity measures for incident HFpEF were as follows: BMI HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.45; waist circumference HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.40; and VAT HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.44 to 3.49. None of these adiposity measures were associated with HFrEF. Even among overweight/obese adults (BMI ?25 kg/m2), assessment of VAT (per 1-SD) was strongly associated with HFpEF (HR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.62 to 4.76). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was neither associated with HFpEF nor HFrEF. CONCLUSIONS:In a multiethnic cohort free of cardiovascular disease, CT-measured VAT was independently associated with incident hospitalized HFpEF but not HFrEF. Measuring visceral fat at the time of CT imaging for other indications may offer additional prognostication of HF risk. (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]; NCT00005487).
Project description:Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). We aimed to evaluate the role of large artery stiffness, brachial, and central blood pressure as predictors of incident hospitalized HF in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), a multiethnic, multicenter prospective observational study of patients with chronic kidney disease.We studied 2602 participants who were free of HF at baseline. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV; the gold standard index of large artery stiffness), brachial, and central pressures (estimated via radial tonometry and a generalized transfer function) were assessed at baseline. Participants were prospectively followed up to assess the development of new-onset hospitalized HF. During 3.5 years of follow-up, 154 participants had a first hospital admission for HF. CF-PWV was a significant independent predictor of incident hospitalized HF. When compared with the lowest tertile, the hazard ratios among subjects in the middle and top CF-PWV tertiles were 2.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.37-3.97; P=0.002) and 5.24 (95% confidence interval, 3.22-8.53; P<0.0001), respectively. After adjustment for multiple confounders, the hazard ratios for the middle and top CF-PWV tertiles were 1.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-4.13; P=0.079) and 3.01 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-6.26; P=0.003), respectively. Brachial systolic and pulse pressure were also independently associated with incident hospitalized HF, whereas central pressures were less consistently associated with this end point. The association between CF-PWV and incident HF persisted after adjustment for systolic blood pressure.Large artery stiffness is an independent predictor of incident HF in chronic kidney disease, an association with strong biological plausibility given the known effects of large artery stiffening of left ventricular pulsatile load.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical effectiveness of aldosterone antagonists in older patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF).Aldosterone antagonists improve outcomes in HF and reduced EF. However, their role in HF-PEF remains unclear.Of the 10,570 hospitalized older (65 years of age) HF-PEF (EF 40%) patients in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF(Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) trial, 8,013 patients had no prior aldosterone antagonist use and no current contraindications; 492 (6% of these 8,013) patients received new prescriptions for aldosterone antagonists. We assembled a matched cohort of 487 pairs of patients receiving and not receiving aldosterone antagonists, who had a similar propensity to receive these drugs and were balanced on 116 baseline characteristics.Patients had a mean age of 80 years old, a mean EF of 54%, 59% were women, and 8% were African American. During 2.4 year of mean follow-up (through December 2008), the primary composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization occurred in 392 (81%) and 393 (81%) patients receiving and not receiving aldosterone antagonists, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84 to 1.11; p = 0.628). Aldosterone antagonists had no association with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.20; p = 0.693) or HF hospitalization (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.07; p = 0.188). Among 8013 prematched patients, multivariable-adjusted HR for the primary composite endpoint associated with aldosterone antagonist use was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83 to 1.03; p = 0.144).In older HF-PEF patients, aldosterone antagonists had no association with clinical outcomes. Findings from the ongoing randomized controlled TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial will provide further insights into their effect in HF-PEF.
Project description:Compared with no alcohol consumption, heavy alcohol intake is associated with a higher rate of heart failure (HF) whereas light-to-moderate intake may be associated with a lower rate. However, several prior studies did not exclude former drinkers, who may have changed alcohol consumption in response to diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol intake and incident HF.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 33 760 men aged 45 to 79 years with no HF, diabetes mellitus, or myocardial infarction at baseline participating in the Cohort of Swedish Men Study. We excluded former drinkers. At baseline, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and reported other characteristics. HF was defined as hospitalization for or death from HF, ascertained by Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death records from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2011. We constructed Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariable-adjusted incidence rate ratios. During follow-up, 2916 men were hospitalized for (n=2139) or died (n=777) of incident HF. There was a U-shaped relationship between total alcohol intake and incident HF (P=0.0004). There was a nadir at light-to-moderate alcohol intake: consuming 7 to <14 standard drinks per week was associated with a 19% lower multivariable-adjusted rate of HF compared with never drinking (incidence rate ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.96).In this cohort of Swedish men, there was a U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and HF incidence, with a nadir at light-to-moderate intake. Heavy intake did not seem protective.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic implication of ventricular conduction disturbance pattern in patients with heart failure (HF). This study investigated the prognostic impact of ventricular conduction pattern in hospitalized patients with acute HF. METHODS:Data from the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry were used. Patients were categorized into four groups: narrow QRS (<120 ms), right bundle branch block (RBBB), left bundle branch block (LBBB), and nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (NICD). The NICD was defined as prolonged QRS (?120 ms) without typical features of LBBB or RBBB. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for HF aggravation within 1 year after discharge. RESULTS:This study included 5,157 patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 39.7% of study population. The LBBB group showed the highest incidence of primary endpoint followed by NICD, RBBB, and narrow QRS groups (52.5% vs. 49.7% vs. 44.4% vs. 37.5%, p<0.001). In a multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression analysis, LBBB and NICD were associated with 39% and 28% increased risk for primary endpoint (LBBB hazard ratio [HR], 1.392; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.152-1.681; NICD HR, 1.278; 95% CI, 1.074-1.520) compared with narrow QRS group. The HR of RBBB for the primary endpoint was 1.103 (95% CI, 0.915-1.329). CONCLUSIONS:LBBB and NICD were independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year adverse event in hospitalized patients with HF, whereas the prognostic impacts of RBBB were limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01389843.
Project description:Anemia has been associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and postdischarge outcomes of hospitalized HF patients with anemia at admission or discharge.An analysis was performed on 3731 (90%) of 4133 hospitalized HF patients with ejection fraction ?40% enrolled in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonist in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial with baseline hemoglobin data, comparing the clinical characteristics and outcomes (all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization) of patients with and without anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men) on admission or discharge/day 7. Overall, 1277 patients (34%) were anemic at baseline, which persisted through discharge in 73% and resolved in 27%; 6% of patients without baseline anemia developed anemia by discharge or day 7. Patients with anemia were older, with lower blood pressure, and higher creatinine and natriuretic peptide levels compared with those without anemia (all P<0.05). After risk adjustment, anemia at discharge, but not admission, was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.60; P=0.015; and hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.15; P=0.53, respectively) and cardiovascular mortality plus HF hospitalization early postdischarge (?100 days; hazard ratio 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.18; P<0.001; and hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.16; P=0.47, respectively). Neither baseline nor discharge anemia was associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality plus HF hospitalization (>100 days) on adjusted analysis (both P>0.1).Among hospitalized HF patients with reduced ejection fraction, modest anemia at discharge but not baseline was associated with increased all-cause mortality and short-term cardiovascular mortality plus HF hospitalization.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00071331.
Project description:Previous studies have reported conflicting findings regarding how the incidence of heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has changed over time, and data on contemporary national trends are sparse.Using a complete national sample of 2?789?943 AMI hospitalizations of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries from 1998 through 2010, we evaluated annual changes in the incidence of subsequent HF hospitalization and mortality using Poisson and survival analysis models. The number of patients hospitalized for HF within 1 year after AMI declined modestly from 16.1 per 100 person-years in 1998 to 14.2 per 100 person years in 2010 (P<0.001). After adjusting for demographic factors, a relative 14.6% decline for HF hospitalizations after AMI was observed over the study period (incidence risk ratio, 0.854; 95% confidence interval, 0.809-0.901). Unadjusted 1-year mortality following HF hospitalization after AMI was 44.4% in 1998, which decreased to 43.2% in 2004 to 2005, but then increased to 45.5% by 2010. After adjusting for demographic factors and clinical comorbidities, this represented a 2.4% relative annual decline (hazard ratio, 0.976; 95% confidence interval, 0.974-0.978) from 1998 to 2007, but a 5.1% relative annual increase from 2007 to 2010 (hazard ratio, 1.051; 95% confidence interval, 1.039-1.064).In a national sample of Medicare beneficiaries, HF hospitalization after AMI decreased from 1998 to 2010, which may indicate improvements in the management of AMI. In contrast, survival after HF following AMI remains poor, and has worsened from 2007 to 2010, demonstrating that challenges still remain for the treatment of this high-risk condition after AMI.
Project description:The prognostic values of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) have primarily been shown among patients with chronic heart failure (HF), with little representation of patients with acute HF (AHF). Therefore, we investigated the value of these echocardiographic parameters in predicting clinical outcomes among patients in the Korean Heart Failure (KorHF) Registry.The KorHF Registry consists of 3,200 patients who were hospitalized with AHF from 2005 to 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival and readmission, and differences were assessed using the log-rank test. Predictors of survival were identified using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.Echocardiograms from 2,910 of the 3,200 patients (90.9%) were evaluated. The median LVEF and LVEDD (37% and 56 mm, respectively) were used as cut-offs for the binary transformation of each parameter. The cumulative death-free survival rates for all patients did not significantly differ based on LVEF or LVEDD quartiles; however, an LVEF greater than the median was associated with a better prognosis in ischemic HF patients (log-rank test; p = 0.039). Among ischemic HF patients, LVEF (dichotomized) was a significant predictor of death in a Cox model after adjusting for a history of HF, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum sodium, sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), atrial fibrillation (Af) and anemia (hazard ratio (HR) 1.475, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.099-1.979, p = 0.010). The cumulative readmission-free survival rates significantly differed among ischemic HF patients only when based on LVEDD quartiles (log-rank test; p = 0.001). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, LVEDD (dichotomized) remained a significant variable only among patients with ischemic HF after adjusting for sex, age, AMI, DM, COPD, serum sodium, SBP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and anemia (HR 1.401, 95% CI 1.067-1.841, p = 0.015).Among ischemic AHF patients in the KorHF Registry, LVEF is associated with mortality, whereas LVEDD is only associated with readmission in a binary transformed form.